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NiceHash - buy & sell hashing power

NiceHash offers you to buy or sell hashing power directly, no contracts, no limitations, pay-as-you-go if you're a buyer and be-paid-as-you-go if you're a seller. Why bother renting rigs, when you can rent hashing power? NiceHash brings more to renters and rig owners. Visit today! Simply create order and you are already mining your favorite coin or point your rig to our stratum server and you are already earning bitcoins.

Flowee the Hub

Flowee community.

i2p — anonymous network

A subreddit for information and discussions related to the I2P anonymous network. Visit to download I2P.

Why I think Ren is a game-changer for decentralized finance.

I'm Ken the author of The Weekly Coin newsletter, where every week I highlight high potential lower cap cryptocurrency projects one might have overlooked, the projects listed beyond the first page of CoinMarketCap. The Weekly Coin is merely a jumping-off point for you to do your own research.
If you're interested you can sign up for The Weekly Coin here. No ads, no spam, just the results of my research.
This week in The Weekly Coin we’re highlighting Ren. Ren currently lands on the 77th slot on CoinMarketCap. Yea, it's not hidden in the realms of the 2nd CMC pages and beyond. But, after researching this coin, I think it's a game-changer for DeFi and well, the cryptocurrency world as a whole. Also important to note is that I'm not invested in Ren, no one paid me to write this, and of course, I'm not a financial adviser. 😁
Ren allows the free movement of value between all blockchains and transfer of tokens in zero-knowledge. Unlocking new liquidity and resources to power a new wave of value in the open finance movement. With Ren all decentralized applications can run in secret, preserving the privacy of all users and data. (

What is Ren?

Ren had humble beginnings as a project called Republic Protocol. Republic Protocol launched in 2017 and had their ICO on February 3, 2018. The platform focused on providing decentralized dark pools. A dark pool is a term used in traditional finance for anonymous over-the-counter (OTC) order books without moving the market (more on dark pools here). Republic Protocol's decentralized dark pools were specially designed to combat OTC trading which is known for their high fees and also to help increase institutional money flow into crypto. The technology behind these decentralized dark pools is called RenVM.
💡 Institutional investors want to get in the game but are staying on the sidelines until crypto has matured and risk is low.
RenVM turned out to be the perfect solution for interoperability between blockchains. This is because in a decentralized dark pool blockchains need to see each other. Republic Protocol then saw how massive this opportunity was and rebranded to Ren.
Ren is the evolution of the technology that underpins RepublicProtocol, in its most useful and general form. It becomes something much bigger than Republic Protocol and will empower developers to build decentralized and trustless applications, with a distinct focus on financial applications. Using our own newly developed secure multiparty computation protocol, all DeFi applications will have access to interoperable liquidity and run in complete secrecy. (Ren —The Evolution of a Protocol)
💡 To dumb it down a bit, Ren is the organization's name, REN is the ERC-20 based token, and RenVM is Ren’s core product.

Token use

To put simply, for now, the REN token is used as a work token. The token is used as a bond to run a Darknode. What is a Darknode?
RenVM is replicated over thousands of machines that work together to power it, contributing their network bandwidth, their computational power, and their storage capacity. These machines are known as Darknodes.
Darknodes communicate with other Darknodes around the world to keep RenVM running. Without them, there is no virtual machine upon which Ren can exist. RenVM uses Byzantine Fault Tolerant consensus algorithms and secure multiparty computations so that Darknodes can be operated by anyone without needing to trust them. This is what makes RenVM — and by extension, Ren itself — decentralized, trustless, and private. (Ren Documentation)
Ok so now we know what a Darknode is but what is REN Tokens used for?
The decentralized network of Darknodes is permissionless, but to prevent the forging of a large number of identities a good behavior a bond of 100,000 REN tokens is required in order to register and run a Darknode. This prevents malicious adversaries from running an unbounded number of Darknodes and overwhelming the network with misbehaving Darknodes. (Ren Documentation)
As stated, to run a Darknode you'll need 100,000 REN. You can liken this to Proof of Stake (PoS) systems in which you stake a certain currency to encourage honest behavior in block production. The benefits of running a Darknode is you will be paid transaction fees. Initially, the fees were paid in REN tokens but now Darknode operators can be paid other cryptocurrencies such as BTC, ETH, ZEC, and other ERC20 tokens.
The REN token is required to run a Darknode but the tokens are not required to use RenVM. Let’s say someone wants to acquire BAT with their BTC using a RenVM enabled DEX; where would they get the REN to preform the transaction? A centralized exchange? That defeats the purpose. A decentralized exchange? They'd need ETH or an ERC-20 token. Idk if you've used Uniswap before but you don't need an Uniswap token to swap, send, or pool. Using the RenVM is similar, you don't need to use the REN token.

Why I think Ren is a game-changer

With around 900 million dollars locked up in DeFi it's no secret that DeFi is booming right now. Go to DeFi Pulse and take a look at which chains all the DeFi applications are being built on, go on. What you'll see is every application is built on Ethereum.
Ethereum has a smart contract platform for business logic, whereas Bitcoin doesn't. You can loan and mint something like DAI without trusting an intermediary, all of this is done on Ethereum. But what if you wanted to use Bitcoin on a DEX to get DAI? Another problem is Ethereum doesn't know Bitcoin exists and vice versa. Ren fixes this. You can trade Bitcoin on a DEX like Uniswap against Ethereum or mint Dai with Bitcoin. Check out this Github repo outlining how to enable BTC and ZEC in Uniswap. As a developer of a decentralized exchange myself, I think this is huge. 🔥
Well you might be saying "We have wrapped Bitcoin", well wBTC isn't actually Bitcoin, it's more like an IOU token or a proxy. An imposter!
Well, you might be saying "We have Atomic Swaps", well Atomic Swaps are slow and a bit annoying and complex. The two parties looking to transact have to send the transaction, wait for confirmation, then send a transaction and then finally wait for a confirmation. What if the internet goes down for a person in the party? What happens if the market gets flooded?
With the RenVM it's only one transaction, it's quick, easy, and you send actual Bitcoin. There is also no need for specialized software. The RenVM takes care of it all. Check out these examples of RenVM in action.
Also, check out Ren's Chaos Dex where you can swap SAI (DAI) for BTC or ZEC. For more information on Chaos Dex go here. Idk about you but this stuff blows my mind.
Ren is in talks with dApps in the DeFi space making sure RenVM is aligned with their platforms. There also is documentation and integrations for you to build on RenVM. Ren also has been making great strides recently in inter-blockchain liquidity by recently announcing The Ren Alliance.
The Ren Alliance is a consortium of DeFi companies and/or projects that are helping secure, develop, and utilize RenVM. (Introducing the Ren Alliance)
Also, Important to note is Ren has top tier investors in the likes of FGB Capital, Polychain Capital, and Kenetic Capital. But its headlining investor is crypto giant Huobi, which this past July launched its Huobi Cloud platform for OTC desks. Work is being done and a lot of progress is being made.

Why do we even need Interoperability?

I'm gonna yank the text straight from an article by Capgemini which explains the benefits of interoperability quite nicely.
The blockchain-based networks are being built to offer specific capabilities such as making payments, storing and trading assets and others. However, these capabilities are being offered in isolation where these networks don’t talk to each other and cannot share data. Existing centralized systems have evolved to offer the same capabilities in a more integrated way where these systems are able to run end to end transactions seamlessly making it easier for users.
If blockchain-based networks have to make a strong case for their adoption, they have to be able to work with each other and offer this seamless integration of capabilities to their users.
Strong interoperability would give users a much more useful, user-friendly experience. With this interoperability, users will be able to experience the seamless integration of capabilities being offered by the blockchain-based networks. If we have to hypothesize an example, it would look something like this – User will be able to tokenize the asset (e.g. artwork) over Ethereum based DApp, will be able to transfer the tokenized asset to another address over Cardano, and pay any corresponding transaction fees over the bitcoin network. (Capgemini)
The cryptocurrency space is pretty fragmented at times. There also is a bunch of tribalism. It can be a bit annoying. One coin makes massive efforts over here and another coin is making massive efforts over there. What if we could combine the efforts into one big force of nature? I think we can take over the world. Which, would be, huge.
Idk about y’all but I’m gonna be following the Ren team to see what they come up with. The impact this coin can have could be massive. I think Ren is definitely a coin you should look at.
submitted by Raleigh_CA to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Where can you actually SPEND dogecoins? [Please Add on]

When trying to explain dogecoin to people for the first time, the #1 question I get is "Yeah but, can you actually use it to buy things?"
One of the major things that will take Dogecoin to the moon will be people actually using the Ð. For a currency to gain legitimacy, it's got to be spendable. The good news is, there are sites popping up that take the Ð! Some sites also list other sites that take the Ð and serve as directories. Considering how great this community is and how quickly we are growing, the number of transactions and using Ð as real money could really make the difference!

~ ~ ~ Dogecoin Stuff ~ ~ ~

CoinOK - Various Dogecoin Articles cocomfy - Various Dogecoin Articles DogeWow - Dogecoin Shirts KawaiiCrypto - Dogecoin/Crypto Stickers Shibe Mint - Physical Dogecoins

~ ~ ~ Clothing ~ ~ ~

BedlamThreadz - Shirts, Caps and Accessories BitDials - Luxury Watches, Jewelry, Bags etc. ClockworkCrypto - Crypto Clothes and merch CrownLifestyle - Beach Articles, Bikinis, Swimsuits, Towels etc. CryptoBantam - Crypto Clothes Cryptoish - Crypto Shirts CryptoShopper - Crypto Clothes and merch CryptoVerge - Bitcoin Shirts CypherMarket - Crypto Shirts, Bags and Mugs Eat Me Clothing - Huge Clothing Sortiment Encrypted Apparel - Crypto Clothes Frank & Beans - Underwear HippTee - Crypto Shirts KALEIDOO - Vintage Clothing Kryptoez - Socks Krypto Threadz - Crypto Clothes MyCoconutHeart - Women Clothes MyCryptoGear - Crypto Clothes ParkAndFinch - Glasses Print-Ted - Crypto merchandise collection and Design your own shirt Sakama - Leather Jackets & handknotted rugs The DOTA scene - DOTA Merchandise WhaleApparel - Crypto Clothes

~ ~ ~ Donating ~ ~ ~

Animal Neotropical - D5ivRQwT4TU8CEjNBhorpMKSe8bVkMYURQ - via changelly DogecoinSocksForTheHomeless - 9vnaTWu71XWimFCW3hctSxryQgYg7rRZ7y Doge4FAH - DUCKvJPNT16USvJmWWEwchZpRVHZwm4zRW Immunity Project - DMx7wPZ5ppZDEDWr1XSrpMdMRbGH7LXs97 Kamikaze Comics - DC8Tuid8X3Qwnpo5cvBum19w2LRWXfepqr Onwadan Foundation - via Tor Project - DGvn1HLeMaCZEZZYUeBWBhUCJiS2hjzbGd

~ ~ ~ Food ~ ~ ~

35North - Extra Virgin Olive Oil Blockchain Coffee - Coffee DrApis - Raw Portuguese Bee Honey HODL Fuel - Coffee and Merch PexPeppers - Hot Sauces SaffronStore - Saffron

~ ~ ~ Gaming ~ ~ ~

8BitDo - French Retro Products Allgamer - Game Servers CJS CD Keys - Steam/Origin/Uplay Games/Keys - Steam/Origin/Uplay Games/Keys Keys4Coins - Steam/Origin/Uplay Games/Keys MMOGA - Steam/Origin/Uplay Games/Keys SimRai - Game Servers

~ ~ ~ Gift Cards ~ ~ ~

Bidali - Various Gift Cards Bitrefill - 750+ Gift Cards CoinCards - Huge Selection of Gift Cards GiftOff - Gift Cards

~ ~ ~ Smoking ~ ~ ~

101Vape - Vape Products Frontier Vapor - Vape Accessories RX Vape - Vape Products Vape Crypto - Vape Products VapePENstore - Vape Products Vaposhop - Vape Products Vapour Depot - Vape Products

~ ~ ~ Tech Stores ~ ~ ~

ArgoMall - Philippine Online Tech Store, Smartphones, TVs, Laptops, etc. DS Tec - Spanish Online Tech Store Ecosystems - Huge selection of Tech Articles FastTech - Wide Variety of Tech Articles

~ ~ ~ Traveling ~ ~ ~ - Flight and Hotel Booking Greitai - Lithuanian Travel Site with Flight and Hotel Booking MoreStamps - Flight and Hotel Booking Travala - Hotel Booking Trippki - Hotel Booking

~ ~ ~ VPN/Proxy ~ ~ ~

AzireVPN - VPN BlackVPN - VPN CactusVPN - VPN DeepWebVPN - VPN - VPN PureVPN - VPN SaferVPN - VPN Surfshark - VPN TorGuard - VPN

~ ~ ~ Web Hosting ~ ~ ~

97cents - Web Hosting AbacoHosting - Web Hosting CoinHost - Web Hosting CryptoCloudHosting - Web Hosting Flokinet - Web Hosting HosterBox - Web Hosting Host Havoc - Web Hosting & Game Servers - Web Hosting Hostinger - Web Hosting Hostsailor - Web Hosting Hostwinds - Web Hosting Motov - Web Hosting Privex - Private Cloud Hosting Snel - VPS THCservers - Web Hosting QHoster - Web Hosting

~ ~ ~ Misc ~ ~ ~

247bits - Crypto Cold Storage Cards AlmightyBoost - All Natural Male Testosterone Booster BitCars - Luxury Cars and Oldtimers BitStickers - Cryptocurrency Stickers BitStore - General Store with option to pay literally everything you want online with Dogecoin BlockchainAdventures - "Toshi to the moon" book and merch BP Fragrance - Dutch perfumes shop Bullion79 - Gold Coins, Gold Bars, etc. CleanItSupply - Cleaning Supplies Coinvibe - Crypto Merch CryptoArt - Crypto Art CryptoContactLenses - Contact Lenses CryptoLife - Crypto Merch CryptoMined - Crypto Mining Equipment Crypto Posters - Crypto Posters, shirts, hats, phone cases CryptoUniverse - Crypto Mining Equipment GPS Tracking Made Easy - Easy & Simple GPS Tracker Kits Jobgate - Job Market payed with Dogecoins Lue's House of International Decor - Decor Articles Lynx Art Collection - Art MobiSun - Solar Panels, Power Banks, Solar Generators Molecule Store - Various Articles about molecules Olympian Bitcoin - Crypto Merch Peername - Blockchain-Based Domain Names Pi-Supply - Raspberry Pi and accessories ShopOfThings - Electronic Tech Parts SugarTrends - Huge local stores online marketplace ThaiBaM - Coffee, Tea, Oils, Balms etc. TormentBox - Various prank articles like glitter letters etc. WikiLeaks Shop - Official Shirts, Mugs, Stickers, Posters, etc.

All links are provided with the best of my knowledge.Please make sure to check the shops listed here yourself again, before spending your Dogecoins there.In no way should the admin of this website be responsible for any fraudulently activities from any listed shop.

Thanks to Dimi for the links
DimiFWDonate: D62WT9ebWbVW8QtBE57TE8CUaH3s95T3dN
submitted by SoiledCold5 to dogecoin [link] [comments]

Groestlcoin 6th Anniversary Release


Dear Groestlers, it goes without saying that 2020 has been a difficult time for millions of people worldwide. The groestlcoin team would like to take this opportunity to wish everyone our best to everyone coping with the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19. Let it bring out the best in us all and show that collectively, we can conquer anything.
The centralised banks and our national governments are facing unprecedented times with interest rates worldwide dropping to record lows in places. Rest assured that this can only strengthen the fundamentals of all decentralised cryptocurrencies and the vision that was seeded with Satoshi's Bitcoin whitepaper over 10 years ago. Despite everything that has been thrown at us this year, the show must go on and the team will still progress and advance to continue the momentum that we have developed over the past 6 years.
In addition to this, we'd like to remind you all that this is Groestlcoin's 6th Birthday release! In terms of price there have been some crazy highs and lows over the years (with highs of around $2.60 and lows of $0.000077!), but in terms of value– Groestlcoin just keeps getting more valuable! In these uncertain times, one thing remains clear – Groestlcoin will keep going and keep innovating regardless. On with what has been worked on and completed over the past few months.

UPDATED - Groestlcoin Core 2.18.2

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core with many protocol level improvements and code optimizations, featuring the technical equivalent of Bitcoin v0.18.2 but with Groestlcoin-specific patches. On a general level, most of what is new is a new 'Groestlcoin-wallet' tool which is now distributed alongside Groestlcoin Core's other executables.
NOTE: The 'Account' API has been removed from this version which was typically used in some tip bots. Please ensure you check the release notes from 2.17.2 for details on replacing this functionality.

How to Upgrade?

If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer.
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), run the dmg and drag Groestlcoin Core to Applications.

Other Linux


Download the Windows Installer (64 bit) here
Download the Windows Installer (32 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (32 bit) here
Download the OSX Installer here
Download the OSX binaries here
Download the Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Linux binaries (32 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (32 bit) here


ALL NEW - Groestlcoin Moonshine iOS/Android Wallet

Built with React Native, Moonshine utilizes Electrum-GRS's JSON-RPC methods to interact with the Groestlcoin network.
GRS Moonshine's intended use is as a hot wallet. Meaning, your keys are only as safe as the device you install this wallet on. As with any hot wallet, please ensure that you keep only a small, responsible amount of Groestlcoin on it at any given time.





ALL NEW! – HODL GRS Android Wallet

HODL GRS connects directly to the Groestlcoin network using SPV mode and doesn't rely on servers that can be hacked or disabled.
HODL GRS utilizes AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, and the latest security features to protect users from malware, browser security holes, and even physical theft. Private keys are stored only in the secure enclave of the user's phone, inaccessible to anyone other than the user.
Simplicity and ease-of-use is the core design principle of HODL GRS. A simple recovery phrase (which we call a Backup Recovery Key) is all that is needed to restore the user's wallet if they ever lose or replace their device. HODL GRS is deterministic, which means the user's balance and transaction history can be recovered just from the backup recovery key.



Main Release (Main Net)
Testnet Release


ALL NEW! – GroestlcoinSeed Savior

Groestlcoin Seed Savior is a tool for recovering BIP39 seed phrases.
This tool is meant to help users with recovering a slightly incorrect Groestlcoin mnemonic phrase (AKA backup or seed). You can enter an existing BIP39 mnemonic and get derived addresses in various formats.
To find out if one of the suggested addresses is the right one, you can click on the suggested address to check the address' transaction history on a block explorer.


Live Version (Not Recommended)



ALL NEW! – Vanity Search Vanity Address Generator

NOTE: NVidia GPU or any CPU only. AMD graphics cards will not work with this address generator.
VanitySearch is a command-line Segwit-capable vanity Groestlcoin address generator. Add unique flair when you tell people to send Groestlcoin. Alternatively, VanitySearch can be used to generate random addresses offline.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then VanitySearch is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address.
VanitySearch is a groestlcoin address prefix finder. If you want to generate safe private keys, use the -s option to enter your passphrase which will be used for generating a base key as for BIP38 standard (VanitySearch.exe -s "My PassPhrase" FXPref). You can also use VanitySearch.exe -ps "My PassPhrase" which will add a crypto secure seed to your passphrase.
VanitySearch may not compute a good grid size for your GPU, so try different values using -g option in order to get the best performances. If you want to use GPUs and CPUs together, you may have best performances by keeping one CPU core for handling GPU(s)/CPU exchanges (use -t option to set the number of CPU threads).





ALL NEW! – Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020

Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020 is a windows app built from the ground-up and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke bech32 address(es) when whilst not connected to the internet.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic bech32 addresses generated by regular Groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity2020 is the right choice for you to create a more personalised bech32 address. This 2020 version uses the new VanitySearch to generate not only legacy addresses (F prefix) but also Bech32 addresses (grs1 prefix).




Remastered! – Groestlcoin WPF Desktop Wallet (v2.19.0.18)

Groestlcoin WPF is an alternative full node client with optional lightweight 'thin-client' mode based on WPF. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is one of Microsoft's latest approaches to a GUI framework, used with the .NET framework. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for exporting blockchain.dat and including a lite wallet mode.
This wallet was previously deprecated but has been brought back to life with modern standards.


Remastered Improvements



ALL NEW! – BIP39 Key Tool

Groestlcoin BIP39 Key Tool is a GUI interface for generating Groestlcoin public and private keys. It is a standalone tool which can be used offline.



Linux :
 pip3 install -r requirements.txt python3 bip39\ 


ALL NEW! – Electrum Personal Server

Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server aims to make using Electrum Groestlcoin wallet more secure and more private. It makes it easy to connect your Electrum-GRS wallet to your own full node.
It is an implementation of the Electrum-grs server protocol which fulfils the specific need of using the Electrum-grs wallet backed by a full node, but without the heavyweight server backend, for a single user. It allows the user to benefit from all Groestlcoin Core's resource-saving features like pruning, blocks only and disabled txindex. All Electrum-GRS's feature-richness like hardware wallet integration, multi-signature wallets, offline signing, seed recovery phrases, coin control and so on can still be used, but connected only to the user's own full node.
Full node wallets are important in Groestlcoin because they are a big part of what makes the system be trust-less. No longer do people have to trust a financial institution like a bank or PayPal, they can run software on their own computers. If Groestlcoin is digital gold, then a full node wallet is your own personal goldsmith who checks for you that received payments are genuine.
Full node wallets are also important for privacy. Using Electrum-GRS under default configuration requires it to send (hashes of) all your Groestlcoin addresses to some server. That server can then easily spy on your transactions. Full node wallets like Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server would download the entire blockchain and scan it for the user's own addresses, and therefore don't reveal to anyone else which Groestlcoin addresses they are interested in.
Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can also broadcast transactions through Tor which improves privacy by resisting traffic analysis for broadcasted transactions which can link the IP address of the user to the transaction. If enabled this would happen transparently whenever the user simply clicks "Send" on a transaction in Electrum-grs wallet.
Note: Currently Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can only accept one connection at a time.



Linux / OSX (Instructions)


UPDATED – Android Wallet 7.38.1 - Main Net + Test Net

The app allows you to send and receive Groestlcoin on your device using QR codes and URI links.
When using this app, please back up your wallet and email them to yourself! This will save your wallet in a password protected file. Then your coins can be retrieved even if you lose your phone.



Main Net
Main Net (FDroid)
Test Net


UPDATED – Groestlcoin Sentinel 3.5.06 (Android)

Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets).
Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that wallet.
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a fork of Groestlcoin Samourai Wallet with all spending and transaction building code removed.




UPDATED – P2Pool Test Net



Pre-Hosted Testnet P2Pool is available via


submitted by Yokomoko_Saleen to groestlcoin [link] [comments]

Please recommend me a Seedbox

Hello. I'm seeking seedbox recommendations to help bootstrap the swarm on, a torrent tracker for biological sequence and medical imaging data. Thanks for any advice you can provide.
Are you OK with direct message offers from vendors?
Yes, but only to discuss tax-deductible donations of server time on behalf of BosLab, the 501c3 community biology lab where originated.
What are your main reasons for getting a seedbox?
I'm in the process of launching a semi-private science tracker for genomic and medical data, and would like to seed as much content on as fast connection as I can afford. I'm currently seeding from two residential locations.
Do you have any specific requirements?
I'm seeking a 1 Gbps uplink with as much storage and monthly transfer capacity as can be had for about $20 per month. The storage cap is the limiting factor right now, not the transfer cap.
Are you looking for a shared or dedicated solution?
Dedicated is preferred, but shared is okay if it helps meet the requirements above.
Are you looking for managed or unmanaged solution?
Please describe your Seedbox experience:
My current setup is a Transmission instance seeding about 5,000 torrents from a home server on a residential connection, that I access and manage remotely behind a SOCKSv5 proxy. I would set up an rTorrent/ruTorrent instance on the seedbox in a similar way (Nginx reverse proxy to daemon listening on localhost).
Currently with a provider or used one before?
What is your Linux experience?
Professional development and systems administration for a sizeable public-sector organization.
What is your monthly budget?
Payment preferences or requirements?
PayPal or debit preferred, Bitcoin not preferred.
Do you need support for public trackers?
The content distribution model is novel as far as I know: an authenticated private swarm on Tier 1, with three public backups on Tier 2 and forthcoming support for FTP/HTTP seeds.
Routing: Tell us your continent:
I'm currently seeding about 1–2 Mbps from North America and would prefer a European location.
What kind of connection speeds do you need?
At least 150 Mbps guaranteed with 1 Gbps burst available.
How much monthly bandwidth is needed?
2 TB is a reasonable limit because the data is rather niche.
How much disk space do you need?
4 TB is a good minimum, as I've allocated that much space on my home server.
List some features you are looking for:
The ability to install custom ISO images would be nice, for example to use OpenBSD-current, but it's not a strict requirement. I'll make do with whatever Linux images the service offers, preferring Debian.
Anything else you think we should know?
Thanks for helping me out!
submitted by biotorrents to seedboxes [link] [comments]

The LIES of Chris Rabalais and AllSportsMarket
A) This is a work in progress. (trying to make this neater and add things that people post) These things have been collected from forums / posts in various places (official forums, reddit groups etc)..and are here to be sifted through and examined to see which are true and which are not. Anyone is welcome to comment both agreement or disagreement.
B) ANY CORRECTIONS please send a message and reference the lie number *** I want to remove false info ASAP*** Or make a post in this thread. If there is anything in this list that shouldn't be here, it will be removed.
C) If you'd like me to add a lie, PLEASE make a post in this thread! Include something like ADD THIS LIE and make a short description
d) ASM /Allsportsmarket / the company means any or all of the proxies and identities of CWH , NSEI, etc
A while back, Chris claimed people on reddit were "lying" and that he would respond "point by point" to any "lies" told by redditors. I have begun to compile a list of all of Chris' lies from various sources.

To Chris Rabalais / : You are more than welcome to respond "point by point". Please include a lie number...and respond and explain how it isn't a lie....


Lies of Chris Rabalais

1)This is and was an investment
He has always claimed this was an investment, and still does. He claims you will get a return...yet from the other side of his mouth, he makes sure to mention that this is a "donation." Not one of us would have donated to him without the chance of a return / profit. None of us. This was a Chris Rabalais...NOT an investment. Still to this day when askign for money he makes suree to put in DONATION but then out of the other side of his mouth he claims you will get a return..or profit..and says you are an investor / insider etc.....This is NOT an investment. This is a DONATION to a very inefficient "charity" claiming you will someday see a "return" on it.
2) Investors into ASM would get a return on their investment -- profit from it
He is still promising people a return...many people show a 'profit' on their account statement but are unable to cash out. Unable to withdraw etc...Chances are, If you have made a "profit" from this on paper, you cannot withdraw it.
3) He was in the process of registering the company shares with the SEC
The SEC has stated point blank he has taken NO STEPS to register the company shares. It is in the complaint.
4) The company shares were ABOUT to be registered, and once they did...they would have even more value and we would miss out unless we bought in
Not only did he say it was in process, he claimed many times they were very close to getting the shares registered and when they did, they would have more value..and investors would be sorry if we didn't jump in on this "rocketship".
5) Chris knows how to get the shares registered with the SEC or has any clue what he is doing in terms of registering the shares
According to the SEC , Chris Rabalais has no idea HOW to even get the shares registered...and that is in their complaint as well. Meanwhile for years Chris was claiming he knew what do do to get the shares registered.
6) "This may be the last chance to jump on this great opportunity"
How many times have we all heard this lie? This or that program is'll never get another chance at giving money to Chris Rabalais again...but then shockingly...there's another even better offer in a couple days/weeks...
7) If you don't give X amount of money right now , the lights might suddenly go out on ASM..and you'll lose your "investment"
Another lie they tell is that if you don't give money, they will go out of business and you will "lose your investment". Bullcrap , they're not shutting off their free money machine....until someone MAKES them. Oh and you have no investment. Two lies for the price of one.
8) This is not a ponzi scheme
Chris has addressed the ponzi issue only VERY briefly over the years. He recently claimed it isn't a ponzi because the "last guy in can still make money" but that would require MONEY coming in from he gets around the truth by omitting that its not the "guy" its the "last money in " which is nearly the same thing... the people who put their money in last will lose....that is a ponzi. The Judge in the Seth Leon case said so...and I hope another judge says so soon. (See here: )
9) The sports shares have value
Chris claims they have value because they area "claim on future dividends" which is a lie. That is not any definition of real or intrinsic value...and even if it was (it isn't, IMO) the claim on future dividends is a LIE because every penny of that future dividend money relies on new money coming into the market...which is a ponzi...which is valueless
10) You would be able to cash out (sell your holdings, pay off your bonus margin and keep your profits)
He changed the rules when the market started imploding. For years he promised investors they could sell their shares, pay off our margin and take our profits. No one would've bought in if they thought they could never do this. Even after he froze people's ability to cash out...he kept claiming that we would be able to soon...and urged people to buy more margin because all of the profits would be able to be kept.
11) Chris would stop selling margin
Recently, there was a conference call where key members of the team called for an end to the margin offers..NOT because they were a scam (they are) but because it was no longer possible to ignore the implosion of the pilot market and the collapse was being blamed on margin....Chris agreed to end margin and made announcements to this end. In a short time, he realized that promising people money on margin profit was his only he HAD to start selling margin again...He knows it is worthless, promised to stop selling it....and lied.
12) Different celebrities, politicians, business people were about to come on board and help us
PHIL COLLINS' WIFE!, Mark Cuban, Jon Bon FUCKING Jovi, Roger Goddell, Snoop Dogg, Brian Austin Green, Trump (speaker at zero club), Labron James, meetings with MLB people, Jack MA / Alibaba.......god knows how many other names this guy drops as potential people who are going to help or who we are 'reaching out' to in order to get them to help us. (help me add to this list)
13) ASM would have a "liquidity event" and be able to make money off of our company shares
There was going to be some liquidity event where we could sell our company shares to other investors...of course it never happened.
14) The new york times ad was going to be about ASM or helping our investment
There was NO MENTION of ASM or AllSportsMarket in the new york times ad and it didn't do a single thing to help ASM become a legitimate company. The only thing it did (from memory) was bash gambling.
15) The trips to Israel, funded by the investors, were something worthy of doing with the money...
Chris bragged and posted pictures of his trips to Israel...but what did they have to do with ASM? How was spending "donations" (investments) for him to go to Israel supposed to help the company? Clearly this was a waste.
16) the Hero club events he goes to (more travel) help ASM in any way whatsoever
I have never seen any evidence that spending who knows how much of the investors' money has been wasted on this,yet chris continues to act as if his membership in the Hero Club is a wise way to spend money...I have seen no evidence that the Hero club has done anything bust waste money.
17) donating to ASM is helping anyone or doing anything other than putting money in HIS pocket...
Quite simply, Chris "donates" 10% of the money given him, if we are to believe that. So He has given (according to him) 150k+ to a hunger charity. They have (according to Chris) matched this 7x, so the 150k donation has turned into a millionish dollars worth of charity. Sounds good right? Well in doing so, Chris has just wasted 90% of the money. Instead of 150k, had we all simply given our 1.5 million to this same charity....and they matched it 7x...we would have turned our money into 10+ million dollars for charity. So essentially, even by Chris' own numbers...we have wasted 9 million dollars of potential paying Chris's etc.. all so that he can take 90% and give 10% to me, this is wasteful and we would be better donationg directly to the 7x charity the entire 100% rather than wasting the 90%.
18) The ASM 'real market' was a real money market
Chris started the real market to fool us into thinking it was actual money. He later then changed the name to "pilot market" after taking people's REAL he could have the excuse "HEY this is a PILOT market!!!" when you cant withdraw...otherwise why call this a "real" market then suddenly change the name to "pilot"?
19) the ASM pilot market was going to transition with your holdings to a 'regulated' or 'exempt market' and you would be able to keep your profit from the pilot market
So it has been promised to us that the pilot (which was the real market) market will transition to another market..where.....where you'll STILL be able to keep your BUYING BONUS MARGIN lol....
20) If there is a good enough plan, Chris will happily step down in January 2020 and let someone else change the direction of the "company"
Chris claims "give him till December" and if no one is happy he will step aside if that's what everyone wants...IF there is a plan he likes..LOL..we will see...but I am guessing he will not.
21) The pilot market is working
He has claimed the pilot market is working and proves that ASM is functional...yet the market has collapsed and he has frozen everyone's accounts from withdrawing..or paying off margin..etc...but the real/pilot market has been a disaster. Here is him contradicting himself and admitting that the pilot market does NOT work : . This is an admission thatthe pilot market as it is now is busted and will never work without being completely re-designed (revenue sharing etc). The worst part of this is he KNOWS the pilot market is not working yet he is still selling margin to buy stocks on this market.....that to me is criminal. How can he do this?
22) The learning market is working and proves that the math and numbers are correct and functional
Claims have been made the learning market is working..LOL...anyone who has touched the learning market knows it is completely dysfunctional...and not any kind of advertisement or positive experience...
23) Bonus margin has some sort of value other than to put money in his pocket
He claims bonus margin has value. It doesn't. Its worthless. If he tries to deny this..ask him why he is selling it if it has no value? Ask him how he plans on turning something with 0 value into something with value. This is the core of his scam right now..selling WORTHLESS bonus margin with no value for real money...which he donates 10% of and the rest goes to expenses...and his salary & rent etc...
24) Chris "had alper" double check the math in 2009 , and the market math is fine..
Oh in one of the videos, Chris claims he had Alper check the math in 2009 and alper told him the numbers work. This is such utter horseshit, and mainly designed to deflect responsibility for the failure of the he can blame it on Alper. Chris knows the math doesn't work. Alper knows the math doesn't work..and Alper & Chris know that margin is worthless...and they know the market is a failure...they have to know this...
25) special clubs like "ASM Black", "Insider programs", "Advisory Councils" etc etc are anything other than him trying to get even more money out of your pocket
All of these programs are just designed to get you to give them more money..there is no real benefit to being a member in them. The insider program just basically stopped people from being able to withdraw sooner....who knows what ASM black was..and this advisory council...what was that? Give Chris 100$ to listen to more youtube rants? Ok...whatever new club or council they will come up with next is a bunch of crap designed to make you feel special as you give them your hard earned money.
26) The NDA he sent via email before spamming you with more ads is legally binding
We all know the NDA he sent via e-mail was was hilarious.....and unenforceable....
27) They would provide investors with financial documents / audit / detailed information at the end of October 2019
Yeah so will we ever get to see the "audit" ? Doubt it...they are not transparent with any pertinent info. Who is paid what? Who holds what shares? What shares have been granted to who? What money was paid by NSEI to who , and for what? "Seal of transparency" my ass.
28) The SEC filing suit against him could be viewed as a positive in some ways
I forget how he worded it but he basically claimed the SEC suit was some sort of opportunity for something positive for him. The one positive thing I can think of is it stopped him from getting more money from suckers...
29) He didn't "really" lose the case against Seth Leon
He made all kinds of excuses and claims the only reason he lost against Seth Leon is because Seth Leon sent the papers to an old address....LOL (see here: ) Make NO mistake..Chris LOST the case. The court found "AMPLE EVIDENCE" of fraud by Chris Rabalais.
30) It was Trump's fault (Govt shutdown) that he didn't get paperwork done with the SEC
LOL...I hope this is what he tells the Judge
31) It was Jason's fault that "a letter" wasn't sent to the SEC regarding the NRHL
Blame it on a guy who doesn't work for the company any more...
32) It is alper's fault the math/numbers don't work because Chris asked alper to "check the numbers" in 2009
Blame this on Alper.....when he has known for YEARS the numbers do not work
33) there were "saboteurs" who tried to wreck the "deal" with NRHL, who came from reddit..*but luckily they saved the deal!
Remember the saboteurs? remember how they "saved" the deal with the NRHL? Remember how the NRHL was going to be huge for ASM? Yeah none of these things were true....MAYBE a guy (gregson?) tried to contact the NRHL to find out if they were even real.. but NO ONE thought the NRHL was going to be a good thing..and NO ONE wanted to transition their money to a market led by roller derby..because it was and is a stupid idea.
34) There were lawyers (zero club? friends?) who were going to help with the SEC defense for free
Chris had an army of lawyers, some of the best in the country and who had never lost...but yet he had to beg the court for a free lawyer because he can't get a lawyer to represent him...LOL
35) "secured by blockchain" - Chris claims this tech is in use now but what is it exactly other than bullshit?
On one of his latest videos he claims the blockchain technology is protecting the ASM market right now...BS. There is no technology that I have seen. There hasn't been anything said about what this even is or does. Ace hasn't even been heard from since around August has he? They can't even get an android app...the blockchain bullshit is just more jargon and buzzwords...trying to get you to give them money...there is nothing behind this "secured by blockchain" trademark...other than words...otherwise why not explain exactly what it is, and how it works ..etc...
36) Chris is going to counter sue the SEC and prove that he is a legitimate business
LOL.. with his free lawyer?
37) All cryptocurrencies are a SCAM
Notice he screams and cries FRAUD at many things, but he is a fraud himself. Typical tactic...accuse others of what you are doing. Also, there is some real value in some cryptos, like bitcoin...unlike a sports share on ASM. Its called 'proof of work' ...that has real value that can even be electricity use, processing power etc...I am not arguing it has a lot of value, or even that it is as valuable as the price....but it is above zero, unlike a share in a sports team on ASM. I'm also not an expert nor to I condone investing in crypto...
38) Gambling is more of a problem than ASM / NSEI
Again, he screams and cries about how dirty Gambling is...but at least legal gambling is regulated, and you have a chance to win. Unlike ASM...
39) They were working on an Android app , and needed donations for it
One of the reasons I donated early on was because of seeing the IOS app, and the promises of making an android app.In fairness this might not have been a lie....but if theyre not going to make an android app , then say so.
41) They lied by omission and did not tell investors about the SEC suit until August 2019
So someone else came and announced the SEC lawsuit on the reddit forum in August 2019. There is some strong evidence that Chris knew about this in April 2019 or even earlier like maybe Oct 2018...and if he knew about it before it was announced , then he witheld this information from all of us..
42) The NFL / MLS "Deals"
We very nearly had a deal with the NFL and MLS...or have / had a chance to make deals with them...its all bullshit. The guy cant even make a deal with roller derby leagues...and we are expected to believe he is making deals with major leagues?
43) Wefunder / Crowd Funding
We started the process to sell shares through we-funder....but they turned us down. Guess what Chris "forgot" to tell us all? THE REASON they turned us down...because ASM / CWH doesn't pass the "smell test"? What was the reason? It seems like maybe the reason was the UNREGISTERED SECURITIES? I mean there had to be a reason..what was it?
44) Share Buyback
They were going to buy back company shares from investors....and at times stated the shares were so valuable they would gladly buy them back for X amount because they were sure to go up in price...but when push comes to shove they NEVER will buy this worthless junk back......even for 1 penny. A lot of the 'tyes men' have stated they would also buy shares back from unhappy investors but of course they never do this in reality.
45) Telling the truth, even if it is harmful to Chris / ASM is some type of Slander or Libel
Chris would like you to think that calling him out on fraud and lies is some type of "libel" or "slander" but as anyone knows...telling the truth is not slander or libel. He is trying to scare people from telling the truth. Blowing the whistle on his fraud is NOT slander or libel. Period. He is the CEO of a company that he sold shares of stock in, fraudulently. He must and will be held accountable.
46) The market cap number is a legitimate indicator of the validity of ASM
Chris love to throw around market capitalization numbers (4 Billion LOL) as if they mean anything at all or indicate that this market is healthy. They include the learning market (fake money) and the margin (also fake money). If you subtract the learning market, the bonus margin, and the money "used" by chris for data, rent, cars have pretty much zero market cap in reality.
47) ASM has a way of checking if an investor is accredited: See here: . In my understanding , one of the ways (in some cases) un-registered securities can be sold is if it is to an "accredited" investor. The SEC has said Chris has no means of checking this. I would personally believe the SEC at this point....and I will count this as a lie until it is proven that Chris / ASM actually does have a way of legitimately checking accreditation.
48) The reason Chris withheld the fact the SEC was investigating him and suing him was because the SEC told him he couldnt tell us.
BULLSHIT. In the audio Chris makes absurd claims that he couldnt tell "investors" of his problems with the SEC because they told him not to talk about it. Yet meanwhile he kept taking money from investors as if everything was fine..KNOWING that trouble was brewing and KNOWING that the shit was going to hit the fan. Show me a letter by the SEC that says he can't warn his investors of an impending action by them SHOW IT TO US. If you show this to us, I'll remove this lie. It doesnt make any sense because the SEC exists to protect us from predators like Chris , so why would they tell him he cannot warn us of problems with the SEC????? MAKES ZERO SENSE. Does not pass the smell test. This is a lie by omission..taking our money , pretending things are fine....but KNOWING problems are coming. The bottom line: Chris didnt say SHIT about this anywhere that I know of until AFTER it was posted publicly that the lawsuit was filed...I heard about this online before it was ever mentioned by chris in any conference call or statement by him.
49) Not sure if this is technically a "lie" or not but the guy / ASM has at least 10 twitter are a few of them: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) (not 100% on this one but it looks fake) ..etc..... It looks as if this one: has a bunch of bots or paid 'farm' followers. So, while not a 'lie' exactly...very odd and shady behavior.
50) In the "Investors Q& A" found here: They failed to disclose the Seth Leon case, the failed attempt at bankruptcy discharge of the fraud debt, and failed to disclose the debt owed to Seth Leon. So they lied in the sections about Legal Problems and they Lied in the sections about Debt. This is in a Q&A involving potential ionvestors so they are lying to potential investors about the risks.

51) Chris will "fact check" and respond to every accusation made against him and prove that these things are lies told by "known liars"
So a couple of weeks ago, Chris said he would fact check all of the "lies" told about I thought I would do him a big favor and make a huge list. His claim was that everyone saying all of these things are "known liars" and none of these things is true. He says they are all bogus "claims" made by "liars." He said he would refute these"claims." Well guess what asshole? Every songle person reading this is probably a victim of yours, and they KNOW all of these things aren't "claims" ... they are facts. I have done my best here to stick to things that are universal..that we have all witnessed as investors.
Now (shockingly) chris refuses to "fact check" any of these "lies." He says he will respond only if you sign your name and send him a private e-mail or make a post on his censored and controlled website where he has to approve any post before it is seen by the public... So I will add this as yet another lie. He will never refute SHIT. He is a thief and a liar. and a con man....and CAN"T refute anything said above. Period. More than likely if anyone posted this list on his forums, he would NEVER allow it to how is anyone supposed to get this list "fact checked"? The only Known liar here..well..I think we all know who that is...
You would think he might want to address these things publicly instead of making people ask via e-mail and leaving a cloud of suspicion for potential investors to see..and maybe he would rather answer one time,rather than a bunch of separate e-mails......but I guess when there are literally no answers to any of these things, the only solution is to try and hide it more...
submitted by 707NorCaL707 to ASMEunfiltered [link] [comments]

node information on explorers

I'm trying to set my first c-lightning node with docker-compose using image from currently, my node can connect and open channel with other nodes (and I can open a channel to the node just fine), but it's still not updated (ie. has no information) on most explorers.
the following is result of getinfo and listconfigs
getinfo { "id": "03db40337c2de299a8fa454fdf89d311615d50a27129d43286696d9e497b2b027a", "alias": "TestName", "color": "fff000", "num_peers": 3, "num_pending_channels": 0, "num_active_channels": 3, "num_inactive_channels": 0, "address": [ { "type": "ipv4", "address": "", "port": 9735 } ], "binding": [ { "type": "ipv4", "address": "", "port": 9735 } ], "version": "v0.7.1-906-gf657146", "blockheight": 601917, "network": "bitcoin", "msatoshi_fees_collected": 0, "fees_collected_msat": "0msat" } listconfigs { "# version": "v0.7.1-906-gf657146", "lightning-dir": "/root/.lightning", "wallet": "sqlite3:///root/.lightning/lightningd.sqlite3", "plugin": "/uslocal/bin/../libexec/c-lightning/plugins/pay", "plugin": "/uslocal/bin/../libexec/c-lightning/plugins/autoclean", "plugin": "/uslocal/bin/../libexec/c-lightning/plugins/fundchannel", "network": "bitcoin", "allow-deprecated-apis": true, "always-use-proxy": false, "daemon": "false", "rpc-file": "lightning-rpc", "rgb": "fff000", "alias": "HubTest", "bitcoin-rpcuser": [redacted], "bitcoin-rpcpassword": [redacted], "bitcoin-rpcconnect": "bitcoind", "bitcoin-retry-timeout": 60, "pid-file": "", "ignore-fee-limits": false, "watchtime-blocks": 144, "max-locktime-blocks": 2016, "funding-confirms": 3, "commit-fee-min": 200, "commit-fee-max": 2000, "commit-fee": 500, "cltv-delta": 14, "cltv-final": 10, "commit-time": 10, "fee-base": 0, "rescan": 15, "fee-per-satoshi": 1, "max-concurrent-htlcs": 30, "min-capacity-sat": 10000, "bind-addr": "", "announce-addr": "", "offline": "false", "autolisten": true, "disable-dns": "false", "enable-autotor-v2-mode": "false", "encrypted-hsm": false, "log-level": "DEBUG", "log-prefix": "lightningd(7):" } 
is there something wrong with this configuration? or is it another issue?
I understand that explorers update their node list irregularly, and as far as the node can open channels (and can be connected), everything is fine. but this thing has bugging me for weeks.
thank you~
submitted by 17hubest to lightningnetwork [link] [comments]

IoT Testing !!!

IoT is a whole ecosystem that contains intelligent devices equipped with sensors (sensors) that provide remote control, storage, transmission and security of data. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an innovative solution in various areas such as healthcare, insurance, labor protection, logistics, ecology, etc. To unleash the full potential of using IoT devices, it is necessary to solve many problems related to standards, security, architecture, ecosystem construction, channels and device connection protocols. Today in the world, large organizations such as NIST, IEEE, ISO / IEC, and others make enormous efforts in addressing the issues of standardization, security, and the architecture of developed devices. Analysis of recent scientific research in the field of solving information security issues and data privacy of IoT devices showed positive results, but these methods and approaches are based on traditional methods of network security. The development and application of security mechanisms for IoT devices is a complex and heterogeneous task. In this regard, ensuring information security and the protection of sensitive data, as well as the availability of IoT devices, is the main purpose of writing this article. Given the above, many questions arise related to the security status of IoT devices, namely: What are the current standards and protocols for IoT? What are the requirements for ensuring information security of IoT devices? What security mechanisms do IoT devices have? What methods of testing IoT devices exist? Manufacturers and developers of IoT devices do not pay enough attention to security issues. With the development of cyber-attacks, attack vectors are becoming more sophisticated and aimed at several infrastructure elements at the same time. IoT infrastructure typically includes millions of connected objects and devices that store and share confidential information. Scenarios of theft and fraud, such as hacking and falsifying personal data, pose a serious threat to such IoT devices. Most IoT devices use the public Internet to exchange data, which makes them vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Modern approaches to information security often offer solutions to individual problems, when multi-level approaches offer increased resistance to cyber-attacks.
Challenges of testing IoT devices
To a request to name essential items, many would answer: food, a roof over your head, clothes … With one caveat: this was the case in the last century.
Since then, the species Homo Sapiens has accumulated needs. We need automatic sensors to control the lighting, not just switches, for smart systems to monitor health and car traffic. The list goes on … In general, we can make life easier and better.
Let’s try to figure out how all this Internet of things works before moving on to testing.
IoT testing
What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? Examples of IoT devices # 1) Wearable technology: # 2) Infrastructure and development # 3) Health Technologies that are present in IoT IoT Testing # 1) Usability: # 2) IoT Security: # 3) Network features: # 4) Efficiency: # 5) Compatibility testing: # 6) Pilot testing: # 7) Check for compliance: # 8) Testing updates: IoT testing challenges # 1) Hard / soft # 2) Device Interaction Model # 3) Testing data coming in real time # 4) UI # 5) Network Availability IoT Testing Tools # 1) Software: # 2) Hard: Total What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? The Internet of things (or IoT) is a network that combines many objects: vehicles, home automation, medical equipment, microchips, etc. All these constituent elements accumulate and transmit data. Through this technology, the user controls the devices remotely.

Examples of IoT devices

# 1) Wearable technology: Fitbit Fitness Bracelets and Apple Watch smart watches sync seamlessly with other mobile devices.

IoT – watches and bracelets

Itís easier to collect health information: heart rate, body activity during sleep, etc.
# 2) Infrastructure and development The CitySense app analyzes lighting data online and turns lights on and off automatically. There are applications that control traffic lights or report on the availability of parking lots.
# 3) Health Some health monitoring systems are used in hospitals. The basis of their work is indicative data. These services control the dosage of drugs at different times of the day. For example, the UroSense application monitors the level of fluid in the body and, if necessary, increases this level. And doctors will learn about patient information wirelessly.
Technologies that are present in IoT RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), EPC (Electronic Product Code) NFC (ìNear Field Communicationî) provides two-way communication between devices. This technology is present in smartphones and is used for contactless transactions.
Bluetooth It is widely used in situations where near-field communication is sufficient. Most often present in wearable devices. Z-Wave. Low frequency RF technology. Most often used for home automation, lighting control, etc. WiFi. The most popular network for IoT (file, data and message transfer). IoT Testing Consider an example : a medical system that monitors health status, heart rate, fluid content, and sends reports to healthcare providers. Data is displayed in the system; archives available. And doctors are already deciding whether to take medication for the patient remotely.
IoT architecture
There are several approaches for testing the IoT architecture.
# 1) Usability: It is necessary to provide usability testing of each device. A medical device that monitors your health should be portable.
Sufficiently thought out equipment is needed that would send not only notifications, but also error messages, warnings, etc. The system must have an option that captures events, so that the end user understands. If this is not possible, event information is stored in the database. The ability to process data and exchange tasks between devices is carefully checked. # 2) IoT Security: Data is at the heart of all connected devices. Therefore, unauthorized access during data transfer is not ruled out. From the point of view of software testing, it is necessary to check how secure / encrypted the data is. If there is a UI, you need to check if it is password protected. # 3) Network features: Network connectivity and IoT functionality are critical. After all, we are talking about a system that is used for health purposes. Two main aspects are tested: The presence of a network , the possibility of data transfer (whether jobs are transferred from one device to another without any hitch). The scenario when there is no connection . Regardless of the level of reliability of the system, it is likely that the status of the system will be ìofflineî. If the network is unavailable, employees of the hospital or other organization need to know about it (notifications). Thus, they will be able to monitor the condition of the patient themselves, and not wait for the system to work. On the other hand, in such systems there is usually a mechanism that saves data if the system is offline. That is, data loss is eliminated. # 4) Efficiency: It is necessary to take into account the extent to which the healthcare solution is applicable in specific conditions. In testing, from 2 to 10 patients participate, data is transmitted to 10-20 devices. If the entire hospital is connected to the network, this is already 180-200 patients. That is, there will be more actual data than test data. In addition, it is necessary to test the utility for monitoring the system: current load, power consumption, temperature, etc. # 5) Compatibility testing: This item is always present in the plan for testing the IoT system. The compatibility of different versions of operating systems, browser types and their respective versions, devices of different generations, communication modes [for example, Bluetooth 2.0, 3.0] is extremely important for IoT. # 6) Pilot testing: Pilot testing is a mandatory point of the test plan. Only tests in the laboratory will allow us to conclude that the system is functional. In pilot testing, the number of users is limited. They make manipulations with the application and express their opinion. These comments turn out to be very helpful, they make a reliable application. # 7) Check for compliance: The system, which monitors the state of health, undergoes many compliance checks. It also happens that a software product passes all stages of testing, but fails the final test for compliance [testing is carried out by the regulatory body]. It is more advisable to check for compliance with norms and standards before starting the development cycle. # 8) Testing updates: IoT is a combination of many protocols, devices, operating systems, firmware, hardware, network layers, etc. When an update occurs – be it a system or something else of the above – rigorous regression testing is required. The overall strategy is being amended to avoid the difficulties associated with the upgrade.

IoT testing challengesIoT testing

# 1) Hard / soft IoT is an architecture in which software and hardware components are closely intertwined. Not only software is important, but also hard: sensors, gateways, etc.
Functional testing alone will not be enough to certify the system. All components are interdependent. IoT is much more complicated than simpler systems [only software or only hard].
# 2) Device Interaction Model Components of the network must interact in real time or close to real. All this becomes a single whole – hence the additional difficulties associated with IoT (security, backward compatibility and updates).
# 3) Testing data coming in real time Obtaining this data is extremely difficult. The matter is complicated by the fact that the system, as in the described case, may relate to the health sector.
# 4) UI An IoT network usually consists of different devices that are controlled by different platforms [iOS, Android, Windows, linux]. Testing is possible only on some devices, since testing on all possible devices is almost impossible.
# 5) Network Availability Network connectivity plays an important role in IoT. The data rate is increasing. IoT architecture should be tested under various connection conditions, at different speeds. Virtual network emulators in most cases are used to diversify network load, connectivity, stability, and other elements of load testing . But the evidence is always new scenarios, and the testing team does not know where the difficulties will arise in the future.

IoT Testing ToolsIoT and software

There are many tools that are used in testing IoT systems.
They are classified depending on the purpose:
# 1) Software: Wireshark : An open source tool. Used to monitor traffic in the interface, source / given host address, etc. Tcpdump : This tool does a similar job. The utility does not have a GUI, its interface is the command line. It enables the user to flash TCP / IP and other packets that are transmitted over the network. # 2) Hard: JTAG Dongle: A tool similar to debuggers in PC applications. Allows you to find defects in the code of the target platform and shows the changes step by step. Digital Storage Oscilloscope : checks various events using time stamps, power outages, signal integrity. Software Defined Radio : emulates a transmitter and receiver for various wireless gateways. IoT is an emerging market and many opportunities. In the foreseeable future, the Internet of things will become one of the main areas of work for tester teams. Network devices, smart gadget applications, communication modules – all this plays an important role in the study and evaluation of various services.
Total The approach to testing IoT may vary depending on the specific system / architecture.
Itís difficult to test IoT, but at the same time itís an interesting job, since testers have a good place to swing – there are many devices, protocols and operating systems.
PS You should try out the TAAS format (“tests from the user’s point of view”), and not just fulfill the formal requirements.
Smart watches, baby-sitters, wireless gadgets and devices such as, for example, a portable radio station have long been part of everyday life.
Hackers have already proven that many of these attacks on IoT are possible.
Many people in general first learned about IoT security threats when they heard about the Mirai botnet in September 2016.
According to some estimates, Mirai infected about 2.5 million IoT devices, including printers, routers and cameras connected to the Internet.
The botnetís creators used it to launch distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, including an attack on the KrebsonSecurity cybersecurity blog.
In fact, the attackers used all devices infected with Mirai to try to connect to the target site at the same time, in the hope of suppressing the servers and preventing access to the site.
Since Mirai was first published on the news, attackers launched other botnet attacks on IoT, including Reaper and Hajime.
Experts say that such attacks are most likely in the future.
The Internet of Things (IoT) can bring many advantages to modern life, but it also has one huge drawback: security threats.
In its 2018 IOT forecasts, Forroter Research notes: ìSecurity threats are a major concern for companies deploying IoT solutions – in fact, this is the main task of organizations looking to deploy IoT solutions.
However, most firms do not regularly prevent IoT-specific security threats, and business pressure suppresses technical security issues. î
IoT security risks can be even more significant on the consumer side, where people are often unaware of potential threats and what they should do to avoid threats.
A 2017 IoT security survey sponsored by Gemalto Security Provider found that only 14 percent of consumers surveyed consider themselves IoT-aware.
This number is particularly noteworthy because 54 percent of the respondents owned an average of four IoT devices.
And these IoT security threats are not just theoretical.
Hackers and cybercriminals have already found ways to compromise many IoT devices and networks, and experts say that successful attacks are likely to increase.
Forrester predicted: “In 2018, we will see more attacks related to IoT … except that they will increase in scale and loss.”
What types of IoT security threats will enterprises and consumers face in 2018?
Based on historical precedent, here are ten of the most likely types of attacks.
  1. Botnets and DDoS attacks
  2. Remote recording The possibility that attackers can hack IoT devices and record owners without their knowledge is not revealed as a result of the work of hackers, but as a result of the work of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Documents released by WikiLeaks implied that the spy agency knew about dozens of zero-day exploits for IoT devices, but did not disclose errors, because they hoped to use vulnerabilities to secretly record conversations that would reveal the actions of alleged opponents of America.
Documents pointed to vulnerabilities in smart TVs, as well as on Android and iOS smartphones.
The obvious consequence is that criminals can also exploit these vulnerabilities for their vile purposes.
  1. Spam In January 2014, one of the first known attacks using IoT devices used more than 100,000 Internet-connected devices, including televisions, routers, and at least one smart refrigerator to send 300,000 spam emails per day.
The attackers sent no more than 10 messages from each device, which makes it very difficult to block or determine the location of the incident.
This first attack was not far from the last.
IoT spam attacks continued in the fall with the Linux.ProxyM IoT botnet.
  1. APTs In recent years, advanced persistent threats (APTs) have become a serious concern for security professionals.
APTs are carried out by funded and widespread attackers such as nation states or corporations that launch complex cyberattacks that are difficult to prevent or mitigate.
For example, the Stuxnet worm, which destroyed Iranian nuclear centrifuges and hacking Sony Pictures 2014, was attributed to nation states.
Because the critical infrastructure is connected to the Internet, many experts warn that APTs may launch a power-oriented IoT attack, industrial control systems, or other systems connected to the Internet.
Some even warn that terrorists could launch an attack on iOT, which could harm the global economy.
  1. Ransomware Ransomware has become too common on home PCs and corporate networks. Now experts say that it is only a matter of time before the attackers begin to block smart devices. Security researchers have already demonstrated the ability to install ransomware on smart thermostats. For example, they can raise the temperature to 95 degrees and refuse to return it to its normal state until the owner agrees to pay a ransom in Bitcoins. They can also launch similar attacks on garage doors, vehicles, or even appliances. How much would you pay to unlock your smart coffee pot first thing in the morning?
  2. Data theft Obtaining important data, such as customer names, credit card numbers, social security numbers, and other personal information, is still one of the main goals of cyber attacks.
IoT devices represent a whole new vector of attack for criminals looking for ways to invade corporate or home networks.
For example, if an improperly configured device or IoT sensor is connected to corporate networks, this can give attackers a new way to enter the network and potentially find the valuable data that they need.
  1. Home theft As smart locks and smart garage doors become more commonplace, it is also more likely that cybercriminals can become real thieves.
Home systems that are not properly protected can be vulnerable to criminals with sophisticated tools and software.
Security researchers are unlikely to have shown that itís quite easy to break into a house through smart locks from several different manufacturers, and smart garage doors do not seem to be much safer.
  1. Communication with children One of the most disturbing IoT security stories came from children.
One couple discovered that the stranger not only used his monitor for children to spy on their three-year-old son, this stranger also spoke with his child through the device.
Mother heard an unknown voice: ìWake up, boy, dad is looking for you,î and the child said that he was scared because at night someone was talking to him on an electronic device.
As more and more children’s gadgets and toys connect to the Internet, it seems likely that these frightening scenarios may become more common.
  1. Remote control of a vehicle As vehicles become smarter and more accessible on the Internet, they also become vulnerable to attack.
Hackers have shown that they can take control of a jeep, maximize air conditioning, change the radio station, start the wipers, and ultimately slow down the car.
The news led to the recall of 1.4 million cars, but whitehat researchers, following the original exploit, said they discovered additional vulnerabilities that were not fixed by the Chrysler patch applied to the recalled cars.
Although experts say the automotive industry is doing a great job of ensuring vehicle safety, it is almost certain that attackers will find new vulnerabilities in such smart cars.
  1. Personal attacks Sometimes IoT covers more than just devices – it can also include people who have connected medical devices implanted in their bodies.
An episode of the television series Homeland attempted a murder aimed at an implanted medical device, and former vice president Dick Cheney was so worried about this scenario that he turned off the wireless capabilities on his implanted defibrillator.
This kind of attack has not yet happened in real life, but it remains possible, as many medical devices become part of the IoT.
submitted by farabijfa to u/farabijfa [link] [comments]

Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading

Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
AX Trading LLC (AX), a technology-enabled registered broker-dealer and Alternative Trading System (ATS) operator, today announced a strategic partnership with Quant Network a pioneering technology company providing financial and regulatory technology as well as interoperability in financial services, payments and capital markets infrastructure. Through this partnership, Quant Network’s technology, Overledger a blockchain operating system, will enable universal interoperability for regulatory-compliant security tokens and digital assets to be traded on AX ATS, a regulated secondary trading market. AX intends to integrate Overledger to help foster the evolution of traditional capital markets infrastructure to facilitate the mass implementation of interoperable regulated digital assets. With the increased market adoption of digital assets and banking “coins” such as JPMorgan Coin, AX and Quant Network are at the forefront to enable the transferability and movement of digital assets. George O’Krepkie, AX CEO said: “we look forward to partnering with Quant. Their technology will allow our blockchain agnostic security token exchange to communicate seamlessly with issuers, traders, investors, and regulators across different blockchain protocols. This is a key technological breakthrough that will help us bring the benefits of security tokens to Main Street and Wall Street.” It is expected that the first interoperable digital asset offering may commence as soon as January 2020, and that the AX Trading ATS may be ready to enable and list interoperable digital assets and securities in 2020.
Let’s have a closer look at what that means to truly appreciate the significance of the partnership by covering the basics for those not familiar with wall street.

What is an Institutional Investor / Trader?

An institutional investor is an organization that invests on behalf of the organization's members. They consist of hedge funds, banks, investment banks, pension funds, insurance companies, endowment funds, or any other type of money management firm.
Institutional investors account for about three-quarters of the volume on the New York Stock Exchange (which alone handles more than $20 Trillion a year in volume). In the US, Institutional investors own about 80 % of the total market value of the equity (stock) market, which globally is worth more than $73 trillion.
Wall Street refers to the institutional investors I mentioned above whereas Main Street refers collectively to members of the general public who are not accredited investors and the overall economy as a whole.
Whilst the Equity Market is huge, Institutional investors also invest in other securities which are prime to be tokenised such as Real Estate Market (Globally worth $217 trillion), the Debt Market (Globally worth $215 trillion) and the Derivatives Market (Low end estimates at $544 trillion and high-end estimates at $1.2 quadrillion). All of which makes the current market cap for cryptocurrencies look like a drop in the ocean.

Who are AX Trading?

AX Trading is a SEC-registered broker-dealer and Alternative Trading System (ATS) Operator. They are a member of FINRA (Financial Industry Regulatory Authority)and SIPC ( Securities Investor Protection Corporation) regulated authorities. The SEC has some of the most stringent regulations in the world for listing securities and there are fewer than 50 SEC-registered Alternative Trading System Operators in the United States, of which only a handful are currently implementing Digital Assets. Others are awaiting regulatory approval with Coinbase, Circle etc are all looking at getting into this huge market.
AX Trading have investors and sponsored brokers including the likes of Credit Suisse, (a multinational investment Bank and Financial services company worth $27.5 billion). AX currently have over 800 Institutional traders (these are not individuals, but corporations such as hedge funds, banks, investment banks, pension funds, insurance companies, endowment funds etc).
AX Trading have also partnered with Euronext, the largest Stock Exchange in Europe with a market cap of $4.65 trillion as of 2018, in the creation of Euronext Block which utilises AX Trading.

What is an Alternative Trading System?

An Alternative Trading System (ATS) is an SEC-regulated trading venue which serves as an alternative to trading at a public exchange. ATS account for much of the liquidity found in publicly traded issues worldwide. They are known as multilateral trading facilities in Europe, electronic communication networks (ECNs), cross networks, and call networks
AX is the world’s first “Electronic Trading Network” (ETN) where institutional traders can proactively connect and trade with other counterparties in a secure environment. Unlike traditional stock exchanges/ECNs that show orders to everyone and traditional dark pools/crossing systems that show orders — presumably — to no one, AX allows institutional traders to pick and choose WHOM they want to notify and also WHAT information they want to share with them.
Institutional investors may use an ATS to find counterparties for transactions instead of trading large blocks of shares on national stock exchanges. These actions may be designed to conceal trading from public view since ATS transactions do not appear on national exchange order books. The benefit of using an ATS to execute such orders is that it reduces the domino effect that large trades might have on the price of an equity.

How does AX Trading Work?

The AX Trading process begins when one trader sends an “initiated” order to AX. The order can be routed to the AX ATS via one of our broker sponsors such as Credit Suisse. The initiated order triggers a “Call Auction” on AX, a period of time when the order will rest in AX to be matched against other orders from auction responders.
The Initiator of an AX auction decides who they want to invite to participate in the auction, whether they be all 800+ institutional members or targeted to specific ones, as well as how much info they want to disclose about the order. Based on these instructions, the AX ATS then notifies the members inviting them to participate in the trade.
The invited members can then participate in the trade by either placing buy orders of their own or placing sell orders. At the end of the AX auction period, all orders are brought together, and a match is performed.
In the traditional, continuous market with displayed bids and offers, traders are often chasing liquidity. In other words, the price may move away from them the more they buy or sell to what is commonly called “market impact.” On AX, the advantage of their call auction model is it brings liquidity — in the form of participant orders to the buyer rather than them chasing liquidity.

What is a Security Token?

Security Tokens are different than Utility Tokens or Cryptocurrencies. A security token is a digital representation of a traditional security. It may represent shares in a company, interest in a fund, real estate, art collectables, or essentially any asset a party can own. Anthony Pompliano wrote an article explaining tokenised securities in more detail which you can see here
Security Tokens are digital assets subject to federal security regulations. In layman terms, they are the intersection of digital assets (tokens) with traditional financial products — a new technology improving old things. If cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are considered “programmable money” then you can consider Security Tokens a version of “programmable ownership.” This means that any asset with ownership can and will be tokenized (public & private equities, debt, real estate, etc).
Quant Network community member David W also wrote an excellent piece on the benefits of tokenisation of assets in a lot more detail than what I will briefly cover here and strongly recommend you check it out.
The Tokenisation of assets is therefore inevitable, because it is a better way to record, exchange and monitor asset ownership for all parties involved. The amounts at stake represent many hundreds of trillions of US dollars

What are the benefits of a security token?

  • Lower Fees — having Smart Contracts and compliance programmed into the token itself removes the need for middlemen, reducing costs. Post Trade businesses such as clearing houses would also no longer be required further reducing costs.
  • 24/7 markets — Currently the major US stock markets trade between 9:30am and 3pm during weekdays only. Trading can be done 24/7 and globally whilst remaining compliant.
  • Fractional Ownership — This greatly increases liquidity for previously illiquid assets. Real estate, Artwork, even assets such as Oil Refineries are already in talks about being tokenised through Overledger. If you have an asset such as an oil refinery worth billions of dollars, then naturally this limits the market should you ever want to sell it. However with fractional ownership you could own a tiny percentage of it and receive profits from the oil refinery based upon the percentage you own, which exponentially increases the number ofpotential buyers, increasing liquidity.
  • Rapid Settlement — Currently it takes 3 working days to settle a securities trade, this can be reduced to minutes by having the asset and fiat represented on a blockchain and handled through smart contracts.
  • Automated compliance — Security tokens are programmable, and rules and regulations are hard-coded into the architecture of the token to ensure they always remain compliant. This means that they can be traded globally and still ensure they respect the relevant countries regulations that the participants are located in.
  • The benefits that a blockchain provide such as transparency, security, immutability, high availability. Regulators can also run a node and verify compliance in real time.

Security Token Issuance Platforms

Security token issuance platforms allow issuers to issue Security tokens that represent the security such as Shares in their company etc in return for capital. This is known as a Primary Market. Importantly it’s not just the issuance that they look after, it’s the whole life cycle of a digital security to ensure they remain continuously in compliance as they are traded etc. They also provide reporting to the issuer so they can see who owns the tokens and what dividends to pay out.
Securitize are one of the leading security tokens issuing platforms. They have created the DS Protocol, a blockchain agnostic protocol for security tokens which manages the whole lifecycle of a digital security, ensuring it remains continuously in compliance. They have issued a number of security tokens on the Ethereum network as well as recently working with IBM to tokenise the Corporate Debt Market (worth $82 Trillion). On the back of this they joined Hyperledger, an open source project which includes Enterprise blockchains such as Hyperledger Fabric which IBM is heavily involved with.
They recently also became the first SEC-registered transfer agent, which means Securitize can now act as the official keeper of records about changes of ownership in securities.
There are many companies in this sector which are utilising various blockchains, Other examples include:
  • Harber — R Token protocol for Ethereum
  • Polymath — ST20 protocol for Ethereum
  • Blockstate — a security token issuance platform recently announced plans to migrate a number of ERC-20 tokens from the public Ethereum blockchain to the permissioned blockchain R3 Corda
  • Dusk — Uses the Dusk blockchain
  • Own — Uses the Own blockchain
And many more such as Nefund, Bankex, Capexmove, Swarm, Symbiont, Tokeny etc

Trading Venues

Whilst the issuance platforms above generally also include their own exchange where the token can be traded on, secondary markets such as those offered through traditional stock exchanges and Alternative Trading Systems provide significantly more liquidity.
Traditional Stock Exchanges have been very active in blockchain with some going through proof of concepts, to those like SIX SDX Digital Exchange which is due to launch later this year. They are using various blockchains and cover the full process from Issuance, Trading and Post Trade / Settlement services. I have briefly outlined which blockchain they are using / testing with along with source to read more about it below:
  • Switzerland’s Stock Exchange — SIX Digital Exchange issue, trading, settlement, custody — Corda — Source
  • Largest Stock Exchange in Germany — Deutsche Borse Franfurt Stock Exchange — Corda — Source and Source
  • South Korea’s Stock Exchange — Korea Exchange — Hyperledger Fabric — Source and Source
  • Japan’s Stock Exchange — Tokyo Stock Exchange — Hyperledger Fabric — Source which the consortium has now grown to 44 companies. Tokyo Stock Exchange are also testing JP Morgan’s Quorum for voting on the blockchain — Source
  • London Stock Exchange Group — Hyperledger Fabric — Source . They are also invested in Nivaura which utilises Ethereum — Source
  • Largest Stock Exchange in Europe — Euronext — Permissioned Ethereum via Liquidshare — Source as well as recently investing in Tokeny a blockchain based project based on public version of Ethereum — Source
  • Singapore Stock Exchange — Ethereum — Source

Post Trade — Central Security Depositories

Situated at the end of the post-trading process, CSDs are systemically important intermediaries. They thereby form a critical part of the securities market’s post-trade infrastructure, as they are where changes of securities ownership are ultimately registered.
CSDs play a special role both as a depository, involving the legal safekeeping and maintenance of securities in a ‘central depository’ on behalf of custodians (both in materialised or dematerialised form); as well as for the issuer, involving the issuance of further securities by issuers, and their onboarding onto CSDs’ platforms.
CSDs are also keeping a number of other important functions, including: dividend, interest, and principal processing; corporate actions including proxy voting; payment to transfer agents, and issuers involved in these processes; securities lending and borrowing; and, provide pledging of share and securities.
Blockchain technology will enable real-time settlement finality in the securities world. This could mean the end of a number of players in the post-trade area, such as central counterparty clearing houses (CCPs), custodians and others. Central Security Despositories (CSD) will still play an important role according to reports:
“CSDs could have an important role to play in a blockchain-based settlement system. As ‘custodians of the code, CSDs could exercise oversight of, and take responsibility for, the operation of the relevant blockchain protocol and any associated smart contracts.” Euroclear Report
Another group of 30 central securities depositories (CSDs) in Europe and Asia are researching possible ways to “join hands” in developing a new infrastructure to custody digital assets. The CSDs will attempt to figure out how to apply their experience in guarding stock certificates to security solutions for crypto assets.
“A new world of tokenized assets and blockchain is coming. It will probably disrupt our role as CSDs. The whole group decided we will be focusing on tokenized assets, not just blockchain but on real digital assets.”
You can read more about how blockchain will affect CSD’s here
Examples of CSD’s in blockchain
  • SIX Digital Exchange and Deutsche Borse are utilising Corda as explained in the trading venues section
  • DTCC the largest in the US process 1.7 Quadrillion US Dollars of securities every year and are planning on moving their Trade Information Warehouse to Axoni’s AXCore Blockchain (Based on permissioned version of Ethereum) later this year — Source
  • Canada CDS are using the Quartz blockchain from Indian IT Services Company Tata Consultancy Services — Source
  • Euroclear in collaboration with the European Investment Bank (EIB), Banco Santander, and EY are developing a blockchain solution — Source
  • French CSD’s too soon go live on Setl Blockchain — Source and Source
  • Russia’s National Settlement Depository is launching a blockchain project using D3ledger (based off Hyperledger) — Source

The Importance Of Interoperability

The evolution of DLT and the wide adoption across industries and across different market segments is resulting in many different ledgers networks, but the ultimate promise of DLT can only be realized when all ledger networks can seamlessly interoperate. — from the recent DTCC whitepaper with Accenture
Some challenges and constraints related to the market infrastructure ecosystem remain open and will need to be addressed in the future to sustain the development of DLT platforms for trading and the post-trade process. At this stage, the questions of interoperability and standardization across these DLT (probably permissioned) platforms remain open and we may see a list of platforms offering no scope for interconnection. This will prevent them from fulfilling the key “distribution” criterion of DLT. Another related challenge that may determine whether or not the technology is adopted is the ability to provide Delivery versus Payment (DvP) settlement, in particular in central bank money. Nevertheless, it is worth mentioning that settlement can also be facilitated in commercial bank money. —
It’s clear from the above that interoperability will be crucial in order to unlock the true potential of Distributed Ledger Technology. Issuance platforms will seek to interoperate with as many secondary exchanges as possible to provide maximum liquidity for issuers. Issuance platforms and secondary exchanges are each using a wide range of different blockchains that all need to interoperate as part of the trade process. CSD’s will also need to have interoperability between other CSD’s as well as to the secondary exchanges (again each using different blockchains).

Enter Quant Network’s Overledger

Quant Network’s blockchain operating system, Overledger, provides interoperability between any current and future distributed ledger technology as well as easily connecting Off Chain / Legacy networks as well as plans to connect directly to the Internet. Within 10 months it has proven it can provide interoperability with the full range of DLT technologies from all the leading Enterprise Permissioned blockchains such as Hyperledger, R3’s Corda, JP Morgan’s Quorum, permissioned variants of Ethereum and Ripple (XRPL) as well as the leading Public Permissionless blockchains / DAGs such as Bitcoin, Stellar, Ethereum, IOTA and EOS as well as the most recent blockchain to get added Binance Chain. All without imposing restrictions on connected chains, being Internet scalable and able to easily integrate into existing networks / infrastructure.
Overledger a blockchain operating system, will enable universal interoperability for regulatory-compliant security tokens and digital assets to be traded on AX ATS, a regulated secondary trading market. AX intends to integrate Overledger to help foster the evolution of traditional capital markets infrastructure to facilitate the mass implementation of regulated digital assets. With the increased market adoption of digital assets and banking “coins” such as JPMorgan Coin, AX and Quant Network are at the forefront to enable the transferability and movement of digital assets
Overledger enables Universal Interoperability where digital assets can move across blockchains so that they can interact with smart contracts on different blockchains. It does this by locking the asset on one blockchain and then representing it on another blockchain either by creating a representing token or representing it via metadata. This will enable all of these different parties such as Issuance platforms, Exchanges, CSD’s, traders etc to move the digital asset from their respective blockchain onto AX Trading’s platform for secure, immediate and immutable trading to take place. Potentially it would even allow Digital Assets / Securities to settled on a public permissionless blockchain such as the recently connected Binance Chain in a completely safe, secure and compliant way.
Regulators would be able to run a node and view transactions in real time ensuring that compliance is being kept. Potentially they could also benefit from using Quant Networks Multichain Search capability to be able to fully track assets as they move across blockchains.
George O’Krepkie, AX CEO said: “we look forward to partnering with Quant. Their technology will allow our blockchain agnostic security token exchange to communicate seamlessly with issuers, traders, investors, and regulators across different blockchain protocols. This is a key technological breakthrough that will help us bring the benefits of security tokens to Main Street and Wall Street.”


AX Trading have also partnered with Securrency (who have previously tokenised over $260 million in real estate assets). Securrency provide a protocol that enables security tokens to remain in compliance regardless of what blockchain the token is on. Due to the layered approach that Overledger has adopted from the learnings of TCP/IP, this protocol can be easily integrated on top of Overledger to enable security tokens to move across blockchains as well as ensuring they remain in compliance with regulations programmed into the token.

Delivery vs Payment (DvP)

A DvP transaction involves the settlement of two linked obligations, namely the delivery of securities and the payment of cash. DvP avoids counterparties being exposed to principal risk, i.e. the risk that the seller of securities could deliver but would not receive payment or that the buyer of securities could make payment but would not receive delivery. Following this requirement, a DvP securities settlement mechanism has to ensure that the delivery of securities and the payment of cash are linked in a way where one leg (obligation) of the securities trade is conditioned to the final settlement of the other leg (obligation) of the trade. Thereby final settlement is defined as “the irrevocable and unconditional transfer of an asset or financial instrument, or the discharge of an obligation by the FMI or its participants in accordance with the terms of the underlying contract”. — STELLA — a joint research project of the European Central Bank and the Bank of Japan
We have seen how Overledger can provide interoperability for the securities to move across Issuers platforms, integrate with Stock exchanges, Central Security Depositories and AX Trading. Now we need to be able to ensure that payment is guaranteed and in a way that offers immediate settlement which is irrevocable. To do this we need to represent FIAT on the blockchain so that it can interact with smart contracts and settle transactions on the blockchain.

J.P.Morgan’s Coin

J.P.Morgan is the largest bank in the United States and ranked by S&P Global as the sixth largest bank in the world by total assets as of 2018, to the amount of $2.535 trillion.
J.P. Morgan was the first U.S. bank to create and successfully test a digital coin representing a fiat currency. The JPM Coin is based on blockchain-based technology enabling the instantaneous transfer of payments between institutional clients.
With J.P.Morgan’s $2.6 trillion balance sheet, expertise in blockchain and global payments network, J.P. Morgan can seamlessly and securely transfer and settle money for clients around the world. J.P. Morgan are supervised by banking regulators in the United States and in the international jurisdictions in which it operates.

How does JPM Coin work?

A Buyer purchases JPM coins in advance which get represented on the Permissioned Quorum blockchain ($1 =1 JPM Coin). Quant Network’s Overledger could then provide interoperability to lock those tokens on Quorum and represent those onto another blockchain / AX Trading’s Network. By being able to represent securities and FIAT on the same blockchain (even though the underlying assets are on different blockchains) this provides instant finality / settlements to occur.
Once the seller receives the JPM coin in exchange for the securities they have sold they will be able to redeem them for USD. It also doesn’t necessarily mean that they have to have a JP Morgan account to redeem them, you could imagine in the future that the Bank instead redeems the JPM Coin and credits the users account. Similarly the buyer of the security token redeems the represented token and unlocks the security token on the original blockchain.
You can read more about JP Morgan’s Coin here as well as its use cases
J.P Morgan is betting that its first-mover status and large market share in corporate payments — it banks 80 percent of the companies in the Fortune 500 — will give its technology a good chance of getting adopted, even if other banks create their own coins. “Pretty much every big corporation is our client, and most of the major banks in the world are, too,” Farooq said. “Even if this was limited to JPM clients at the institutional level, it shouldn’t hold us back.”
Overledger enables different securities tokens / digital coins representing FIAT currencies to be brought together from the various permissioned / permissionless blockchains onto one platform where trading / settlement can take place. Overledger is the only technology that can do this today across the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains as well as existing networks, all in a secure, scalable and easy to integrate way.
Quant Network are working with AX Trading to bring more digital assets, securities and tokenised assets to their existing 800 institutional traders in an already live and connected FINRA and SEC regulated exchange. AX Trading is not just about trading securities but other digital assets such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and potentially even Quant in the Future.
This is a multi-trillion dollar market with huge global enterprises, traditional exchanges and global banks are all adopting DLT at a rapid pace and going into production at scale in a matter of months, examples include the NYSE Bakkt launching Bitcoin futures later this month, Swiss Stock Exchange ($1.6 Trillion market Cap) is due to launch their digital exchange running on Corda (SDX) by the end of the year. The DTCC are due to launch their Trade Information Warehouse which processes $10 Trillion of cleared and bilateral derivatives by the end of the year. JP Morgan who transfer $6 Trillion every day are due to launch their JPM coin at the end of year and AX Trading is due to offer their first digital asset by January 2020.
Quant Network’ Overledger enables the bridging of traditional finance infrastructure with the new decentralised finance infrastructure DeFi of the future, helping to redefine Wall Street and Capital Markets.
submitted by xSeq22x to QuantNetwork [link] [comments]

Era Swap Network White Paper

Era Swap Network White Paper

Era Swap Network

White Paper

This Whitepaper is for Era Swap Network. Its purpose is solely to provide prospective community members with information about the Era Swap Ecosystem & Era Swap Network project. This paper is for information purposes only and does not constitute and is not intended to be an offer of securities or any other financial or investment instrument in any jurisdiction.
The Developers disclaim any and all responsibility and liability to any person for any loss or damage whatsoever arising directly or indirectly from (1) reliance on any information contained in this paper, (2) any error, omission or inaccuracy in any such information, or (3) any action resulting therefrom
Digital Assets are extremely high-risk, speculative products. You should be aware of the risks involved and fully consider before participating in Digital assets whether it’s appropriate for you. You should only participate if you are an experienced investor with sophisticated knowledge of financial markets and you fully understand the risks associated with digital assets. We strongly advise you to take independent professional advice before making any investment or participating in any way. You should check what rules and protections apply to your respective jurisdictions before investing or participating in any way. The Creators & community will not compensate you for any losses from trading, investment or participating in any way. You should read whitepaper carefully before participating and consider whether these products are right for you.


· Abstract
· Introduction to Era Swap Network
· Development Overview
· Era Swap Utility Platform
· Alpha-release Development Plan
· Era Swap Network Version 1: Specification
· Bunch Structure: 10
· Converting ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
· Conclusion:
· Era Swap Ecosystem
· Social Links


The early smart contracts of Era Swap Ecosystem like TimeAlly, Newly Released Tokens, Assurance, BetDeEx of Era Swap Ecosystem, are deployed on Ethereum mainnet. These smart contracts are finance-oriented (DeFi), i.e. most of the transactions are about spending or earning of Era Swap tokens which made paying the gas fees in Ether somewhat intuitive to the user (withdrawal charges in bank, paying tax while purchasing burgers) but transactions that are not token oriented like adding a nominee or appointee voting also needs Ether to be charged. As more Era Swap Token Utility platform ideas kept appending to the Era Swap Main Whitepaper, more non-financial transaction situations arise like updating status, sending a message, resolving a dispute and so on. Paying extensively for such actions all day and waiting for the transaction to be included in a block and then waiting for enough block confirmations due to potential chain re-organizations is counter-intuitive to existing free solutions like Facebook, Gmail. This is the main barrier that is stopping Web 3.0 from coming to the mainstream.
As alternatives to Ethereum, there are few other smart contract development platforms that propose their own separate blockchain that features for higher transaction throughput, but they compromise on decentralization for improving transaction speeds. Moreover, the ecosystem tools are most advancing in Ethereum than any other platform due to the massive developer community.
With Era Swap Network, the team aims to achieve scalability, speed and low-cost transactions for Era Swap Ecosystem (which is currently not feasible on Ethereum mainnet), without compromising much on trustless asset security for Era Swap Community users.

Introduction to Era Swap Network

Era Swap Network (ESN) aims to solve the above-mentioned problems faced by Era Swap Ecosystem users by building a side-blockchain on top of Ethereum blockchain using the Plasma Framework.
Era Swap Network leverages the Decentralisation and Security of Ethereum and the Scalability achieved in the side-chain, this solves the distributed blockchain trilema. In most of the other blockchains, blocks are a collection of transactions and all the transactions in one block are mined by a miner in one step. Era Swap Network will consist of Bunches of Blocks of Era Swap Ecosystem Transactions.


Layer 2

Scalable and Secure

A miner mines all the blocks in a bunch consequently and will commit the bunch-root to the ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet.

Development Overview
Initially, we will start with a simple Proof-of-Authority (PoA) based consensus of EVM to start the development and testing of Era Swap Ecosystem Smart Contracts as quickly as possible on the test-net. We will call this as an alpha-release of ESN test-net and only internal developers will work with this for developing smart contracts for Era Swap Ecosystem. User’s funds in a Plasma implementation with a simple consensus like PoA are still secured as already committed bunch-roots cannot be reversed.
Eventually, we want to arrive on a more control-decentralized consensus algorithm like Proof-of-Stake (PoS) probably, so that even if the chain operator shuts down their services, a single Era Swap Ecosystem user somewhere in the world can keep the ecosystem alive by running software on their system and similarly more people can join to decentralize the control further. In this PoS version, we will modify the Parity Ethereum client in such a way, that at least 50% of transaction fees collected will go to the Luck Pool of NRT Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet and rest can be kept by miner of the blocks/bunch of blocks if they wish. After achieving such an implementation, we will release this as a beta version to the community for testing the software on their computers with Kovan ERC20 Era Swaps (Ethereum test-net).

Era Swap Decentralised Ecosystem
Following platforms are to be integrated:
  1. Era Swap Token Contract (adapted ERC20 on Ethereum) The original asset will lie on Ethereum to avoid loss due to any kind of failure in ESN.
  2. Plasma Manager Contract (on Ethereum) To store ESN bunch headers on Ethereum.
  3. Reverse Plasma Manager Contract (on ESN) Bridge to convert ES to ES native and ES native to ES. User deposits ES on Mainnet Plasma, gives proof on ESN and gets ES native credited to their account in a decentralised way.
  4. NRT Manager Contract (on Ethereum or on ESN) If it is possible to send ES from an ESN contract to luck pool of NRT Manager Contract on Ethereum, then it’s ok otherwise, NRT Manager will need to be deployed on ESN for ability to add ES to luck pool.
  5. Era Swap Wallet (React Native App for managing ESs and ES natives) Secure wallet to store multiple private keys in it, mainly for managing ES and ES native, sending ES or ES native, also for quick and easy BuzCafe payments.
  6. TimeAlly (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
  7. Assurance (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
  8. DaySwappers (on ESN) KYC manager for platform. For easily distributing rewards to tree referees.
  9. TimeSwappers (on ESN) Freelance market place with decentralised dispute management.
  10. SwappersWall (on ESN) Decentralised social networking with power tokens.
  11. BuzCafe (on ESN) Listing of shops and finding shops easily and quick payment.
  12. BetDeEx (on ESN) Decentralised Prediction proposals, prediction and results.
  13. DateSwappers (on ESN) Meeting ensured using cryptography.
  14. ComputeEx (on Ethereum / centralised way) Exchange assets.
  15. Era Swap Academy (on ESN / centralised way) Learn. Loop. Leap. How to implement ES Academy is not clear. One idea is if content is constantly being modified, then subscription expired people will only have the hash of old content while new content hash is only available to people who have done Dayswapper KYC and paid for the course. Dayswapper KYC is required because this way people won’t share their private keys to someone else.
  16. Value of Farmers (tbd) The exchange of farming commodities produced by farmers in VoF can be deposited to warehouses where the depositors will get ERC721 equivalent tokens for their commodities (based on unique tagging).
  17. DeGameStation (on ESN) Decentralised Gaming Station. Games in which players take turns can be written in Smart Contract. Games like Chess, Poker, 3 Patti can be developed. Users can come to DeGameStation and join an open game or start a new game and wait for other players to join.

Alpha-release Development Plan
  1. Deploying Parity Node customized according to Era Swap Whitepaper with PoA consensus.
  2. Setting up Plasma Smart Contracts.
  3. Creating a bridge for ERC20 Swap from Ethereum test-net to ESN alpha test-net.

Alpha Version
Era Swap Network Version 1 : Specification
The Version 1 release of ESN plans to fulfill the requirements for political decentralisation and transparency in dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem using Blockchain Technology. After acquiring sufficient number of users, a version 2 construction of ESN will be feasible to enable administrative decentralization, such that the Era Swap Ecosystem will be run and managed by the Era Swap Community and will no longer require the operator to support for it's functioning.
Era Swap Network (ESN) Version 1 will be a separate EVM-compatible sidechain attached to Ethereum blockchain as it’s parent chain. ESN will achieve security through Plasma Framework along with Proof-of-Authority consensus for faster finality. The idea behind plasma framework is to avoid high transaction fees and high transaction confirmation times on Ethereum mainnet by instead doing all the ecosystem transactions off-chain and only post a small information to an Ethereum Smart Contract which would represent hash of plenty of ecosystem transactions. Also, to feature movement of Era Swap Tokens from Ethereum blockchain to ESN using cryptographic proof, reverse plasma of Ethereum on ESN will be implemented.
Also, submitting hash of each ESN blocks to ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum would force ESN to have a block time equal to or more than Ethereum’s 15 second time as well as it would be very much costly for operator to post lot of hashes to an Ethereum Smart Contract. This is why, merkle root of hashes of bunch of blocks would instead be submitted to ESN Plasma Smart Contact on Ethereum.
Actors involved in the ESN:
  1. Block Producer Nodes Lesser the number of nodes, quicker is the block propagation between block producers which can help quick ecosystem transactions. We find that 7 block producers hosted on different could hosting companies and locations reduces the risk of single point of failure of Era Swap Ecosystem and facilitates 100% uptime of dApps. Block Producer Nodes will also be responsible to post the small information to the Blockchain.
  2. Block Listener Nodes Rest of the nodes will be Block Listeners which will sync new blocks produced by the block producer nodes. Plenty of public block listener nodes would be setup in various regions around the world for shorter ping time to the users of Era Swap Ecosystem. Users would submit their Era Swap Ecosystem transactions to one of these public nodes, which would relay them to rest of the Era Swap Network eventually to the block producer nodes which would finalize a new block including the user transaction.
  3. Bunch Committers This will be an instance in the block producers which will watch for new blocks confirmed on ESN and will calculate bunch merkle roots and will submit it to ESN Plasma Smart Contract. This instance will also post hash of new Ethereum blocks to ESN (after about 10 confirmations) for moving assets between both the blockchain.
  4. Users These will be integrating with dApps which would be connected to some public ESN nodes or they can install a block listner node themselves. They can sign and send transactions to the node which they are connected to and then that node will relay their transactions to block producer nodes who would finalise a block including their transaction.

Bunch Structure

A Bunch Structure in Smart Contract will consist of the following:
• Start Block Number: It is the number of first ESN block in the bunch.
• Bunch Depth: It is Merkle Tree depth of blocks in the bunch. For e.g. If bunch depth is 3, there would be 8 blocks in the bunch and if bunch depth is 10, there would be 1024 blocks in the bunch. Bunch depth of Bunches on ESN Plasma Contract is designed to be variable. During the initial phases of ESN, it would be high, for e.g. 15, to avoid ether expenditure and would be decreased in due course of time.
• Transactions Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the transaction roots in the bunch. This is used by Smart Contract to verify that a transaction was sent on the chain.
• Receipts Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the receipt roots in the bunch. This is used to verify that the transaction execution was successful.
• Timestamp: This value is the time when the bunch proposal was submitted to the smart contract. After submission, there is a challenge period before it is finalised.

Converting ES-ERC20 to ERC-NA and BACK

On Ethereum Blockchain, the first class cryptocurrency is ETH and rest other tokens managed by smart contracts are second class. On ESN, there is an advancement to have Era Swaps as the first class cryptocurrency. This cryptocurrency will feature better user experience and to differentiate it from the classic ERC20 Era Swaps, it will be called as Era Swap Natives (ES-Na). According to the Era Swap Whitepaper, maximum 9.1 Million ES will exist which will be slowly released in circulation every month.
Era Swaps will exist as ES-ERC20 as well as in form of ES-Na. One of these can be exchanged for the other at 1:1 ratio.
Following is how user will convert ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
  1. User will give allowance to a Deposit Smart Contract, and following that call deposit method to deposit tokens to the contract.
  2. On transaction confirmation, user will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit string for the user. This string is generated by fetching all the transactions in the Ethereum Block and generating a Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block and the Receipts Patricia Merkle Proof to confirm that the user’s transaction was successful.
  3. Using the same portal, user will submit the generated proofs to a Smart Contract on ESN, which would release funds to user. Though, user will have to wait for the Etheruem block roots to be posted to ESN after waiting for confirmations which would take about 3 minutes. Once, it’s done user’s proofs will be accepted and will receive exact amount of ES- Na on ESN.
Following is how user will convert ES-Na to ES-ERC20:
  1. ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, user will simply send ES-Na to a contract.
  2. User will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit for the user. Again ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof is enough to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block. Another thing which will be generated is the block inclusion proof in the bunch.
  3. User will have to wait for the bunch confirmation to the Plasma Smart Contract and once it’s done, user can send the proof to the Plasma Smart Contract to receive ES-ERC20.


Since the blocks are produced and transactions are validated by few block producers, it exposes a possibility for fraud by controlling the block producer nodes. Because ESN is based on the Plasma Model, when failure of sidechain occurs or the chain halts, users can hard exit their funds directly from the Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum by giving a Proof of Holdings.

HOld ES Tokens Swapping with New ES Tokens

The old ES Tokens will be valueless as those tokens will not be accepted in ESN because of NRT (New Released Tokens) and TimeAlly contracts on mainnet which is causing high gas to users, hence reducing interactions. Also, there was an event of theft of Era Swap Tokens and after consensus from majority of holders of Era Swap Tokens; it was decided to create a new contract to reverse the theft to secure the value of Era Swap Tokens of the community. Below is the strategy for swapping tokens:
TimeAlly and TSGAP: Majority of Era Swap Community have participated in TimeAlly Smart Contract in which their tokens are locked for certain period of time until which they cannot move them. Such holders will automatically receive TimeAlly staking of specific durations from the operator during initialization of ESN.
Liquid Tokens: Holders of Liquid Era Swap Tokens have to transfer the old tokens to a specified Ethereum wallet address managed by team. Following that, team will audit the token source of the holder (to eliminate exchange of stolen tokens) and send new tokens back to the wallet address.

Post-Genesis Tokens Return Program

Primary asset holding of Era Swap tokens will exist on Ethereum blockchain as an ERC20 compatible standard due to the highly decentralised nature of the blockchain. Similar to how users deposit tokens to an cryptocurrency exchange for trading and then withdraw the tokens back, users will deposit tokens to ESN Contract to enter Era Swap Ecosystem and they can withdraw it back from ESN Contract for exiting from ecosystem network. The design of the token system will be such that, it will be compatible with the future shift (modification or migration of ESN version 1) to ESN version 2, in which an entirely new blockchain setup might be required.
To manage liquidity, following genesis structure will be followed:

Holder ES-ERC20 ES-Na
Team Wallet 1.17 billion (Circulating Supply) 0
Locked in Smart Contract 7.93 billion (pending NRT releases) 9.1 billion
Though it looks like there are 9.1 * 2 = 18.2 Billion ES, but the cryptographic design secures that at any point in time at least a total of 9.1 billion ES (ES-ERC20 + ES-Na) will be locked. To unlock ES-Na on ESN, an equal amount of ES-ERC20 has to be locked on Ethereum and vice-versa.
9.1 billion ES-ERC20 will be issued by ERC20 smart contract on Ethereum Blockchain, out of which the entire circulating supply (including liquid and TimeAlly holdings) of old ES will be received to a team wallet.
TimeAlly holdings of all users will be converted to ES-Na and distributed on ESN TimeAlly Smart Contract by team to the TimeAlly holders on their same wallet address.
Liquid user holdings will be sent back to the users to the wallet address from which they send back old ES tokens (because some old ES are deposited on exchange wallet address).
ES-Na will be issued in the genesis block to an ESN Manager Smart Contract address. It will manage all the deposits and withdrawals as well as NRT releases.

Attack Vectors

Following are identified risks to be taken care of during the development of ESN:
Network Spamming: Attackers can purchase ES from the exchange and make a lot of transactions between two accounts. This is solved by involving gas fees. A setting of 200 nanoES minimum gas price will be set, which can be changed as per convenience.
DDoS: Attackers can query public nodes for computationally heavy output data. This will overload the public node with requests and genuine requests might get delayed. Block producers RPC is private, so they will continue to produce blocks. To manage user’s denial of service, the provider in dApps needs to be designed in such a way such that many public nodes will be queried simple information (let’s say latest block number) and the one which response quickly to user will be selected.
AWS is down: To minimize this issue due to cloud providers down, there will be enough nodes on multiple cloud providers to ensure at least one block producer is alive.
User deposit double spending: User deposits ES on Ethereum, gets ES-Na on ESN. Then the issue happens that there are re-org on ETH mainnet and the user’s transaction is reversed. Since ETH is not a fixed chain and as per PoW 51% attack can change the blocks. As Ethereum is now enough mature and by statistics forked blocks are at most of height 2. So it is safe to consider 15 confirmations.
Exit Game while smooth functioning: User starts a hard exit directly from Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum, then spends his funds from the plasma chain too. To counter this, the exit game will be disabled, only when ESN halts, i.e. fails to submit block header within the time the exit game starts. This is because it is difficult to mark user’s funds as spent on ESN.
Vulnerability in Ecosystem Smart Contracts: Using traditional methods to deploy smart contracts results in a situation where if a bug is found later, it is not possible to change the code. Using a proxy construction for every ecosystem smart contract solves this problem, and changing a proxy can be given to a small committee in which 66% of votes are required, this is to prevent a malicious change of code due to compromising of a single account or similar scenario.
ChainID replay attacks: Using old and traditional ways to interact with dApps can cause loss to users, hence every dApp will be audited for the same.


Era Swap Network is an EVM-compatible sidechain attached to the Ethereum blockchain through Plasma Framework. This allows off-chain processing of Era Swap Ecosystem transactions and posting only the hash of the bunch to Ethereum. This greatly reduces the high network fee and confirmation time issues faced by the current Era Swap Ecosystem DApps deployed on Ethereum. Also, having a separate EVM-compatible blockchain tailored to Era Swap Ecosystem improves the user experience to a higher extent. Since by design, Plasma Framework makes the Era Swap Network as secure as the Ethereum Network, user's funds on the network would be secure as well.
We believe Era Swap Network will help scale dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem to onboard the increasing numbers of users.

Era Swap Ecosystem
Era Swap Ecosystem consist of multiple interlinked platforms which is powered by Era swap (ES) token, a decentralized utility token to be used on below utility platforms. Users can access the Platforms through Era Swap Life which is the Single Sign on (SSO) gateway to the one world of Era Swap Ecosystem.
Era Swap Life:
TimeAlly DApp -> Decentralized Token Vesting:
BetDeEx -> Decentralized prediction platform:
Swappers Wall -> Social Time Ledgerise:
TimeSwappers -> Global P2P marketplace:
BuzCafe -> Connects local P2P outlets:
DaySwappers -> Unique Affiliate Program:
Era Swap Academy -> E-mart for skill development:
Value of Farmers (VOF) -> Farming ecosystem: coming soon
ComputeEx -> P2P lending and borrowing: coming soon
DateSwappers -> Next gen dating: coming soon
Smart Contract address

Era Swap Token (ES)

Newly Released Token (NRT)

TimeAlly DApp

BetDeEx DApp

White Paper
Era Swap Whitepaper:
Era Swap Light Paper:

Howey Test
Howey Test:

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