Bitcoin is the canary in the coal mine - Crypto inferno

What would be the best canary in a coal mine before seeing a quick dropoff? /r/Bitcoin

What would be the best canary in a coal mine before seeing a quick dropoff? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Is a Canary in the Coal Mine: Dowd

Bitcoin Is a Canary in the Coal Mine: Dowd submitted by CryptoCapo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

almkglor your post has been copied because one or more comments in this topic have been removed. This copy will preserve unmoderated topic. If you would like to opt-out, please send a message using [this link].
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FIRE: 1 year in, a few reflections

My background: I’m a scientist in my mid 40’s who got into the big data side of tech just as it took off. I worked for a few large companies, and a few small companies, both as an FTE and consultant. During one of my “no job, no consulting” periods in the late fall (notoriously hard time to find a new job as everyone is on vacation, spent their budgets, etc.) I fell deep into the bitcoin rabbit hole researching what it was, what it might become etc. I bought in a few times and sold my holdings last December (not at the peak, but close) for about 1.5M. I had saved a shit-ton of money over the years (almost 1M) because I never spend other than buying/fixing up my house. The FIRE idea was natural to me – I had an instinctual aversion to debt, simple tastes, and grew up without a lot (but didn’t feel like that was an issue). My job was not really going in a direction I liked, and I had just cashed over a million post-tax cryptobucks so I quit. I figured I’d try being unemployed, maybe call it “semi-retirement”? With all my retirement, bank, and stock accounts bundled together, including house equity I had close to 4M.
Reflection 1: I didn’t know what to do with myself, but I got plenty of sleep
It was spring. I rode my bike and forgot what day it was. I cleaned up my garage (finally!) and stayed up as late as I needed to based on what I was working on at the time. I got a few phone calls from people who knew I left my job, asking me if I wanted to work with/for them. No thanks. I had my old job call me and ask if I’d consider working in a different department on some (truly cool) new problems. Nope. Two months in I got two calls from old workmates asking me to come be their boss after some re-org. I’m flattered but Hell No. For my ego, that was nice. I had no desire at that point to do any work of any kind. I just wanted to play. A year later and I have a bit more structure, but it’s still pretty loose.
Reflection 2: I wasn’t sure how I’d deal with the stock market behaving poorly
This was originally a "theoretically speaking" type of question I had. Well, 2018 blew that shit right up. We know the stock market didn’t do much last year from a YoY POV. As a person who tracks net worth each month, it was rough to see such large fluctuations. What a great way to see if I can hack this lifestyle. There was a brief period when I felt a bit off about what I was doing, but then I did the math again for the 300th time and learned to breathe deeply. In the end there was no panic, and I think I have a thicker skin because of the bullshit we endured (and yes, that might just be the canary in the coal mine). Just hang on tight.
Reflection 3: Not having a regular income stream makes managing money different
One of the things that has gotten me the most twisted is failing to have a large pool of instant liquidity at hand. I have not really needed it, but it’s weird to see only a couple grand in the bank. I want my money working for me, but I want to be able to make quick economic decisions at times. I used to just let my bank account grow and then shift money every so often out into investments. Now that flow is reversed and it feels really weird. I’m still not quite where I want to be – waiting on a dividend payment to shift the money around, some into a cash cushion.
I also did not spend much last year. I was really price conscious (spent 2% instead of 3.5% allotted) and while I didn’t scrimp exactly, I also did not relax about the money. I’m working on that, much like learning to not work all the time. I keep telling myself - it’s not about the money anymore, it’s about the experience. If I want it, I should take it, because I can based on the decisions I have made, and Fate’s kindly ass-pats along the way. Quit getting twisted about the price of the thing you want on the menu. I can’t help it after being so broke for so many years in my youth/early adulthood.
Reflection 4: I might want to take on some work
In the last two weeks I have talked with a friend about starting a small company and one of my long past jobs contacted me for some creative design consulting work. I’m considering both and it really isn’t about the money – it’s about the adventure. The rate I will quote that old job will be steep, and if they balk at it then I will walk 100%. I’ve never been in that position before. I miss engaging my brain in the way I did at work – lots of moving parts, people, processes. It’s hard to find analogues outside of the employment game. Maybe I should help a political cause I care about – maybe they could put me to work in a fulfilling way. Not sure.
That’s my 1 yr set-o-reflections – my house is clean, Goodwill inherited 15% of my accumulated stuff, the yard looks good, my bike is ready for Spring, I didn’t lose any weight yet (well, I yo-yo’d), I’m taking music lessons FINALLY, and I read more than I used to.
Happy to answer any questions.
submitted by FIRE_and_forget_it to financialindependence [link] [comments]

Chance a Chinese Internationals student born in Spain (Maths)

I am applying to Syracuse, Stony Brook, Umass Amherst, Purdue, Binghamton, Uni of Maryland, Rutgers, Virginia Tech.
If you want to suggest any Uni pls Do so. I am interested in Math and CS. I want to have a traditional US college experience based on the East Coast.
Hook: Entrepreneurial extracurriculars
BAD Childhood: Father deceased when I was 9 years old.
GPA:​ Unweighted: 9.4/10 Single SAT:​ 1230 -Math: ​680 -Reading and Writing:​ 550
Single Toefl ibt​: 94 -Reading:​ 24 ​-Listening: ​25 -Writing: ​ 23 ​-Speaking: ​22
Extracurricular Experience
-Social Media Marketing Agency Online Affiliate Marketing Business Creation, Promotion, and Brokerage of eCommerce Assets ​(March 2017-June 2019) ● Developing B2C web marketing campaigns via Shopify and blogging platform WordPress. Made €​2,000 from multiple streams of online income. ● Estimated 25,000 unique web-visitors from multiple sites ranking for competitive search terms● Developed various business connections with people from across industries such as Canada and Dubai. Acquiring, Managing, and Selling Domain Names (March 2017-January 2018) ● Bought and managed around 20 various domain names. ● Acquired teachingrubikscube.com domain for an affiliate website. ● Data mining through RegisterCompass for valuable expired or expiring domains. ● Bid, competed and won various domain auctions on GoDaddy, SnapNames, and NameJet.
Web Development and SEO Education at Marin Web Design ​(March 2017-June 2018) ● I spent long hours after school conversing and working with the CEO Chanuka and the team at CashfloeCEO, a six-figure dollar web and social media marketing firm in Australia and many virtual offices based in Hong Kong.
● Learned fundamentals in domaining, customer service, web development, Facebook, and Instagram advertisement, SEO, and industry.
Bitcoin Investment ​ (January 2018) ● Learned and Educated from sources such as tailopez.com about cryptocurrency, mainly Bitcoin. ● After learning for 6 months, I invested 200​€ on it and lost everything after the bitcoin crash. I learned big lessons about getting rich quick and easy.
Created and managed FBA: Fulfillment by Amazon stocks (2016) ● Starting second-semester Freshman at my new school, I started to buy 5 euro second books, toys, and technological devices and resold them on Amazon. ● I persuaded my sister to lend me 300euros to buy a Spanish Amazon FBA online course where it teaches you all the basic knowledge that you need to operate this business. ● I only earned enough to pay my sister back but had a great experience. That was my first time trying to do business online and making my own money. Advertisement and social media management for restaurants (December 2017- February 2019)
School clubs and activities
-President of the Math Club (September 2017-Present) ● Tutoring classmates and students from other classes on Mathematics levels such as Algebra, Calculus, and Geometry. Since my Sophomore year until the present. ● Helped them to pass the classes as well as tutoring them to go from 6 grade to 9 grade out of ten. ● The best part of these experiences is when I created my own methods to teach students about the system of equations, derivatives, and Integrals.

Created my own Social Media Brand called “Teaching Rubik’s cube” (February 2018-February 2019) ● Due to my love with Rubik’s cube, I started my Business Instagram account about how to solve the Rubiks Cube. ● The photos and videos have reached a total amount of 250.000 people and It has 7.000 followers and engagement over 50%. ● With the Instagram Brand, I joined into a private group online allowed for Instagram Influencers over 5.000 followers in the Rubiks industry. At the time, there were 20 people.
-Leadership and Community
CEO of the School Café ​(September 2017- April 2018) ● Elected to be the CEO for School Café out of numerous other competitive high school applicants. ● The business was established by the school counselor and principal in order to earn money to pay our Final year Cross-Europe cruise. ● Run the Café on Christmas festival dates and school Sport Olympia dates; There were a total amount of 1000 people including children, and parents. ● Established the new school record for the highest gross and net revenue since 1995.
Founder and president of Rubik's cube club (2016- Present) ● Organized over 20 Rubiks cube events, club activities, and competitions. ● Currently, there are over 30 students at the club and with the help of other students, the motivation of learning how to solve the Rubiks cube has increased ever since
Founder and president of the Robotics Club ● Held many robotics events and activities. Introduced to the club Programming skills such as Arduino. Build and taught many Freshman students about how I Arduino work and functions. The most successful project is the Arduino car that avoids objects with a sensor.
-​Family Responsibilities Work at the restaurant/bar ( January 2012- October 2018)
Work at the souvenir shop ( October 2019- Present)
Honors ● Highest class rank​, Schoolwide (9th,10th,11th, and 12th grades). ● Leadership Award​, Schoolwide (9th,10th,11th, and 12th grades) ● Rubik's Cube Championship Semifinalist​, Nationwide (9th grade) ● MMA Canary Island Champion​, Local/7 Island recognition (11th grade) ● Most Entrepreneurial Student Of The Year​, Schoolwide (9th, 10th, 11th grades) Proficiencies ​ Languages ● Mandarin (Native). ● ​Putian dialect( Native). ● Spanish (Fluent- I have been living in Spain for 17 years ). ● English (Fluent). ● German ( High Intermediate level). ● French ( Basic).
EdX and Coursera Courses on C++ programming language (January 2019 - June 2019)
MIT Open Courseware on Artificial Intelligence. (June 2019- December 2019)
Tai Lopez, Tonny Robbins, Grant Cardone, Sam Ovens social media, real estate and personal development courses.

Books (2014-Present) ● I have read over +150 books about Business, Fiction, Philosophy, Biology, Psychology, mathematics, physics, leadership, personal development, and biographies.
● My favorite authors: Stephen Hawkings, Will & Ariel Durant, Dr. David Buss, Sigmund Freud, Richard Dawkings, Dale Carnegie and Ashlee Vance.

Thanks
submitted by 5chengzhi to chanceme [link] [comments]

Satoshi's unmoved coins are the world's biggest prize in quantum-decryption, the canary in bitcoin's quantum coalmine -u/Anenome5

From this post: /Nullc explained that in the early years, mined bitcoin was paid to the pubkey, not the pubkey-hash.
I was used to the idea that any address that hadn't been spent from was considered quantum-safe. But this isn't true for any coins that were mined and not moved prior to 2012.
What this means is that all of Satoshi's coins are theoretically stealable by anyone who can pull off a successful quantum attack on bitcoin.
In fact, we must now consider them the canary in bitcoin's quantum coalmine because they will likely be the first to fall.
Anyone who can pull off a successful quantum attack on these early unmoved coins will make over $500 million dollars. Today.
Everyone will think Satoshi is moving his coins, but in fact it will more likely be a quantum attacker, and that is a shame, unless Satoshi himself wizes up and acts soon.
Beyond that, a successful quantum attack may allow someone to masquerade as Satoshi by giving them the private key to these original coins.
The day is quickly approaching where even if someone were to sign a message using Satoshi's known coin hoard addresses, we should think twice about whether this person actually is Satoshi or not, since it may not be long before a successful quantum attack will make his early addresses vulnerable to exposure.
Now this vulnerability changed in 2012, so current mining to an unspent address is, thankfully, safe. And if you have an address with coins in it that has never been spent from, you are also quantum safe.
I just fear we are in for more Satoshi-hoaxing and drama due to these old addresses. And if Satoshi's coins ever move, we should consider it likely that the quantum nut has finally been cracked by someone and we'll need to be more careful about address reuse.
There may be one other issue. There may be a lot of 2012 mined coined that has never been spent. Right now we consider much of this coin to be simply lost.
But in the near future, quantum cryptographers may be able to recover much of this coin and make perhaps another $500 million or so.
A billion dollar prize for the quantum researchers out there. Not a bad plum if you ask me.
submitted by parakite to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

New ledger owners: you can have a "main" wallet and a hidden one on your Ledger Nano S.

With your 24 word seed, and with the PIN, you unlock your main wallet.
But you can add a 25th word, what they call a passphrase, and that is another wallet entirely. You can set a secondary PIN that unlocks it. It is not a "password" that encrypts your wallet, it's more like a hidden wallet derived from your 24 word seed.
It's an entire new wallet, that works for all your coins, not only Bitcoin.
Benefits: 1) 25th word is a security that protects your entire wallet. You should not memorize 24 words, but you can memorize one and write the other 24.
2) your main wallet, the one accessed by the 24 words and main PIN should have money, but not a lot, in case someone forces you to transfer it to them.
3) in case you are afraid of forgetting the 25th word, split your recovery seed form into two, write the first 12 on one form, and the other 12+1 on the other one, and store it at two separate locations, like aunt or parents house. Have a Full 24 word recovery form at home, just so you can "prove" to a robber that that is your wallet.
You can have as many wallets as you want, just use a different 25th word for each. You can even have a single ledger on your family, with each family member having a secret passphrase and sharing the nano S security features. Going to the menu you can access these other wallets by inputting the passphrase, and It Will be unlocked until it is turned off.
Official Ledger support article: https://ledger.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/115005214529-Advanced-Passphrase-options
.
Sometimes drawing stuff makes it easier:
Edit: Very happy about the gilding!! Thanks CanaryInTheMine!!!
Edit2: Tried to clarify that the passphrase is not a password that encrypts your wallet, but another wallet entirely.
Edit3: I was going to post a live example of a wallet, but I encourage that everyone reads the ledger support page so you fully understand it. Also, on ledger manager, install the bitcoin testnet app, then search for a bitcoin testnet faucet on google so that you can receive some testnet coins on your main wallet. Then, access your hidden passphrase wallet (either using the temporary option or the second PIN one) and you will see that you have entirely different addresses and balances for all your coins (don`t worry, this does not alter your main 24word wallet).
Edit4: I repeat: Do try this out on the bitcoin testnet before you send your coins. If you mess it up, not me nor Ledger can help you. This is as important as understanding your 24 word backup.
Edit5: If you would like to buy a Ledger Nano S, you can use my affiliate link so that I earn a little bit from each sale. They are not allowed here, but if you are interested, send me a private message and I will provide you with the link, Thanks.
submitted by cryptosnake to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Crypto as Protection

Cryptocurrency provides so many different avenues of profit. We have, of course, the greater adoption story, the greater innovation story…
But then, we have the “oh my goodness, the spaghetti just hit the fan all over the world” story. What’s going on in Argentina? What’s going on in Venezuela? What I believe will go on at some point in the future (and I don’t have a date for you). Bubbles can last a very long time. Central banks can paper over problems for a very long time, but clearly, the canary in the coal mine is gold.
Gold is telling us that there will be a currency crisis somewhere in the future. It’s imperative that we are positioned for it, and we are. We own bitcoin, Ethereum, and a slew of other coins that will all benefit as money starts to leave paper money. At least some of it leaves paper money, and looks for an alternative place to hide, or at least hedge out part of their risk in an alternative asset such as cryptocurrency. So, keep an eye out on that.
Again, if you’re a gold buyer and are convinced that gold is going significantly higher, I don’t disagree with you. But I would say, if you are going to buy a lot of gold, take 10% or 25% of that allocation and go buy some bitcoin… Let’s call it 10%. Because the delta you’ll get on the bitcoin is so much more than on the gold. You’d have to tie up millions of dollars in gold to get the same type of upside I think you would see in bitcoin.
So far, bitcoin has been moving 10–20x what we see in gold. So bitcoin, to me, is the digital gold. That’s one aspect of it, not all of it. But it is something that will make you far more money, with far less risk. You don’t have to allocate anywhere near as much capital to bitcoin, because it will go up 10, 20, 30 times what you’ll see in the price of gold.
So, if you’re thinking about putting $100,000 in gold, you can just say, “You know what? I’m going to put $10,000 in bitcoin, and I’ll beat what gold is doing.”
So, consider it, think about it, see if that works for you. Take a look at how bitcoin has been acting alongside gold. It is clearly being accumulated as a hedge against a complete loss of faith in currencies.
Again, with or without that occurring, there’s so many other bullish things on the demand side occurring in bitcoin, and in the alt coin world. It’s getting easier, and easier to buy cryptocurrencies. It’s getting easier to store them.
I know we’ve talked about the Bakkt exchange, and we’ve talked about Fidelity. They’re going through their different ordeals that they have to go through on the regulatory level. But, that is happening. That train has left the station. The train might be a little delayed, but it’s still going to end up at its final destination… which is going to allow massive adoption of cryptocurrency.
submitted by boomerangcapitalInc to u/boomerangcapitalInc [link] [comments]

Reasons to believe Julian Assange is in CIA custody and WikiLeaks under duress.

UPDATE (11/01/2017 - UK Date Format): Julian Assange is alive and still in the Embassy. He confirms WikiLeaks has not been compromised. Julian took questions from the Reddit AmA but answered them via live, current and interactive video. He did this very intentionally, and by so doing, was true to his word. Watch a recording of the live event here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rC2EjKYMCeg
On the 26th of September 2016 Secretary of State John Kerry (self admitted Skull and Bones member) visited Colombia. WikiLeaks reported that inside sources had confirmed that John Kerry also met with Ecuadorean President Rafael Correa in Ecuador to personally ask Ecuador to stop Assange from publishing documents about Clinton. This was initially fervently denied in the press only later to be confirmed by the Ecuadorian embassy who admitted cutting off Julian’s internet due to pressure from the US. Ecuador wanted to appear impartial.
For over four years, the Ecuadorian embassy has been under surveillance and Julian's human rights violated as he has been unlawfully detained termed "illegal arbitrary detention" by a recent UN ruling. During that time, it has been possible for intelligence agencies to gather critical information and build a detailed profile and plan to circumvent Julian's dead man's switch.
Both John Kerry and US intelligence agencies know perfectly well that cutting off Julian's internet would have no impact on the release of the leaked emails that are damaging to Hillary's campaign. It has been very clear for a long time that many US officials wanted Julian Assange dead, Hillary Clinton even has remarked, "can't we just drone the guy".
The cutting off of Julian's internet access was not for the purpose of preventing the leaks of the Podesta and Hillary emails. Unless intelligence agencies are truly inept, they know that media organisations already have the entire leaked email database and a schedule for release, they also know WikiLeaks staff would continue to leak regardless of Julian's ability to communicate.
Removing Assange would not be enough, they would need to circumvent his dead man's switch and then tarnish WikiLeaks reputation. Removing Assange's internet could have the effect of causing Assange to take steps that can be followed to prevent the automatic triggering of his DMS.
From the day Julian's internet was cut off, a series of peculiar and uncharacteristic events started to take place. The same day that Julian's internet was cut off, CBS reported that Pamela Anderson visited Assange and had "Tortured" him with a vegan sandwich. A few days before on the 14th, John Podesta tweeted "I bet the lobster risotto is better than the food at the Ecuadorian Embassy". Then on October the 16th the SHA-256 prerelease keys were issued on WikiLeaks twitter feed, although these events are odd and seemingly inconsequential, combined with John Kerry being in the UK from the 16th to the 17th sparked concern among the community for Julian's safety.
Assange supporters started to gather at the embassy to keep Assange safe and witness any foul play, some of these witnesses have claimed that a very swift police armed raid took place that lasted only 5 minutes while the crowd was kept under control and prevented from approaching, there have also been reports that they were prevented from taking photographs and that their phones were confiscated. A live periscope feed was also cut off. There have also been some reports of the presence of a mobile jamming van.
If Assange has been seized, any recognition by mainstream media would be detrimental to Hillary's campaign. A covert operation with media blackout would be the only effective way of seizing him at this time. On October the 18th Fox News said that Julian Assange would be "arrested soon, maybe in a matter of hours.". The was video was then promptly removed and articles relating to it have disappeared. However, one reddit user was able to find an alternative source and now the video can be found again on YouTube.
Although Julian's primary DMS (the release of insurance file encryption keys) did not activate, on October the 18th one of Julian's contingencies did activate, a script was activated that made https://file.wikileaks.org/file publicly visible and set all the file date and time stamps to 01/01/1984 (Orwell reference). This file repository contains many documents that had not been released prior.
Staffers Kristinn Hrafnsson and Sarah Harrison, have gone silent while the Ecuadorian embassy is refusing to provide any updates on Assange’s fate. There is a recorded call made to the embassy by a journalist where the receptionist refused to confirm that Julian was at the embassy, she also refused to confirm that Julian was even alive. Julian has not made an appearance at the window of the embassy since being cut off.
WikiLeaks suggested in a tweet that its supporters were responsible for the DDOS attacks on the 21st. Neither Assange or WikiLeaks would ever insinuate such a thing. WikiLeaks deceptively tweeted a video of Michael Moore that was actually recorded in June. The video was posted on the 24th of October giving the impression that Michael Moore had been speaking with Assange in the embassy. Why would WikiLeaks do this when they know they are already under suspicion?
WikiLeaks have been using their Twitter account to give the appearance of his safety while providing no concrete evidence of his safety. They issued a poll asking what proof would satisfy the public that Julian was safe. WikiLeaks have yet to follow up on the conclusive result of a video or window appearance.
Julian Assange is known for his attention to detail and his consistently good spelling and grammar. Currently the twitter feed has very poor spelling, there are numerous uncharacteristic spelling errors, for example, an accomplished cryptographer knows how to correctly spell algorithm and so do WikiLeaks staff.
On the 21st of October, there was a massive widespread DDOS attack that disrupted US and EU internet. Also on the 21st of October London City Airport was evacuated. The next day (the 22nd), Gavin MacFayden is reported dead. WikiLeaks made a further blunder by stating his death as the 23rd.
There has been a number of high level WikiLeaks deaths recently too. John Jones QC - WikiLeaks U.N. lawyer died on April 16th 2016. Michael Ratner - WikiLeaks chief counsel died on May 11th 2016. Seth Rich - Employee of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) was fatally shot on July 10th 2016 and Gavin MacFadyen - WikiLeaks director died October 22nd 2016.
If WikiLeaks has been compromised, it is already preparing the scene for future discrepancy to seriously tarnish WikiLeaks reputation. Nothing WikiLeaks has shared since the 15th of October 2016 should be trusted until Julian has been fully verified as alive.
My speculative fears are that Julian has been seized and removed from the Embassy. His internet being cut not being related to the release of the emails, but rather as a component of a plan of 4 years in the making to as secretly as possible remove Assange from the embassy, circumvent his DMS and hijack WikiLeaks with the key team members silenced or under duress.
My fears would be confirmed by no future public (mass witnessing and recorded/televised) appearance of Julian Assange discussing recent topics. His death by whatever means after the US presidential election would be extremely suspect. Until proof of life, assume the following compromised:
SHA-256 verification Keys posted after the 15th. WikiLeaks submission process and/or platform. WikiLeaks twitter feed. Any WikiLeaks leaks after the 15th October 2016.
EDIT: (01/11/2016 - 17:18GMT) URL and spelling corrections.
EDIT: Update 16/12/2016
Why demanding proof that WikiLeaks is not compromised is necessary:
https://www.facebook.com/events/309760466089922/ (PoL Event @ Ecuadorian Embassy London 17th December 2016) – If you live in the UK please come and let’s get REAL PoL. Please circulate.
1) Still no PGP (GPG) signed short message from WikiLeaks. 2) RiseUp’s warning canary may be dead (RiseUp is believed to host WL Twitter email account) 3) Julian’s internet hasn’t been restored as promised 4) The pre-commitment file hashes released in October do not match the released insurance files 5) Julian’s Swedish defense lawyer Per Samuelson was denied access during case questioning. No one actually saw Julian through the whole process.
Additional points:
-UK disregard for international law -Capabilities of combined intelligence agencies -WikiLeaks down on October 17th -Mass censorship -WikiLeaks reposting old stuff -See timelines below
Various timelines, some with minor errors: https://www.reddit.com/WikileaksTimeline/wiki/index https://www.reddit.com/WhereIsAssange/comments/5dmr57/timeline_of_events_regarding_julian_assange_and/ https://regated.com/2016/11/julian-assange-missing/
[Still no PGP (GPG) signed short message from WikiLeaks] Watch this https://youtu.be/GSIDS_lvRv4 video for a simple and good explanation of public/private key cryptography. Here https://riseup.net/en/canary is an example of how a legitimate cryptographically capable organisation uses PGP to sign a message and prove authenticity. WikiLeaks has this setup too. Why do they not use it and prove they are not compromised?
WikiLeaks could easily do this. They have their private key. The public has WikiLeaks public key. Even if Julian isn’t in possession of the key, WL most certainly is, no excuse for WL not to prove themselves. This has been heavily requested of WikiLeaks. I’d like to hear from the individuals who claim that their requests were removed (please leave comments). Of all the red flags, not posting a PGP signed message is by far the most damming. If we are to believe that the person in the audio recording at the FCM 2016 is Julian Assange, then what he says about the keys is missing the point. If he himself is not in possession of the key, then WikiLeaks will be. If WikiLeaks use the key to prove themselves, then we know they are not compromised. By extension, we will also be assured that Julian is safe as an uncompromised WikiLeaks would be in a position to confirm his safety and be believed. This audio file includes everything that he says regarding PGP keys: http://picosong.com/UyVw/ (I am not convinced this is Julian).
[RiseUp’s warning canary may be dead (RiseUp is believed to host WL Twitter email account)] RiseUp is an activist ISP providing secure services to activists. Its mission is to support liberatory social change via fighting social control and mass surveillance through distribution of secure tools (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riseup). RiseUp use a warrant canary as a means to protect their users in case RiseUp are ever issued with a NSL or gag order etc (https://riseup.net/en/canary). This is renewed quarterly, assuming no warrant has been issued. However, this is now considerably overdue so the assumption is that the canary is dead, and just like the canaries used in coal mines, everyone should get the hell out of there when it dies. https://theintercept.com/2016/11/29/something-happened-to-activist-email-provider-riseup-but-it-hasnt-been-compromised/. I would be grateful if someone could provide a source for the WikiLeaks twitter email account being hosted by RiseUp.
[Julian’s internet hasn’t been restored as promised] https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/787889195507417088 https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/788099178832420865 On the 26th of September 2016 Secretary of State John Kerry visited Colombia. WikiLeaks reported that inside sources had confirmed that John Kerry also met with Ecuadorean President Rafael Correa in Ecuador to personally ask Ecuador to stop Assange from publishing documents about Clinton. This was initially fervently denied in the press only later to be confirmed by the Ecuadorian Embassy who admitted cutting off Julian’s internet due to pressure from the US. Ecuador wanted to appear impartial.
Both John Kerry and US intelligence agencies knew perfectly well that cutting off Julian's internet would have no impact on the release of the leaked emails that were damaging to Hillary's campaign. The cutting off of Julian's internet access was not for the purpose of preventing the leaks of the Podesta and Hillary emails. Unless intelligence agencies are truly inept, they knew that media organisations already have the entire leaked email database and a schedule for release, they also knew WikiLeaks staff would continue to leak regardless of Julian's ability to communicate.
Now it is long after the election and Ecuador have still not restored Julian’s internet. Ecuador have no grounds to continue to restrict Julian’s internet. It does nothing apart from increase tensions and raise suspicion. Ecuador have always been supportive of Julian. However, after John Kerry applied pressure on Ecuador, that whole dynamic changed. Ecuador cut Julian's Internet. He then essentially threatened Ecuador, the UK and John Kerry by submitting those pre-commitment file hashes on Twitter. Since then we have only seen hostility towards Julian from all three parties. Ecuador didn't restore his internet and didn't let his lawyer interview him and no one actually saw him. The U.K. Denied him access to Gavin's funeral and denied him access to medical treatment. The UK also continually disregard the UN. The dynamic now is totally different. He has no political friends. It seems that both the UK and Ecuador are now working against Julian and Wikileaks. An environment where a collaborated siege would be feasible.
Finally, many have speculated about mobile signals being blocked at the Embassy. I can confirm that there is 4G signal right outside the Embassy door. I was there, with my phone, and tested it. There is no reason to think Julian cannot use a MiFi device (or similar) connected to a cellular network.
[The pre-commitment file hashes released in October do not match the released insurance files] Here are the October tweets with the file hashes:
https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/787777344740163584 https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/787781046519693316 https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/787781519951720449
These 3 pre-commitment Twitter posts are SHA-256 file hashes. SHA-256 file hashes are 64 characters long. They are not encryption keys for insurance files. They simply are a mathematical formula for verifying that later released files are genuine and have not been altered.
These hashes were released because Julian felt threatened and in increased danger. They specifically targeted the UK FCO, Ecuador and John Kerry. All of whom are key players in his current predicament. On November 7th, WikiLeaks released 3 new insurance files. These files names match the names given in the pre-commitment hash tweets:
2016-11-07_WL-Insurance_EC.aes256 2016-11-07_WL-Insurance_UK.aes256 2016-11-07_WL-Insurance_US.aes256
EC = Ecuador, UK = UK FCO, US = John Kerry. Soon after these files were released, the 3 files hashes were compared to the 3 hashes posted on the 16th of October. They did not match. When this was brought to WikiLeaks attention, WikiLeaks released the following statement in a tweet: https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/798997378552299521
“NOTE: When we release pre-commitment hashes they are for decrypted files (obviously). Mr. Assange appreciates the concern.”
This firstly proved that the hashes and the insurance files were related (a fact that was already clear). Secondly, it was a lie, as it implied historical use of pre-commitment hashes in this manner. Thirdly, the (obviously) comment was also a deception and an insult to supporters. It was not obvious to anyone, not even to our crypto guys in /cryptography/, on the contrary, they thought it highly suspicious. Additionally, what they suggest would be absolutely pointless. Pointless as a threat, as the UK, Ecuador and John Kerry would have no practical way of identifying the documents to confirm the threat. There's absolutely no scenario where an uncompromised WikiLeaks would either post bad file hashes or altered insurance files.
[Julian’s Swedish defense lawyer Per Samuelson was denied access during case questioning] This is highly unusual and very suspicious. Also, Jennifer Robinson was not in the room with Assange. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYR0Pw9LfUQ&feature=youtu.be&t=9m55s and neither was the chief prosecutor http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-37972528 “Swedish chief prosecutor Ingrid Isgren will not speak to Mr Assange directly”.
[UK disregard for international law] The UK threat is very real. Back in August 2012 the UK was poised to break international law citing the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act of 1987 as a basis for entering the Embassy and arresting Assange (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-19259623). It all became very public, very quickly and fortunately never happened (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/ecuado9488996/Ecuadors-president-raiding-embassy-to-snatch-Julian-Assange-suicidal.html). I expressed my concern at the time that the UK shouldn’t have even been contemplating such action, let alone threatening it in writing to Ecuador. More recently, the UK disregarded the UN ruling that Julian Assange was being arbitrarily detained (https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/feb/04/julian-assange-wikileaks-arrest-friday-un-investigation). The UK appealed, and then finally lost their appeal in November (https://www.rt.com/news/368746-un-ruling-free-assange/). Julian has also been refused to leave the Embassy with a police escort for medical treatment as well as denied to attend Gavin MacFadyen’s funeral. The UK’s behaviour is appalling and clearly has no respect for international law. The reported raid on the Embassy during the latter part of October seems more plausible when taken in the context of past behavior.
This is the Britain I now live in: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/investigatory-powers-bill-act-snoopers-charter-browsing-history-what-does-it-mean-a7436251.html. I never used to be ashamed to be British.
[Combined capabilities of intelligence agencies] We know much about the combined powers of the intelligence agencies. We know what they are capable of, thanks to the leaks of Edward Snowden. The combined powers of the NSA, CIA and the UK’s GCHQ are capable of pulling off such a massive takeover of Wikileaks. We know the NSA works with other US intelligence agencies, we know that the NSA works with GCHQ.
We know about Tempora, we know about JTRIG, we know about PRISM, we know about HAVOK. We know that websites can be altered on the fly, we know that real-time voice profiling is trivial for these agencies. We know that censorship is happening.
https://usnewsghost.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/new-july-14-edward-snowden-nsa-leaks-gchq-attacks-and-censors-internet-nsa-leaks-recent/ http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/gchqs-favourite-memes-and-sexual-slang-reveals-a-shared-culture-with-trolls-and-hackers-9608065.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempora https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRISM_(surveillance_program)
The NSA has a remit to be 10 years ahead of the curve. We have commercial products that can be purchased off the shelf today that can easily manipulate audio and video. Just imagine what the NSA and the military are capable of.
Real time facial manipulation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ohmajJTcpNk Signs of editing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2O9t_TEE1aw. Both Julian Assange and John Pilger are not filmed together at any time during the interview. There is also no establishing shot. It is also claimed that Assange’s audio is spliced and edited. No recent events mentioned by Assange, only Pilger. Unfortunately, this interview is not sufficient proof of life.
What the NSA can’t do, is that they cannot break PGP encryption. This has been expressed by Glenn Greenwald who was one of the journalists that Edward Snowden leaked to. He commented that he knows how secure PGP is because the NSA keep moaning about not being able to crack it in their documents he is reading. This is another reason why a signed PGP message can be the only true proof that WL isn’t compromised. Mathematics cannot lie, people can and do. A compromised WL can’t sign a message without the private key. Edward Snowden revealed that in 2013 the NSA were capable of 3 trillion password attempts per second. As it is now almost 2017, that number will likely be multiple times higher (anywhere between 9 to 15 trillion attempts per second would be my guess based on Moore’s law).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Threat_Research_Intelligence_Group https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempora https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRISM_(surveillance_program) https://www.schneier.com/gchq-catalog/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_Communications_Headquarters
[WikiLeaks down on October 17th] The alleged raid on the Embassy supposedly took place on the 17th just after 1am GMT. On Monday the 17th of October 2016 WikiLeaks website was reported down (http://www.isitdownrightnow.com/wikileaks.org.html expand the comments) https://postimg.org/image/6t68fe4kj/. The internet was alive with reports of mass censorship around this time. This all coincides with when the alleged WikiLeaks takeover occurred. It also coincides with John Kerry being in the UK.
[Christine Assange audio only radio interview] Julian's family had their identities changed quite a few years ago after receiving death threats. It is odd that his mother has now revealed herself to a news agency. If you do a YouTube search for Christine Assange (her original name), you'll find all the videos are older than 3 years. She's in hiding, not openly talking on radio shows (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_Assange scroll down to the personal life section).
[WikiLeaks bitcoin account was emptied on the 18th of November] Interestingly it was after the bitcoin account was emptied that the encoded message in the blockchain was left. Why would WikiLeaks go to all that trouble when they could just sign a message with their PGP key? Is it because bitcoin accounts can be cracked and the PGP keys can’t?
[Mass censorship] Facebook is censoring this event (https://www.facebook.com/events/309760466089922/). It has been advertised for weeks now any only a handful of people are attending. Recently Wikileaks was live on FB. 50% of the viewers (roughly 2.5k) were commenting #PoL, #Whereisassange, RIP etc. The live event was only a prerecorded video being played in loop. Once it concluded, the whole Live event along with all the comments including the comments asking for PoL and PGP signed message were deleted. It was as if it never took place. When Julian’s DMS had supposedly been activated, I saw posts in threads being deleted within minutes. Supposedly with encryption keys, but it all happened too fast for anyone to collate. I took PDF printouts of the pages and then later noticed that posts and entire links were taken down. I have PDF's of pages that now no longer exist. I've been following this since mid-October and seen the censorship first hand. I know many people here on reddit witnessed the same (please comment with your experiences).
[WikiLeaks reposting old stuff] There are many examples of this already mentioned in the timelines. One for example is the Palantir Technologies report. Palantir Technologies prepared a report on how to destroy WikiLeaks that was leaked in 2011. The proposal was submitted to Bank of America through its outside law firm, Hunton & Williams. Palantir later apologised for their involvement. But WikiLeaks has recently regurgitated it as if it was new. There are many examples of this. I have watched as WikiLeaks have increasingly destroyed their credibility.
submitted by neonnexus to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Is Andrew Torba dumb or controlled opposition?(Gab mass email transcript)

GAB Gab Community,
As many of you know the online censorship war has taken an even more extreme turn over the past several months. Not only are hundreds of thousands of people being banned and punished for political opinions on major social networks, but now many influential alternative media personalities and companies are being blacklisted and banned by payment gateways, processors, and even banks. This includes Gab, which has been banned by the payment processors Paypal, Stripe, Square, Coinbase, and Bitpay.
If you want to support alternative media, your favorite content creators, and free speech on the internet then you need to learn about Bitcoin. Bitcoin is free speech money. No bank, no corporation, and no government can stop you from sending or receiving bitcoin. Bitcoin can not be censored by anyone. Instead of putting your trust in a bank or government, both of which can fail at anytime as we've seen in Venezuela, with Bitcoin you are trusting a digital store of value that is backed by math and a decentralized network of "miners" who confirm the legitimacy of transactions.
Many people fixate on the price of Bitcoin. That's not what is important here. What's important is censorship-resistant free speech money and payment processing. As long as you own Bitcoin, you can support any person, business, or cause that you wish without permission from any bank, government, or corporation.
As the writer Beautyon notes: The United States of America can not regulate Bitcoin or stop it. In order to do so, they would need to destroy the First Amendment of the United States. Something that will not be allowed to happen by The People.
We recommend you visit Buybitcoinworldwide.com to learn more and discover the best way for you to buy, store, and use Bitcoin. We also recommend Cash App, which is one of the easiest ways to get bitcoin right on your mobile device. You do not need to buy a full Bitcoin to use it. Just as you can buy a small portion of gold or separate a dollar into loose change: anyone can purchase $5 worth of Bitcoin or even $5 million worth.
Starting today Gab.com is accepting Bitcoin for our optional GabPro service. You can upgrade to GabPro from your profile menu in the top right-hand corner at anytime. GabPro offers additional features such as the ability to apply for verification, lists, bookmarking, and more. Gab does not have ads or collect mass amounts of data like other social networks. GabPro and your support help us keep it that way.
Additionally, we are accepting checks and money orders to our PO Box. These are our only two options for processing payments at the moment. Gab's woes with payment processors are the canary in the coal mine for free speech online. We need your support now more than ever and encourage you to learn about Bitcoin as soon as possible. The future of free speech on the internet depends on it.
GabPro/ Donations Payment Option
Mail check/money order to: PO Box 441 Clarks Summit, PA 18411 Make checks out to: Gab AI Inc Please include a note with your Gab username or we will not be able to give you GabPro. 6 Months: $30 12 Months: $60 5 years: $200 Lifetime: $500
Andrew Torba CEO of Gab.com
Click here to login to your account →
Thanks and remember to speak freely!
submitted by Sk8eM to bitcoincashSV [link] [comments]

BEWARE! this Bitcoin price-correction is definitely NOT Over Yet! (and here's why..)

"So When Is Bitcoin Going Back Up?"
that's what people ask me a lot lately.. as If its some levitating eagle being held down by godawful FUD just before being let free to soar directly up to the moon without pause..
It does make you start to wonder what kind of intrinsic value your product has if you live day to day terrified that someone else is going to accidentally spook the whole crowd down to $0
so here we are nearly the 8th of Feb 2018, BTC at £6000 - $8200k (again) after the first bounce in a little while.
I've been saying for nearly 6 months that bitcoin only really had strong continual support at around £2000 (gbp) it was that price for ages (in terms of bitcoin) everything that happened since 2kGBP seems bubbly to me... but because of the elapsed time since that point (and assuming a continuation of network effect growth) I might expect £2-3k as a baseline but not much more.
Of course to understand the price, one needs to look deeper at the underlying technology, and I hardly ever find anyone who is willing to do this..but it's when doing this.. that bitcoin will blow your mind. When I got interested in Bitcoin over 3 years ago the idea of making a lot of money wasn't the first thing I really I cared about, a few friends and I bought because we saw shops, online merchants, and literally every side of the network miners/users/developers so excited by the symbiotic peer to peer simplicity of trading that we actually believed there was a chance of true financial freedom and sovereignty for all regardless of social standing etc etc..
what we noticed was that 2015 was amazing.. wow the ATMs popping up left right and center.. this is happening... the shops taking btc.. then 2016 onwards that all just kind of fizzled out didn't it? and 2017? there are no ATMs in my nearest city now, what happened to them.. seriously?
the primary use case 'peer to peer electronic cash' (for those that never read the white paper) starting to disappear so early should be the canary in the coal mine, right? If the primary use case has become secondary to a 'store of value' then I find it quite ridiculous. Did you know that the Blockstream guys etc are actually saying that? "Value first... work out usage later" - some of these guys even claim to have economic/financial qualifications, it would be funny if it wasn't sad.
I've watched hours of their videos and if you do it with an open mind you will eventually see through the curtain.. oh and also all these people who are now telling you to look back at the past performance of bitcoin over the years, they tell you: "its done this before"... really? has it?
Well actually no... it really hasn't... that Bitcoin that newbies now look back to through rosy spectacles now does not exist. period.
Rather, a new plethora of Bitcoins exist in its place. It lives on in 3-4 (more I think now) separated forks with duplicated transaction histories as well as source codes which have then each been modified to allow different software consensus rules. The old Bitcoin always bounced back.. (dare I venture to suggest because it had a fantastic value proposition.. and a practical use case.. which got people like Andreus and Roger SO excited about it that thay were hospitalised from sleep-deprived fascination, they would then go on to make full medical recoveries and spend the next years of their life finding fulfilment in communicating what they realised) .. I loved that Bitcoin.. that Bitcoin was one of my big hopes for humanity.... simple... elegent.. bare bones... genius... made you sometimes a little scared with how genius it was... gave you hope for the future of a free-'er' world.
There is one version of Bitcoin with consensus rules that does live on very closely to Satoshi's Bitcoin, I'm not going to say any more here 'cause it's highly contentious and all our posts on this get deleted and we are sick of it... that's part of the reason I've decided to hash my thoughts and fears into the Steemit Blockchain for good.. and now I'm re-posting here on btc to see what happens. (Probably no point posting on bitcoin right?)
Don't get me started on Segregated Witness.. actually.. please do.
I hear so many new people in the last week and a bit asking 'when' the price will go up from here; but, Isn't that the wrong question?
I'd love to hear your thoughts on 'why' you think the price will go up from here? (if you do of course ;)
please comment in the comment box below, I love hearing your thoughts and I find all you on btc have a unique perspective on this.. I'm asking because I want to continue my path of knowledge; not because I want to hammer home my point of view.. I just feel that all you guys, traders, devs, enthusiasts, newcomers, miners can possibly add so much to my viewpoint and I really want to tap into your expertise here.
please feel free to comment and get a discussion started, I'd love to hear any thoughts on whether you agree or disagree with the points I raise.
don't get 'rekt' over-trading #loveAlts #SatoshiWeNeedYouNow
those of us that go forward with our crypto tokens.. just as an aside.,.. I second a different approach that I cannot take credit for, I saw a very prominent crypto/cypherpunk leader explaining it recently in his youtube videos and it makes total sense.. 'Spend and Replace' makes much more sense that HODLing.. we need to spend and USE our crypto of choice.. you should continually use whatever blockchain you claim to believe in daily, and use and encourage others to use it to its limits to test that scaling protocols are working. Your encouragement of others using it should be based on the fact that it is better than cash, better than Debit/Credit cards, and if you are not behind an alt currency that offers this then I question your motives for talking to me.
There are projects out there that offer the kind of utopian usability I am mentioning now, It is just that the scaling debate has just put us back to 2012.
It's just my opinion, but I think the recent drop in BTC-fees is directly caused by HODLing.
I don't use a segwit wallet and my BTC transactions are very cheap, a few months ago the fee bids I use now would probably not go through for a good few days (if at all); so unless there was an upgrade to the network that benefitted non-segwit wallets also then I think the miners are just taking whatever they can now. Massively open to being proved wrong on this though.
I look forward to your dissent.
submitted by WeirdByExtension to btc [link] [comments]

Satoshi's unmoved coins are the world's biggest prize in quantum-decryption, the canary in bitcoin's quantum coalmine

/Nullc recently explained that in the early years, mined bitcoin was paid to the pubkey, not the pubkey-hash.
I was used to the idea that any address that hadn't been spent from was considered quantum-safe. But this isn't true for any coins that were mined and not moved prior to 2012.
What this means is that all of Satoshi's coins are theoretically stealable by anyone who can pull off a successful quantum attack on bitcoin.
In fact, we must now consider them the canary in bitcoin's quantum coalmine because they will likely be the first to fall.
Anyone who can pull off a successful quantum attack on these early unmoved coins will make over $500 million dollars. Today.
Everyone will think Satoshi is moving his coins, but in fact it will more likely be a quantum attacker, and that is a shame, unless Satoshi himself wizes up and acts soon.
Beyond that, a successful quantum attack may allow someone to masquerade as Satoshi by giving them the private key to these original coins.
The day is quickly approaching where even if someone were to sign a message using Satoshi's known coin hoard addresses, we should think twice about whether this person actually is Satoshi or not, since it may not be long before a successful quantum attack will make his early addresses vulnerable to exposure.
Now this vulnerability changed in 2012, so current mining to an unspent address is, thankfully, safe. And if you have an address with coins in it that has never been spent from, you are also quantum safe.
I just fear we are in for more Satoshi-hoaxing and drama due to these old addresses. And if Satoshi's coins ever move, we should consider it likely that the quantum nut has finally been cracked by someone and we'll need to be more careful about address reuse.
There may be one other issue. There may be a lot of 2012 mined coined that has never been spent. Right now we consider much of this coin to be simply lost.
But in the near future, quantum cryptographers may be able to recover much of this coin and make perhaps another $500 million or so.
A billion dollar prize for the quantum researchers out there. Not a bad plum if you ask me.
submitted by Anenome5 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Mega FAQ (Or: Please come here for your questions first)

Qbundle Guide (Step by step setup & Bootstrap) https://burstwiki.org/wiki/QBundle
1( I want to mine or activate My account. Where do find the multiple coins?
You only need 1, an outgoing transaction or reward reassignment will set the public key. Get them from:
https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/comments/7q8zve/initial_burstcoin_requests/
Or (Faucet list)
https://faucet.burstpay.net/ (if this is empty, come back later)
http://faucet.burst-coin.es
Or
https://forums.getburst.net/c/new-members-introductions/getting-started-initial-burstcoin-requests
2( I bought coins on Bittrex and want to move to my new wallet, but can't. Why?
Bittrex will only send to accounts with a public key (not a Burst requirement) so see number 1 and either set the name on the account (IF you will not mine) or set the reward recipient to the pool. Either action will enable the account and allow for transfers from Bittrex.
3( I sent coins from Poloniex/anywhere to Bittrex and they don’t show up after a considerable time. Why?
You need to set an unencrypted message on the transaction, informing Bittrex which account to send the funds to (this is in the directions on Bittrex). Did you do this? Contact Bittrex support with all the details and eventually you will get your funds.
4( How much can I make on Burst?
https://explore.burst.cryptoguru.org/tool/calculate
Gives you an average over time assuming a few things like: Average luck/100% uptime/no overlapping/fees on pool/good plot scan time (<20 seconds) if you do not have all of these, you may not see that number.
5( If I use SSD’s would I make more money?
No, it’s 95% capacity and 5% scan time that determine success. More plot area = better deadlines = better chance of forging a block, or better rates from a pool.
6( What is ‘solo’ and ‘pool’ (wasn’t his name Chewbacca?)
Solo is where you attempt to ‘forge’ (mine) a block by yourself; you get 100% of the block reward and fees. But you only receive funds if you forge, no burst for coming in second place.
Pools allow a group of miners to ‘pool’ together their resources and when a miner wins, they give the pool the winnings (this is done by the reward assignment you completed earlier), it is then divided according to different percentages and methods and burst is sent out according to pool rules (minimum pay-out, time, etc.)
7( I have been mining for 2 days and my wallet doesn’t show any Burst WHY?
Mining solo: it is win-or-lose, nothing in between, and wining is luck and plot size. Pool mining: because it costs 1 burst to send burst, the pools have either a time requirement (every X days) or a minimum amount (100 burst +) so you need to research your pool. Some pools allow for you to set the limit (cryptoGuru and similar) to be met before sending
8( How do I see what I have pending?
On CryptoGuru, based pools, it’s the ‘Pending (burst)’ column, other pools, look for the numbers next to your burst ID. One is Paid and the other pending.
9( I’m part of a pool and I forged a block, but I didn’t recieve the total value of the block, why?
A pool has 2 basic numbers that denote the pay-out method, in the format ‘XX-XX’ (i.e. 50-50) The first number is the % paid to the block forger (miner) and the second is the retained value, which is paid to historic ‘shares’ (or, past blocks that the pool didn’t win, but had a miner that was ‘close’ to winning with a good submitted deadline)
Examples of pools:
0-100 (good for <40TB)
20-80 (30-80TB)
50-50 (60-200TB)
80-20 (150-250)
100-0 (solo mine, 150+ TB)
Please note that there is an overlap as this is personal preference and just guidance; a higher historical share value means a smoother pay-out regime, which some people prefer. If fees are not factored in, or are the same on different pools, the pay-out value will be the same over a long enough period.
10( Is XXX model of hard drive good? Which one do you recommend?
CHEAP is best. If you have 2 new hard drives, both covered by warranty, get the one with the lowest cost per TB (expressed as $/TB , calculated by dividing the cost by the number of terabytes) because plot size is KING,
11( How many drives can I have on my machine?
For best performance, you can have up to 2 drives per thread (3 on a new fast AVX2 CPU). So that quad-core core-2-quad can have up to 8 drives, but a more modern i7 with 4 cores + hyper threading can squeeze 8 * 3 or 24 drives. (Performance while scanning will suffer)
12( Can I game while I mine?
Some people have done so, but you cannot have the ‘maximum’ number of drives and play games generally.
13( Can I mine Burst and GPU mine other coins?
Yes, if you CPU Mine Burst.
14( I’m GPU plotting Burst and GPU mining another coin, my plots are being corrupted, why?
My advice is dedicating a GPU to either mining or plotting, don’t try to do both.
15( What is a ‘plot’?
A plot is a file that contains Hashes, these hashes are used to mine burst. A plot is tied to an account, but they can be created (with the same account ID) on other machines and connected back to your miner(s).
16( Where can I trade/buy/sell Burst?
A list of exchanges is maintained on https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin/ (on the right, ‘Exchanges’ tab) the biggest at the moment are Bittrex and Poloniex, some offer direct Fiat-to-Burst purchase (https://indacoin.com for example)
17( Do I have to store my Burst off the exchange?
No, but it’s safer from hackers who target exchanges, if you cannot guarantee the safety or security of your home computer from Trojans etc, then it might be best to leave on an exchange (but enable 2FA security on your account PLEASE!)
18( What security measures can I take to keep my coin safe?
When you create an account, sign out and back in to your wallet (to make sure you have copied the pass phrase correctly) and keep multiple copies of the key (at least one physically printed or written down and in a safe place, better in 2 places) do not disclose the passphrase to anyone. Finally use either a local wallet or a trusted web wallet (please research before using any web wallet)
19( How can I help Burst?
Run a wallet, which will act as a node (or if you’re a programmer, contact the Dev team Bring attention to burst (without ‘shilling’ or trying to get people to buy) And help translate into your local language
Be a productive member of the community and contribute experience and knowledge if you can, or help others get into Burst.
20( Will I get coins on the fork(s) and where will they be?
There will be no new coin, and no new coins to be given/air dropped etc, the forks are upgrades to burst and there will not be a ‘classic’ or ‘new’ burst.
21( Will I need to move my Burst off of the exchange for the fork?
No, your transactions are on the block chain, which will be used on the fork, they will be visible after the move; nothing will need to be done on your side.
22( Where can I read about the progress of Burst and news in general on the community?
There is no finer place than https://www.burstcoin.ist/
23( What are the communities for Burst and the central website?
Main website: https://www.burst-coin.org/
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin and https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/
Burstforum.net: https://www.burstforum.net/
Getburst forum: https://forums.getburst.net/
Official Facebook channel: https://m.facebook.com/groups/398967360565392
(these are the forums that are known to be supporting the current Dev Team)
Other ways to talk to the community:
Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/RPhpjVv
Telegram (General): https://t.me/burstcoin
Telegram (Mining): https://t.me/BurstCoinMining
24( When will Burst partner up with a company?
Burst is a currency, the USD does not ‘partner up’ with a company, the DEV team will not partner up and give over to special interests.
25( Why is the DEV team anonymous?
They prefer anonymity, as it allows them to work without constant scrutiny and questions unless they wish to engage, plus the aim is for Burst to become a major contender, and this brings issues with security. They will work and produce results, they owe you nothing and if you cannot see the vision they provide then please do not ‘invest’ for short term gain.
26( When moon/Lambo/$100/make me rich?
My crystal ball is still broken, come back to the FAQ later for answer (seriously, this is a coin to hold, if you want to day-trade, good luck to you)
27( How can I better educate myself and learn about Dymaxion?
Read about the Dymaxion here: https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin/wiki/dymaxion
28( My reads are slow, why?
There are many reasons for this, if your computer has a decent spec it’s likely due to USB3 hub issues, or plugging into a USB2 hub, but other reasons can be multiple plots in the same folder, but it’s best to visit the mining subreddit. They can help more than an simple FAQ https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/
29( I have a great idea for Burst (not proof of stake related)?
Awesome! Please discuss with the DEV team on discord https://discordapp.com/invite/RPhpjVv
(Please be aware that this is a public forum, you need to find who to ask/tell)
30( I have a great idea for Burst (Proof of stake related)?
No. if you want a POS, find a POS coin. On the tangle which is being implemented a POS/POW/POC coin can be created, but BURST will always be POC mined. You are welcome to implement a proof of stake coin on this!
31( Will the Dev team burn any coins?
Burst is not an ICO, so any coins will need to be bought to be burnt. You are welcome to donate, but the DEV team have no intention of burning any coins, or increasing the coin cap.
32( When will there be an IOS wallet?
IOS wallet is completed; we are waiting for it to go on the app store. Apple is the delaying factor.
33( Why do overlapping plots matter?
Plots are like collections of lottery tickets (and if only one ticket could win). Having 2 copies is not useful, and it means that you have less coverage of ‘all’ the possible numbers. It’s not good, avoid.
34( My local wallet used to run, I synchronised it before and now it says ‘stopped’. when I start it, it stops after a few seconds, what should I do?
I suggest that you change the database type to portable MariaDB (on Qbundle, at the top, ‘Database’ select, ‘change database’) and then re-import the database from scratch (see 35)
35( Synchronising the block chain is slow and I have the patience of a goldfish. What can I do?
On Qbundle , ‘Database’ select ‘Bootstrap chain’ and make sure the CryptoGuru repository is selected, then ‘start Import’ this will download and quickly stuff the local database (I suggest Portable MariaDB, see 34) (lol, loop)
36( What will the block reward be next month/will the block rewards run out in 6 months?
https://www.ecomine.earth/burstblockreward/ Rewards will carry on into 2026, but transaction fees will be a bigger % by then, and so profitable mining will continue.
37( How can I get started with Burst (wallet/mining/everything) and I need it in a video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJLhw37Lh_8 Watch and be enlightened.
38( Can I mine on multiple machines with the same account?
Yes, if you want to pool mine this can be done (but be prepared for small issues like reported size being incorrect. Just be sure to keep question 33 in mind.)
39( Why do some of my drives take forever to plot?
Most likely they are SMR drives, it’s best to plot onto another SSD and then move the finished plot/part of a plot across to the SMR drive as this is much quicker. SMR drives are fine on the read, just random writes that are terrible.
So plot an SMR drive quickly, plot to a non SMR or better still SSD drive, in as big a chunk as possible (fewer files better) and move. a version of Xplotter, called Splotter, can do this easily.
https://github.com/NoParamedic/SPlotter
40( I have a great idea; why not get listed on more exchanges!!
Exchanges list coins because of 2 reasons:
  1. Clients email and REQUESTING Burst and provide details like:
    i. https://www.burst-coin.org/information-for-exchanges
  2. The coin pays (often A LOT, seriously we’ve been asked for 50 BTC)
I suggest you speak with your exchange and ask ‘when will they offer Burst?’
41( Do you have a roadmap?
https://www.burst-coin.org/roadmap
42( Why is the price of Burst going up/down/sideways/looping through time?
The price of burst is still quite dependent upon Bitcoin, meaning that if Bitcoin gains, the value of Burst gains, if Bitcoin drops then Burst also drops. If there is news for Burst then we will see something independent of Bitcoin moving. Variations can be because of people buying in bulk or selling in bulk. There are also ‘pump and dump’ schemes that we detest, that can cause spikes in price that have nothing to do with news or Bitcoin, just sad people taking advantage of others.
43( Where is the best place to go with my mining questions?
https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/
or https://t.me/BurstCoinMining
44( What hardware do you advise me to buy, is this computer good?
See question 43 for specific questions on hardware, it depends on so many variables. The ‘best’ in my opinion is a 36 bay Supermicro storage server, usually they have dual 6-core CPU’s and space for 36 drives. No USB cables, plotting and mining monster, anything else, DYOR.
45( Where do you buy your hard drives?
I have bought most from EBay in job lots, and some refurbished drives with short warranties. Everything else I have bought, from Amazon.
46( Can I mine on my Google drive/cloud based storage?
In short: no. If you want to try, and get to maybe 1 TB and then find that your local connection isn’t fast enough, or that shortly after, your account is blocked for various reasons. Please be my guest.
47( Can I mine on my NAS?
Some you can mine with the NAS (if it can run the miner, it can scan locally) but generally they’re not very fast. good for maybe 16 TB? Having a plot on a NAS and mining from another computer depends on the network speed between the NAS and scanning computer. I believe you can scan about 8 TB (maybe a bit more) and keep the scan times to within acceptable, but YMMV.
48( How can I set up a node?
No need to set up a node, just set up a wallet (version 2.0.4) or Qbundle (2.2) and it will do the rest
49( Are the passphrases secured?
I’ll leave the effort to a few people to show how secure a 12-word passphrase is: https://burstforum.net/topic/4766/the-canary-burst-early-warning-system Key point: brute forcing it will be around 13,537,856,339,904,134,474,012,675,034 years.
50( I logged into my account (maybe with a different burst ID) and see no balance!!
I have dealt with this very issue multiple times, and there are only 3 options:
  1. You have typed in the password incorrectly
  2. You have copy-pasted the password incorrectly
  3. You are trying to log into a ‘local wallet’ which the block chain has not finished updating
The last one generally leaves the burst ID the same, but old balances will show. No, this is not a security problem, and yes, windows loves to add spaces after the phrase you enter when copied, and that space is important in getting to your account.
51( Are there channels for my language?
Telegram:
Spanish: https://t.me/burstcoin_es
German: https://t.me/Burstcoinde
Italian: https://t.me/BurstCoinItalia
Forum:
Spanish: https://burst-coin.es/index.php/forum/index
Discord:
Spanish: https://discordapp.com/invite/RaaGna9
Bulgarian: https://discord.gg/r4uzTd
(there are others, please contact me to put up)
52( I am mining in a pool, and it says that my effective capacity is lower than I actually have, why?
  1. If you've not been mining for >48 hours, or just added additional capacity, it will take time.
  2. The value fluctuates (normally, +-5% but can be up to 10% at times)
  3. Read on the ‘Quick info’ tab about adjusting your deadline to compensate for changes i. revisit once a month for best results
  4. If you have overlapping plots it will also be lower so be aware of this (see question 33)
53( What pool should I join?
First of all, read question 9, after you have understood that it depends on the size (and how patient you are) select from the following list: https://www.ecomine.earth/burstpools/
54( What miner to use?
I use Blago’s miner, there are many out there but Blago’s works for me on CPU mining, it can be found in Qbundle.
55( What Wallet to use (I use windows)?
Qbundle: https://github.com/PoC-Consortium/Qbundle/releases/ guide: https://burstwiki.org/wiki/QBundle
56( What Wallet to use (Linux)?
https://package.cryptoguru.org/ for Debian and Ubuntu, for Mac. read:
https://www.ecomine.earth/macoswalletinstallguide/
57( Will i need to 'replot' after POC2 (second fork) happens?
No, there will be a tool which will optimise, but it is not CPU intensive (it basically re-shuffles your plot) and is just IO intensive. You do not need to replot.
TurboPlotter and https://github.com/PoC-Consortium/Utilities/tree/mastepoc1to2.pl are tools that will/can be used to actuate optimization, but PLEASE wait with optimization until after the hard fork.
58( Will the transaction fee always be 1 burst?
No, dynamic fees are coming in the next fork.
submitted by dan_dares to burstcoin [link] [comments]

Beware, one or more of the moderators of Dashpay have been

"To learn who rules over you, simply find out who you are not allowed to criticize." - Voltaire
Edit: This morning the moderators of cryptotechnology also shadow deleted and banned me for the same thread highlighting Monero's 51% attack vulnerability! They control many subs and moderator positions! I'm probably going to start posting more on memo.cash and honest.cash now.
Which means that the moderators of dashpay have been compromised. If we're not allowed to criticize people who fud our coin, and if they're allowed to abuse the very rules that were created (mostly based on my fights with XMR trolls and how they were attempting to infiltrate with negativity instead of 'kindness'), then that is a clear signal that the moderators now serve the monero community.
Fortunately, I was banned today from dashpay. I will post the PMs and explain what I think this means for the communtiy.
I received this message today:
I have hidden your post.
5時間前 solarguy2003 から送信
You can't call people liars. We talked about this, please revise your post where you are talking to flenst and told him he is lying less, etc.
Now off the bat, its unusual to receive a warning like this via pm, with no link to the offending post. That's the first thing. The second thing is he's lying. In our discussion we 'didn't talk about this', this user is a MODERATOR he is not stalin. He does not have the power to control free speech nor to selectively interpret the rules, just like a baseball umpire can't turn a strikeout into a home run on his whim. Its his job to make sure the rules are followed, not to throw his weight around. If someone is lying and its proven they are lying then THEY are the aggressor, not the person calling them out.
He had no response for this then nor does he now. Why not? Because this is an attack on the dash community. I am the canary in the coal mine. This is our 'Mike Hearn' moment. Mark this post, in a year come back and see the chaos that has or has not been allowed to fester and grow in our otherwise placid and strong community.
I of course do not pretend to have contributed even 10% of what he did. Only that his message of frustration was the same kind of signal that censorship and manipulation were taking over the community. But unlike his message, this is a bullish message. The Monero coin is undergoing severe strain from the mining situation.
Just like in bitcoin this user flenst, a known member of the very aggressive and hostile monero community who has fudded our coin for over two years, sought to infiltrate and curry favor with our community. He most likely bribed or threatened the mods. I do not make this accusation lightly, I have been harassed by them online for months so I know what I'm talking about. They impersonated me with sockpuppets and followed me around on reddit in a form of online stalking.
From the beginning I recognized his game, use the rules to silence voices that they did not want heard. Today he has struck the first blow.
5時間前 solarguy2003 から送信
You can't call people liars. We talked about this, please revise your post where you are talking to flenst and told him he is lying less, etc.
Calling liars liars IS NOT AGAINST THE rules of the Dash subreddit! If you're lying you are trying to mislead people THAT IS AGGRESSIVE. It doesn't matter how nicely you do it, if you stab someone apologizing profusely as they bleed out it is NOT the same thing as not stabbing them in the first place. What does this mean? It means you have to be careful now. There are 'protected classes' whom 'you are not allowed to criticize' now. I was BANNED for calling flenst a liar.
I have been a member of the Dash community for years, I have fought tirelessly to defeat trolls like and including flenst, and yet he joins our subreddit for a couple of weeks and he has moderator protection now? Banning people for calling him out and not playing along with his pretend-friend game?! This is VERY bullish for Dash!! This the best they can do! They can't even defeat someone who's not on the core team in argument, they have to resort to lies and censorship.
Stay vigilant, stay frosty, because the monero community must be desperate to pull such a brazen move as this! Bank robbery in broad daylight!
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to DashUncensored [link] [comments]

Want to *really* help decentralization by getting more full nodes online? Code a simple bandwidth limit option (like in any decent torrent client) in Bitcoin Core so that people can actually run nodes without ruining their connection

This is a big reason why people stop running full nodes, at least home users. I've seen multiple complaints from folks saying that it eats all their bandwidth, making their internet connection nearly unusable. The result? They stop running a full node. And who can blame them?
There's been plenty of discussion on this issue for four years (!) on the Bitcoin GitHub: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues/273 - I think with all this recent talk about worries of decreasing full node count, this would be a relatively non-controversial means to make running a full node much more accessible, and therefore greatly increase the number of full nodes on the network.
As it is, the user can apply supplemental bandwidth shapers and QoS rules to deal with this, e.g. https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/mastecontrib/qos/tc.sh, but how many people are really going to do that - or even find out that they can?
Concerns on the GitHub issue that this will slow down the network are absurd, in my opinion - for one thing, there's no real incentive to "leech" by capping upload speed well under capacity, and for another, these people who want to regulate the speeds are just going to get frustrated and shut their nodes down completely, as many folks already have. Even if they're throttled, having a great many more nodes than we do now is going to increase the network's speed, not decrease it.
I wish that I had the coding skills to write a patch for this myself, but I do not, and so I just want to try to encourage those who can to make it a higher priority. I think that the impact of this issue has been drastically underestimated by a large number of people.
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA512 For what it's worth (which ain't much), I'll kick in a 0.050 BTC bounty towards a working, tested pull request that implements proper bandwidth limiting in Bitcoin-Core, in a style similar to how most P2P programs do it today (either in the Preferences dialog or somewhere in the main interface). Perhaps someone with a little more in their wallet could add to that bounty. -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- iQIcBAEBCgAGBQJVjGKXAAoJEJdH3pe6/Nu5mPsP/RS74L7odtEEfJWFIFwZvHLn MNBeB7yv0oegLwK27TPWb/+R+HPTEtW2/q+9xN8GzuyZnfsVoIjWb7mykQm1ILH4 TcGveXvcBYa1TeeZTBoiyrE5qDAN3I15wS+FF97+xANoYY+cmYG3MCd+ctfGT9qb m7/34ppPqTVWD/pAD/A+oIJvPpgsl1nxy78qPCeKHBaSGuCGUqwC2oMOWenwGk7w m+EwJxaWTa60i2+nsACJtUvEHAB+v3LM3dNrNlupxt+Ym47kTCSN99fDJZmvK6 ptI08tSVQz5KbDbqZ7prZdHATBsE0xrI9rMwZYMzv1Vda0vDSR4ggoJOa6JGutqa X33EmzkXk5s7p9DCpcb+4aIucTRknM/oBB/IorIL9bq+Mh6k2MIaguxb+9a446iL dsFRh55t6PAifunVkrFvQyRSqA7MZtQ3wzBP62H2b8oPLwJ4D/eF8WKAGPnUn6YP IOhhvJf9XXKrP42Tvo/cIcPhMnvAF+bMVV0AbTxWzTSHA4qwdfnPlL0AdBCQFhm0 ulCkI9VftzqwGfNl6VPurhOCK2ZGSvaEsc+Zbz2uUex/orf23ihw08ksJjUI9DVP nY82GgULW0wrusQmFmSCaHPsQi2EbUurEcvNiWRWd0ZrayT05zgjtSGregjrdwLR GbGVT+jJHBPBeH+ohbEW =aZqc -----END PGP SIGNATURE----- 
For signature verification, my GPG key with fingerprint 69E7 EB65 1CB6 19DE 9153 3A2B D16B 4CC5 857D 0298 is available at https://np.reddit.com/publickeyexchange/comments/2cmfob/sapiophiles_public_key/, on the major SKS keyservers and on KeyBase at https://keybase.io/sapiophile - my KeyBase proof for this reddit username can be found at https://np.reddit.com/KeybaseProofs/comments/2dfzvj/my_keybase_proof_redditsapiophile/
EDIT: Bounty is now up to 1.65 BTC + $48 in BTC (1.85 BTC total at this time), thanks to wserd, globramma2, CanaryInTheMine, hellobitcoinworld, imaginary_username, Huntred, Melting_Harps, SD7, zebrahat, jefdaj, and especially Place60! Who's next to help sweeten the pot?
submitted by sapiophile to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Dis-info Campaign Mega Thread

Hello,
I am going to run through some of the more prominent disinformation that has been thrown around in regards to Julian Assange and Wikileaks since the middle of October. This mega thread will hopefully dispel some of the more prominent and recurring arguments that have popped up over the last few months. If there is something here that needs to be added or was discussed incorrectly please let me know in the comments.
Edit: http://i.imgur.com/MfuN4tG.jpg
submitted by TrustyJAID to WhereIsAssange [link] [comments]

The Police-Canary in a Coalmine The Police - Canary In A Coalmine English in a Minute: Canary in a Coal Mine The Canary of Bitcoin Cash The Police - Canary in a coalmine (Subtitulado)

Integrating all of these ideas, the EOS/BTC pair may be a canary in the coal mine for bears on the cryptocurrency space given the oversold levels on the daily chart, the importance of this pairing as a signal about demoralization of animal spirits, and the technical inflection possibly starting to take shape on the hourly chart. NEO/BTC. Price Canary Mining maximizes bitcoin mining profitability, sources the best bitcoin and litecoin mining hardware, and manages everything so you don’t have to. Canary Mining is the easiest and most profitable way to mine Bitcoin and Litecoin. Enter your email to learn more: We algorithmically maximize mining profitability, source the best mining Buy Bitcoin; Buy Bitcoin UK; Buy Bitcoin with PayPal; Buy Bitcoin with Debit Card; Buy Bitcoin with Credit Card ; Buy Ethereum; Buy Ethereum with PayPal; Buy Ripple; Buy Ripple with PayPal; Buy Maybe Bitcoin was the currency canary in the coal mine. The Atlantic reporter goes on to ridicule bitcoin miners who ramped up mining, “a process that involves using supercomputers to solve difficult mathematical equations,” by borrowing what he calls “real” money to invest in computing power. This worked dandy in 2013 when bitcoins In Venezuela, the paper notes are worth more as material for handbags The Canary in the Crypto Mine. Historically, caged canaries have been used as an alarm system in mines, for when toxic gases

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The Police-Canary in a Coalmine

Help us make history. Let's become the documentary project with the greatest number of supporters in the history of Kickstarter. It only takes $1 to back. ht... 50+ videos Play all Mix - The Police - Canary in a coalmine (Subtitulado) YouTube The Police - So Lonely (Subtitulada) - Duration: 4:50. Luis Hernán 30,886 views When Bitcoin Cash first stood on its own, its security was unclear. Could it survive with just a small portion of bitcoin mining power? Clearly, better than we anticipated. Today, Bitcoin SV ... The concept of the "canary in the coal mine" giving warning of a human health hazard is based on several principles. First, canaries were found to be more sensitive than both humans and other ... 50+ videos Play all Mix - The Police-Canary in a Coalmine YouTube; Too Much Information - Duration: 3:43. The Police 112,154 views. 3:43. The ...

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