Bitcoin Public and Private Keys - dummies

Questions about private keys

Can a bitcoin private key be used for other altcoins (e.g. litecoin, ethereum)? Will they have the same public addresses as well? Are there exceptions to this?
Why do some people store their bitcoin private key as base 64, base 58, WIF, or anything other than Hexadecimal?
submitted by megabrains113 to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Partially redeeming a Casascius physical bitcoin - help request

Overview of problem
I have a Casascius physical bitcoin and I am unable to add its digital contents to a wallet. It seems that the key is not the right length or format. I started to get out of my depth with talk of things like a Minikey format.
I removed the hologram when I was given it years ago as I was curious what was under there. I don't want to sell it instead I want to add its 1 BTC value to a wallet so I can partially redeem it and keep the physical brass as a collectible.
What I have observed and tried (apologies in advance for butchering terms)
I've searched several sites, including here and haven't been able to find a current answer for the new style of keys and wallets.
I put the seven character code from the hologram into the casascius.uberbills dot com site and it gives me a 33 character key, tells me it's version 2 and confirms that it has a 1 BTC value
I've tried to import it into a Blockchain wallet but get the error "this private key does not match the watch only address above" when I enter the private key under the hologram. For some reason it seems like a different public address is generated when I enter the 33 char code.
I tried to import it into a Jaxx Liberty wallet but it doesn't recognise the minikey or 33 char code as valid.
I've basically run up against my level of knowledge and don't know what the next steps are of if I'm missing something bleeding obvious. I double and triple checked any data entry because I saw this was a common problem.
I'd really appreciate any help or pointers the community can give me.
Thanks
Edit:
Solution
I followed the advice given by u/murbul in reply to my post
You might struggle to find a wallet that natively supports MINI keys these days since it's an old format that never really took off apart from Casascius coins. So your best bet is to use a tool to convert it to a real private key (starting with 5) and import/sweep that into a wallet.
You can convert it on the Wallet Details tab of https://www.bitaddress.org/ - For 1 BTC I'd be paranoid enough to recommend downloading the source and doing everything offline: https://github.com/pointbiz/bitaddress.org
I used the site and one of the keys generated was one starting with '5' (Private Key WIF). I used this in Jaxx Liberty in the 'Paper Wallet Import' function under tools and it came right across.
I’m very happy.
submitted by PickledNumbat to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Blockchain-Free CloudCoin Claims Secure Email-to-Email Transactions

Blockchain-Free CloudCoin Claims Secure Email-to-Email Transactions
A new digital currency called CloudCoin sets out to address some of the main issues with the current batch of cryptocurrencies by removing the blockchain technology.
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CloudCoin announced the launch of its cloud-based digital currency on July 15. With no blockchain, public ledger, accounts or encryption, CloudCoin claims it is the most private digital currency ever created.
It uses technology adapted from the internet’s Domain Name Service, or DNS, to enable secure email-to-email or email-to-wallet transactions. CloudCoin says that it eliminates systemic risk of theft by not requiring private keys which can be stolen, and that lost CloudCoins can even be recovered.

Not Bitcoin, not blockchain

Since the release of the Bitcoin white paper back in 2008, cryptocurrencies have been inextricably linked with the blockchain technology that underpins them. But what if a currency was secured with a technology other than blockchain? Would it even still be classed as a cryptocurrency?
CloudCoin set out to address some of the issues that come with blockchain-based digital currencies. President of the CloudCoin Consortium, Sean Worthington, explained:
“Cryptocurrencies built on blockchains come with a host of challenges, making it difficult to do simple things like buy a cup of coffee. Transactions take too long, fees are too high and it is still too difficult to scale. We developed CloudCoin to overcome these challenges and pave the way for mass adoption.”

Low energy consumption means free transactions

The global Domain Name System services billions of users, is scalable, and has not been brought down since it went live in 1985.
CloudCoin’s Redundant Array of Independent Detection Agents, or RAIDA, is based on this technology and is currently distributed across 25 national jurisdictions. The cloud-based network uses so little power that these transactions can be made with zero gas fees.
Plus, even if governments or hackers try to take the RAIDA down, the currency supposedly can’t be double-spent, hacked or spied upon. RAIDA knows nothing about who owns the coins, as its purpose is simply to authenticate. All of the information about the coins is held directly in the coins themselves.

Cash-like qualities, but digital

Each CloudCoin is a file, consisting of a serial number and authentication data. The authentication data is shredded, rather than encrypted, and distributed across the RAIDA. This method is claimed to be quantum-secure.
Much like cash, the owner of the file has the authentication data and can control the coin. When ownership is transferred, the new owner changes this data to ensure exclusive ongoing access.
Transfer speeds depend on the number of coins that need to be authenticated, but the RAIDA can routinely secure transactions of 100,000 CloudCoins in under 3.5 seconds.
Because CloudCoins are file-based, they can be transferred via the free encrypted email service, ProtonMail, or with a Sky Wallet. ProtonMail also lets users pay for its premium services with Bitcoin (BTC), although as Cointelegraph reported, it hasn’t cashed any out to fiat in years.
Of course, being file-based, CloudCoin can’t be subdivided or split, and comes in set denominations of one, five, 25, 100 and 250 CloudCoin units. The currency is not inflationary and the total number of coins in the cloud never changes from 16,777,216, which is fixed by the length of the serial number in bytes.
To avoid a rash of copycat coins springing up, CloudCoin has also patented its “Method of Authenticating and Exchanging Virtual Currencies,” making it what is claimed to be the world’s first patented currency.
submitted by voron7477 to voron7477 [link] [comments]

HEX: answers to your question

HEX is an ERC20 token that got propelled in December 2019. Hex is the main high-intrigue blockchain authentication of store. Positioning dependent on the exchange, HEX is the #3 application on the Ethereum. HEX cryptographic money keeps on having an effective first month. About 50K in Ethereum got changed into HEX coin, and over a billion dollars in Bitcoin got guaranteed. Richard Heart, Founder of HEX, expressed, "HEX is as of now a triumph with 10k in addition to clients, and it's increasing all the more consistently. The innovation works extraordinary, and I am exceptionally content with it," He further expressed, "We have an incredible network, which is delivering astonishing advancement and improvement. The biological system continues showing signs of improvement as every day passes." HEX is a Bitcoin-connected Investment Scheme, that clients will have the option to twofold their cash. "Gracious, it would appear that a trick, I realize that," says Richard Heart, the author of the questionable new cryptographic money HEX. Addressing Tone Vays' Bitcoin Law Review digital broadcast, he concedes that, "on the off chance that you don't investigate it, it would seem that each other trick." This is the thing that makes HEX one of a kind (Updated on December 14: trades, where HEX is accessible, have been included) HEX is "intended to increment in esteem quicker than everything else ever," and clients can gain enthusiasm of up to 369%, contingent upon the measure of HEX they stake. Does this sound unrealistic? All things considered, for some crypto specialists and observers it does. Various specialists either confirm that HEX looks suspicious or that it most certainly is a trick, albeit some point out that it isn't actually a Ponzi trick, regardless of appearances. How is HEX expected to function Here's a concise diagram of how HEX should function, as indicated by its own site. Singular financial specialists can acquire HEX by doing both of three things: 1) demonstrating they claim a specific measure of Bitcoin (BTC) by marking an exchange with their private key; 2) trading Ethereum (ETH) for HEX; or 3) alluding a companion. When clients have HEX, they are then urged to 'stake' the token (for example keep it secured a keen agreement). This wins them intrigue (paid in HEX), which changes relying upon to what extent they keep their HEX staked and the amount of the general inventory of HEX is staked by all clients. "HEX pays stakers swelling," organizer Richard Heart discloses to Cryptonews.com. "After day 353 HEX has all things considered 3.69% swelling, and it's postponed as it's just paid toward the finish of a stake, and stakes can be as long as 5,555 days in length." The HEX site makes reference to that keeping an extent of HEX staked will expand the estimation of unstaked HEX. The thing is, there's no basic rationale, instrument or power by which unstaked HEX procures an incentive in any case.
HEX important links: Website: https://hex.win/ Twitter page: https://twitter.com/HEXCrypto Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/HEXcrypto Telegram page: https://t.me/HEXcrypto Github: https://github.com/bitcoinHEX Reddit page: https://hexcrypto.reddit.com/ Medium page: https://medium.com/hex-crypto/ Ann: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4523610.0
Author information; Bitcointalk username: Tessyad Bitcointalk profile: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2577720;sa=summary
submitted by Tessyad to Cryptocoinworld [link] [comments]

HEX: answers to your question

HEX is an ERC20 token that got propelled in December 2019. Hex is the main high-intrigue blockchain authentication of store. Positioning dependent on the exchange, HEX is the #3 application on the Ethereum. HEX cryptographic money keeps on having an effective first month. About 50K in Ethereum got changed into HEX coin, and over a billion dollars in Bitcoin got guaranteed.
Richard Heart, Founder of HEX, expressed, "HEX is as of now a triumph with 10k in addition to clients, and it's increasing all the more consistently. The innovation works extraordinary, and I am exceptionally content with it," He further expressed, "We have an incredible network, which is delivering astonishing advancement and improvement. The biological system continues showing signs of improvement as every day passes."
HEX is a Bitcoin-connected Investment Scheme, that clients will have the option to twofold their cash.
"Gracious, it would appear that a trick, I realize that," says Richard Heart, the author of the questionable new cryptographic money HEX. Addressing Tone Vays' Bitcoin Law Review digital broadcast, he concedes that, "on the off chance that you don't investigate it, it would seem that each other trick." This is the thing that makes HEX one of a kind (Updated on December 14: trades, where HEX is accessible, have been included)
HEX is "intended to increment in esteem quicker than everything else ever," and clients can gain enthusiasm of up to 369%, contingent upon the measure of HEX they stake.
Does this sound unrealistic? All things considered, for some crypto specialists and observers it does. Various specialists either confirm that HEX looks suspicious or that it most certainly is a trick, albeit some point out that it isn't actually a Ponzi trick, regardless of appearances.
How is HEX expected to function
Here's a concise diagram of how HEX should function, as indicated by its own site. Singular financial specialists can acquire HEX by doing both of three things: 1) demonstrating they claim a specific measure of Bitcoin (BTC) by marking an exchange with their private key; 2) trading Ethereum (ETH) for HEX; or 3) alluding a companion.
When clients have HEX, they are then urged to 'stake' the token (for example keep it secured a keen agreement). This wins them intrigue (paid in HEX), which changes relying upon to what extent they keep their HEX staked and the amount of the general inventory of HEX is staked by all clients.
"HEX pays stakers swelling," organizer Richard Heart discloses to Cryptonews.com. "After day 353 HEX has all things considered 3.69% swelling, and it's postponed as it's just paid toward the finish of a stake, and stakes can be as long as 5,555 days in length."
The HEX site makes reference to that keeping an extent of HEX staked will expand the estimation of unstaked HEX. The thing is, there's no basic rationale, instrument or power by which unstaked HEX procures an incentive in any case.
HEX links: Website: https://hex.win/ Twitter page: https://twitter.com/HEXCrypto Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/HEXcrypto Telegram page: https://t.me/HEXcrypto Github: https://github.com/bitcoinHEX Reddit page: https://hexcrypto.reddit.com/ Medium page: https://medium.com/hex-crypto/ Ann: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4523610.0
Author information; Bitcointalk username: Tessyad Bitcointalk profile: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2577720;sa=summary
submitted by Tessyad to CryptocurrencyICO [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Gemini Exchange Review 2020

Bitcoin Gemini Exchange Review 2020
If you are planning to place assets into cryptographic types of cash like Bitcoin or Ether, in any case, you do not understand where to start, this Gemini exchange review will help you with choosing.
Gemini Bitcoin Exchange Review 2020
You need yourself to be a productive advanced cash intermediary. By what technique will you become? To help you here's an exchange review, which will give every one of you the low down information required for a powerful enthusiasm for one of the most trusted in stages the Gemini Exchange.
We should find all the more right currently review
Gemini Review :
About Gemini Exchange
Twin kin developed Gemini Winklevoss in the year 2014. The Gemini exchange is arranged in New York. The Gemini crypto exchange is open in essentially all US states, similarly as UK, Canada, Puerto Rico, Singapore, South Korea, and Hong Kong. In 2016, Gemini transformed into the world's recently approved Ether exchange.
It positions 82th greatest exchange on earth as showed by 24-hour volume on Coinmarketcap. While Gemini Bitcoin and Gemini Ethereum trading volumes are high, the exchange is endeavoring with all undertakings to fight with those stages offering a predominant piece of the cryptographic types of cash, for instance, Binance.
Reinforced Currencies
Gemini offers crypto to fiat portions and a BTC/ETH grandstand, which makes it a quick contender to any similarity to Coinbase, Bitstamp, and Kraken. At present, it is one of the most respected and ensure about exchanges open. This is in light of the fact that it has more features to help secure customers against developers. Also, it is one exchange for the CBOE Bitcoin future settlement. Gemini Mobile application is directly available, which is amazingly basic and versatile to use.
How to use Gemini?

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1) Go to the official site and snap the "Register" tab on the upper right corner.
Enter your name, email address, and mystery word for your own record. While affirming your email address, it is critical to :
Affirm your email address and enter both your region and phone number, by then you can set up 2-Factor Authentication (2FA) which will be an additional layer of security to your record.
Incorporate your monetary equalization. Starting at now, Gemini recognizes simply bank moves and wires, as a methodology for putting away holds.
To check your record, move your organization ID proof. This will help you with executing and trade US Dollars. Moreover, it will help Gemini with as per the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) and Anti Money Laundering (AML) rules. The affirmation time may run from a couple to a couple of days.
Subsequent to completing of all the above strategies, you can use your record for financing.
gemini crypto exchange
2) Deposit Currency
In the Menu, click Transfer Funds, by then find a good pace Bank Transfer and Exchange. Enter the whole you have to store here. Moreover, note $500 consistently is the most extraordinary most extreme for Bank moves.
3) Trading Bitcoin and Ethereum
As you store by methods for bank move, they are quickly available for trading. you can purchase by encountering the menu and picking your supported trading pair. For example, for Bitcoin BTC/USD similarly as Ethereum ETH/USD.
In the wake of embeddings the expense and sum it will process your buy demand. There is another choice to trade by methods for the business community which has exhibit orders gave by various customers.
After the fulfillment of your purchase, your record will be acknowledged with your Ethereum just as Bitcoin purchases. You can sell your computerized cash on the Gemini crypto exchange. Regardless of the way that you can't make a withdrawal until your bank move has been completely arranged.
gemini sponsor organization
4)Trading Limits
By and by, For most trade strategies, there are no limitations on trades. In any case, Automated Clearing House (ACH) moves have the greatest store most remote purpose of $500 day and $15,000 consistently for singular record holders. Associations have a state of restriction for making ACH stores of $10,000 consistently or $300,000 consistently.
Gemini Marketplace
There is a Gemini business focus that runs 24*7. Here, you can have indistinguishable number of solicitations from you wish to have, with a variety of trading choices. These include:
Market Orders – With the present best open worth, the solicitations here starting dealing with quickly against resting orders.
Purpose of repression Orders – The sum is filled at or better than a given expense. The sum which isn't dispatched lays on the solicitation book diligently until it is filled or dropped.
Brief or Cancel (IOC) Limit Orders – The sum is filled at or better than a given expense. The sum which isn't filled rapidly is dropped and doesn't lay on the perpetual solicitation book.
Maker or Cancel (MOC) Limit Orders – The sum lays on the solicitation book continually at a foreordained expense. Furthermore, the entire solicitation is dropped if there is any sum that can be filled immediately.
All solicitations made on this stage are totally sponsored and fill in as a full hold exchange. In any case, there is no edge trading Gemini. Despite that, reliably the customer's record equality should have more balance than the exceptional excitement on demand books. Also, all open solicitations decline your available leveling until they are fulfilled or dropped
Gemini Fees
In the event that there ought to be an event of moves, Gemini crypto exchange has a low cost technique and stage customers can store Bitcoin, Ether, at freed from charges for both bank and wire moves. In any case, banks will charge a cost for the customers to wire money to their Gemini account. Withdrawals on the stage are free and all customers will have 30 free withdrawals for each calendar month.
Any withdrawals more than this total will pull in costs comparable to the mining charges payable on either sort out. The costs are around 0.001 BTC or 100,000 Satoshi per trade on the Bitcoin Network and 0 GWei or 0 ETH per trade on the Ethereum Network.
MakeTaker charges
0.25% is the trading costs for both sellers(makers) and buyers(takers). If it shows up at certain trade volumes, charges will be reduced. The maker charge is 0% for 30-day trading volumes that outperform 5,000 Bitcoin or 100,000 Ether. For a comparable trading entirety, the taker run after will bubble to 0.10%.
Gemini uses dynamic maker and taker charge or reimbursement timetable, and sellers can get reimbursement on liquidity-creation trades. The particular entireties depend upon net trading volumes and the buy and sell extent over a multi day time allotment. The data are adjusted as expected and more information on charges can be found here.

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charges
Concerning purchases, the base purchase whole for Bitcoin is 0.00001 BTC, or 1000 satoshis, for Ether, the base sum is 0 .001 ETH
Security-at-Gemini
Bitcoin Gemini Reviews, is a strong exchange that has a better than average reputation in everyone. The exchange goes about as a way into the universe of cryptographic cash trading. This may be in light of the fact that various customers first quit concerning purchasing Bitcoin and Ethereum. In comprehension to Coinbase, Gemini has a near space. Wherein it allows its customers to make trade clearly to and from their records.
Gemini is a not too bad choice, for people looking to securely trade either Bitcoin or Ethereum. The exchange is a potential decision for new competitors to the market similarly as logically settled sellers who like to make trades by methods for their monetary adjusts.
Latest News
Dec 17, 2019: Well realized cash related pro association State Street picked Gemini exchange for the new propelled asset pilot adventure.
Nov 19, 2019: Gemini exchange wanders into NFT's and acquired Nifty Gateway Solution, a phase to buy Non-Fungible Tokens.
Nov 14, 2019: The exchange added Stop-Limit to the solicitations being executed on the stage.
Sep 11, 2019: Gemini dispatches Gemini Custody with 18 cryptographic types of cash
Sep 5, 2019: Gemini Clearing™, a totally electronic clearing and settlement answer for off-exchange exhibited by the stage
Aud 27, 2019: Gemini Joins the Silvergate Exchange Network
Aug 22, 2019: Gemini loosens up and reaches to Australia
April 15, 2019: Gemini wallet support Segwit
Gemini Bitcoin Exchange Review
Rundown: How to Buy Bitcoins by means of Gemini
Register a record at Gemini and check email code sent to you.
Set up two-factor validation (2FA).
Give checked ID as a major aspect of the confirmation procedure.
Include ledger.
Store cash by clicking "Move Funds", "Store into Exchange" and afterward picking the sort of bank move.
Snap "Purchase" catch and round out the buy structure to get BTC.
Is Gemini Safe?
Gemini is extremely worried about its clients' wellbeing, in this manner it utilize three arrangements of security...
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Gemini Comparison with Other Exchanget
To exchange bitcoins you have to initially peruse and think about various BTC trades...
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In Which Countries Is Gemini Available?
You can arrange bitcoins through Gemini nearly in any nation, yet discover where you can't...
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Guide: Buying BTCs at Gemini
It is anything but difficult to purchase bitcoins on Gemini trade, knowing the essential standards and prerequisites...
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FAQ
Discover to what extent the exchange takes, how to pull back BTCs and what strategies for...
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Practically equivalent to Bitcoin Exchanges
We have arranged a rundown of trades, notwithstanding Gemini, that can assist you with requesting bitcoins...
MORE
With developing worth and system, bitcoin is ready to turn into the main online resource in the realm of ventures.
Gemini bitcoin trade survey
This article is worried about one of the most well known trades with regards to BTC exchange, Gemini.
What Is Gemini?
Gemini is one of the realized digital money trades that offer an assortment of exchange apparatuses for speculators that have some involvement with the business. The organization that claims the stage is enrolled as LLC in New York State, USA, offering USD to BTC and USD to ETH exchange trade.
Purchase BTC at Gemini
Propelled in 2015, Gemini offers two unmistakable commercial centers, them being:
customary trade administrations;
bitcoin barters.
Upon its appearance, the stage offered its administrations in the US just, bit by bit including different nations all the while. The organization is possessed by the Winklevoss twins, who guarantee that they are have about 1% of the complete BTC volume.
Winklevoss siblings are Gemini's proprietors
Gemini Security
With regards to the wellbeing of your assets, Gemini applies three arrangements of safety efforts that should be referenced. To start with, the stage applies advanced money safety efforts by offering hot and cold stockpiling wallets, where cold wallets have multisig capacities to forestall hacking endeavors at your equalizations.
Gemini security
The subsequent measure is identified with the exchange where the entirety of the exchanges at Gemini are led through pre-financed accounts, implying that merchants and purchasers can't post orders on the off chance that they don't have adequate BTC or fiat monetary forms in their parities. Finally, the site security comprises of two-factor verification (2FA) and HTTP encryption of all data in regards to merchants and stage's exchanges from outsiders.
Accessible Payment Methods
As of now, Gemini acknowledges stores communicated distinctly in ACH (for US dealers) and wire moves (for every other person) communicated in USD. Credit or check cards, money stores, PayPal and numerous different alternatives are wanted to be remembered for the future however are not accessible at the present time.
Buy bitcoin by means of wire move
You ought to buy in to the Gemini news source since the organization will promote the new store strategy through that channel of correspondence.
Shouldn't something be said about Fees?
While saving or pulling back your assets communicated in fiat or computerized monetary forms, dealers would find that the administrations are done totally free. Then again, Gemini charges exchange expenses are charged dependent on a month to month net exchange volume. Taker charges can extend from 0.15% to 0.25% while creator expenses from 0% to 0.25%.
Expenses at the trade
Does Gemini Have Limits?
Cryptographic money and wire stores and withdrawals don't have any constraints forced on dealers, implying that in the event that you utilize the said administrations, you can buy, sell and pull back bitcoins with no deterrents. Singular American financial specialists utilizing ACH move, then again, have $500 every day and $15.000 month to month while institutional individuals have $10.000 day by day and $300.000 month to month store limits.
No restrictions for purchasing bitcoin
Gemini Comparison
When thinking about exchanging at any trade, you should hope to analyze the administrations, expenses and impediments with other comparative stages. In this manner, we have assembled an examination investigation where we benchmarked Gemini against two other well known decisions with regards to BTC buy: Kraken and Coinbase.
Gemini versus Kraken
Kraken, much the same as Gemini, acknowledges bank moves just, with the significant contrast being that Kraken permits 5 fiat cash stores. Notwithstanding bitcoin, there are 14 more altcoins that you can exchange with at Kraken while the two trades force check on their customers as they are both controlled organizations.
Gemini versus Kraken
Kraken is fundamentally the same as Gemini as far as expenses, as creatotaker charges go somewhere in the range of 0% and 0.26%. Bank moves do accompany little expenses at Kraken while Gemini acknowledges stores for nothing. In conclusion, while Gemini exchanges two or three nations in particular, Kraken is all around accessible.
Coinbase versus Gemini
Coinbase is viewed as one of the biggest bitcoin suppliers on the planet, offering its administrations in 32 nations, USA notwithstanding. The installment strategies at Coinbase are PayPal, bank moves and credit/check cards, two more than Gemini.
Request bitcoins by means of Coinbase trade
Confirmation is an absolute necessity have at Coinbase, much like in Gemini while expenses are a ton lower at Gemini, as you pay between 1.49% to 3.49% from exchange's an incentive at Coinbase. The two trades offer BTC vaults and wallet administrations while Coinbase additionally exchanges with Litecoin which are inaccessible at Gemini.
Gemini BTC Exchange in Different Countries
Gemini's administrations are accessible in a bunch of nations around the globe, them being the US (5 states not upheld), Canada, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and the United Kingdom. The five US expresses that are not bolstered are Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Oregon and Wisconsin.
Gemini trade in various nations
Is It Legal?
Gemini is an American LLC that adheres to New York Banking Law guidelines, actualizing BSA (Bank Secrecy Act) and AML (Anti-Money Laundry Compliance Program) arrangements, implying that customary reviews of the BSA/AML programs are being executed. Moreover, the firm requires all merchants to have reserves pre-saved before the exchange.
Bitcoin Gemini Price, is legitimate
Another significant factor of the stage's lawfulness is the way that since its beginning, Gemini has promptly accessible money related report dating 7 years back.
Does Gemini Support Its Customers?
Concerning the client service, Gemini has a thorough FAQ page where a large portion of the exchanging questions have been replied. Notwithstanding the FAQ, you can likewise top off a shape and present a solicitation to the Gemini group with respect to any issue that you may look on the stage.
Gemini client service
Because of the regular upkeep of the site's administrations, Gemini has a "Status" page where financial specialists can see which administrations and API instruments are working right now and which are definitely not.
Manual for Buy Bitcoins from Gemini
When you have gotten the cash at your Gemini account, click "Purchase" button on the dashboard page.
Buy page for bitcoins at Gemini
Presently, round out the structure on the right, giving request type, volume or estimation of BTC you wish to get and click "Purchase" to get bitcoins in your record immediately. Try to check the BTC cost at the upper left piece of the "Purchase" page to ensure it has not changed at the time you have begun the buy procedure.
Enrollment
It is totally allowed to enroll a record at Gemini bitcoin trade and the procedure begins once you click "Register" button at the upper right corner of the site. Give your complete name, email address and secret key in subsequent stage and snap "Make My Account".
Make account at Gemini
You will get an email code which you should duplicate glue into the Gemini's check page.
Contribution of enactment code on Bitcoin Gemini Registration
The accompanying advances will open up for you to finish, in this way you have to arrangement your 2FA security apparatus, include a financial balance and give checked ID to finish the enrollment methodology.
To what extent Should I Wait for Verification?
Check stage can take between an hour and a day, contingent upon various enlistment applications Gemini has right now you have begun the procedure. You ought to set up every single essential report before you start and arm yourself with persistence as a stage would set aside effort to process your data.
Confirmation process at Gemini
Would you be able to Get Bitcoins Without Verification?
At the enlistment page, you are required to check your personality and frog your financial balance. When you have presented the records, you can't enter the stage's exchange page until the help affirms your subtleties. In this way, it is unimaginable to expect to buy supply of bitcoins without confirmation.
Obligatory confirmation before purchasing BTCs at Gemini
How to Add Money to Account?
When you have finished the enrollment and confirmation of your record, click button "Move Funds", situated in the top segment of your dashboard page. In following stage, click "Store Into Exchange" and pick either USD or Wire alternative, contingent upon what financial balance you have included at enrollment stage.
Add assets to Gemini account
You can likewise store bitcoins in your Gemini wallet too.
Store BTCs in the Gemini wallet
At the last phase of wire move subsidizing process, you have to give bank's wiring data, for example, your record number and other significant data that can be found by clicking "Bank Settings".
Give bank's wiring data
When data has been given, basically click "Store" button which will show up at the base of the page.
Secure Your Account
Keep the entirety of your record and wallet passwords out of the programmer's compass by continually evolving them. Monitor the new secret key by keeping in touch with them down on a bit of paper as to not overlook them meanwhile.
Record with 2FA on trade
You as of now have 2FA from the enlistment stage and don't give your private data to some other dealer on the stage.
FAQ
To what extent Does It Take to Make Transaction?
It takes 4 to 5 days to store assets in your Gemini account while exchanges themselves are done following you the exchange started. Diverse request types have distinctive length, contingent upon what dealer wishes to accomplish.
Sitting tight for exchanges on the trade
Would i be able to Buy Bitcoin with PayPal at Gemini?
Now, brokers can't utilize PayPal as store technique at Gemini. You ought to buy in to the trade's news channel as to get warnings if the strategy opens up to store alternative later on.
Does Gemini Have a BTC Wallet?
The stage offers two kinds of wallet administrations, one being "hot" wallet and another being vault stockpiling. Both are based just, with the principle contrast being that vault stockpiling gives extra security keys that are utilized while moving bitcoins all through the wallet. Along these lines, vault administrations are esteemed as more secure than the standard BTC wallet.
Gemini wallet
Pulling back Your Bitcoins from Gemini
At the dashboard page, click "Move Funds" and afterward "Pull back From Exchange" to begin the procedure. Pick bitcoins to continue towards the withdrawal structure. Determine the measure of BTC you with to escape the trade and give your wallet address. Snap "Survey Withdrawal" and check the data. When you are fulfilled, click "Affirm" to end the procedure. Your coins will show up inside 24 hours to your ideal area.
Pull back BTC from Gemini
Instructions to Order BTC with Credit/Debit Card at Gemini
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Coinbase Exchange Review
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submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]

CLAMI THAT FREE HEX !!!1! or you could buy it, I guess...

CLAMI THAT FREE HEX !!!1! or you could buy it, I guess...
My No-coiner parent went to Home Depot to buy some edger line so I could do yard work, but they were worried that they got the wrong type, because it wasn't the circular round line we had before.
Nope, I don't see any problem here, It's not what I used before, but somehow it looks like destiny to me !

OK, lets do this !
How to Claim free Hex :

  1. You have your Bitcoin private keys in a Hardware Wallet. ( I hope!)
  2. You download the Electrum Bitcoin wallet
  3. You download the Metamask Chrome extention, this will be your Eth wallet
  4. Set up Metamask, log in, send a small amount of Eth to your Metamask Eth address
  5. You load my referral link to get +10 % on your Hex https://HEX.win/?r=0x2af5f89463e7803233EC5d37dEcadEb7DAa0107d
  6. You connect your Hardware wallet to your PC and unlock it
  7. You load Electrum
  8. Go to Addresses
  9. Go to tools, sign/verify message
  10. Go to go.hex.win
  11. Go to Claim link at the top, when it is live (5 hrs from now)
  12. Enter each of your receiving addresses from Electrum (NOT PRIVATE KEYS)
  13. You sign each statement with the sign function in Electrum
  14. You enter the signed statement back into the claim entry line
  15. You set your autostake time, I suggest at least 364 days, so you will for sure get the big payday. I also suggest you use the same stake length, so you can combine your bags at the end stake time
  16. You do this for every UTXO (receive addresses in Electrum)
  17. Once ALL of your UTXO's are claimed, then you will have some leftover hex, you can sell or stake this, your call
  18. When your stake ends, you unstake your coins on go.hex.win If you don't do this on time, your coins will be lost to penalties, don't forget the date !

How to buy Hex from the Adoption Amplifier :

  1. You download the Metamask Chrome extention, this will be your Eth wallet
  2. Set up Metamask, log in, send a moderate amount of Eth to your Metamask Eth address, only what you can afford to lose ! Not investment advice !
  3. You load my referral link to get +10 % on your Hex https://HEX.win/?r=0x2af5f89463e7803233EC5d37dEcadEb7DAa0107d
  4. Go to go.hex.win
  5. Go to the Transform link at the top of the page
  6. Look at all this insane amount of Eth being pumped into Richard's pocket, that is a lot of Eth, almost 14 THOUSAND ETH as of 5 hours before the end of day 1 !!!1! The more Eth sent here each day, the less Hex each sender gets, THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT
  7. Game theory : This amount of sent Eth will go down each day after day 1, on average, because everyone wants to be first, and excitement does not last. IMO, you should wait 1 week, until at least day 8. I believe the amount of Eth sent will go down by a factor of 10 or more, while the amount of Hex on offer will only go down 50 % or so, so you can 5x your stack, if you can just delay your time preference a little bit. Trust me, I was in an almost identical coin to Hex, and this exact thing happened. Not investment advice, but common sense and experience. 5 X that stack, right off the bat ! Don't over pay !
  8. It's one week later ? Good, now log in late in the day, and check the amount of Eth sent. Is it much higher than the day before ? If so, wait another day, if its the same or less, then send 1/7 th of the Eth you want to transform
  9. Log in each day, get your Hex, check the Eth already sent, is it not too high, then send another 1/7 th of your Eth
  10. After 1 week more, you have dollar cost averaged into Hex, and you should have gotten a good price, too ! You can stake each day, or wait until you have bought what you want. I suggest if you have several stakes, that you time them to end on the same day, so you can combine your stack, and then sell or stake it as a unit. Combining the Hex will save you some gas on staking.
  11. When you set your stake time, I suggest at least 354 days, so you for sure get the big payday. You can also set the stake for 3652 days if you are REALLY hardcore, this will get you 3x your bag, and 3x all your other bonuses, but you have to wait 10 years. I'm going even longer, cause I'm a believer :P
  12. When your stake ends, you unstake your coins on go.hex.win If you don't do this on time, your coins will be lost to penalties, don't forget the date !

Why should you use my referral link ? Because I have explained exactly how to do this somewhat complicated process, I have given you some game theory, I found a funny image from my life, and I'm just a nice guy, so why not ?
HEX is everywhere !
submitted by HODL_monk to HEXcrypto [link] [comments]

CryptoTools.net - A simple client-side cryptographic tool suite

Hey everyone! My apologies in advance from the plug, but I just wanted to show off my project, CryptoTools.net. It has no ads, no trackers, and does not ask for money.

Backstory

I got sick of bouncing around from site to sketchy site while trying to perform the simplest of cryptographic operations: things like hashing a string, converting base64, or encrypting a string. Each site had their own way of doing things as well, with a large portion of them POSTing all of the data to the server for it to do the calculations (a major no-no for those unfamiliar). Even some of the good sites were single-purpose with clunky UIs and forgettable URLs. I have yet to meet anyone who has memorized every OpenSSL command, myself included.
There's no shortage of crypto implementations in Javascript, but they're usually implemented in the background of a larger application, not presented in plain form for users to take advantage of as they please.
For these reasons, I decided to make my own collection of tools. All client side, easy to use, mobile friendly, and compatible with OpenSSL! Most tools also include DIY instructions for self-serve. All source code is on GitHub and all libraries are attributed to their authors. Rule #1 of crypto is to never roll your own crypto, so only outside libraries were used for that.

Tools

I hope at least some of you find these tools as useful as I do! I'm always open to suggestions for improvement. Thanks for reading!
submitted by rotorcowboy to privacytoolsIO [link] [comments]

PSA: Guide on how to recover your lost Segwit coins using Electron Cash

How to get your recovered SegWit funds using Electron Cash

Background

Thousands of BCH on thousands of coins that were accidentally send to Segwit 3xxx addresses were recovered by BTC.TOP in block 582705.
This was a wonderful service to the community. This had to be done quickly as the coins were anyone can spend and needed to be sent somewhere. This all had to be done before thieves could get their dirty paws on them.
So.. How were they recovered? Did BTC.TOP just take the coins for themselves? NO: They were not taken by BTC.TOP. This would be wrong (morally), and would open them up to liability and other shenanigans (legally).
Instead --BTC.TOP acted quickly and did the legally responsible thing with minimal liability. They were sent on to the intended destination address of the SegWit transaction (if translated to BCH normal address).
This means BTC.TOP did not steal your coins and/or does not have custody of your funds!
But this does mean you now need to figure out how to get the private key associated with where they were sent -- in order to unlock the funds. (Which will be covered below).
Discussions on why this was the most responsible thing to do and why it was done this way are available upon request. Or you can search this subreddit to get to them.

Ok, so BTC.TOP doesn't have them -- who does?

You do (if they were sent to you)! Or -- the person / address they were sent to does!

HUH?

The Segwit transactions have a bad/crazy/messed-up format which contains an output (destination) which contains a hash of a public key inside. So they "sort of" contain a regular bitcoin address inside of them, with other Segwit garbage around them. This hash was decoded and translated to a regular BCH address, and the funds were sent there.
Again: The funds were forwarded on to a regular BCH address where they are safe. They are now guarded by a private key -- where they were not before (before they were "anyone can spend"). It can be argued this is the only reasonable thing to have done with them (legally and morally) -- continue to send them to their intended destination. This standard, if it's good enough for the US Post Office and Federal Mail, is good enough here. It's better than them being stolen.

Ok, I get it... they are on a regular BCH address now. The address of the destination of the Tx, is it?

Yes. So now a regular BCH private key (rather than anyone can spend) is needed to spend them further. Thus the Segwit destination address you sent them to initially was effectively translated to a BCH regular address. It's as if you posted a parcel with the wrong ZIP code on it -- but the USPS was nice enough to figure that out and send it to where you intended it to go.

Why do it this way and not return to sender?

Because of the ambiguity present-- it's not entirely clear which sender to return them to. There is too much ambiguity there, and would have led to many inputs not being recovered in a proper manner. More discussion on this is available upon request.

Purpose of this guide

This document explains how to:
Complications to watch out for:

Step 1: Checking where your coins went

To verify if this recovery touched one of your lost coins: look for the transaction that spent your coins and open it on bch.btc.com explorer.

Normal aka "P2PKH"

Let’s take this one for example.
Observe the input says:
P2SH 160014d376cf1baff9eeed943d58551d53c48377adb98c 
And the output says:
P2PKH OP_DUP OP_HASH160 d376cf1baff9eeed943d58551d53c48377adb98c OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG 
Notice a pattern?
The fact that these two highlighted hexadecimal strings are the same means that the funds were forwarded to the identical public key, and can be spent by the private key (corresponding to that public key) if it is imported into a Bitcoin Cash wallet.

Multisig aka "P2SH"

If the input starts with “P2SH 220020…”, as in this example, then your segwit address is a script -- probably a multisignature. While the input says “P2SH 22002019aa2610492ee2c18605597136294596d4f0f9bc6ce0974ed3a975d65da4ca1e”, the output says “P2SH OP_HASH160 21bdc73fb15b3bb7bd1be365e92447dc2a44e662 OP_EQUAL”. These two strings actually correspond to the same script, but they are different in content and length due to segwit’s design. However, you just need to RIPEMD160 hash the first string and compare to the second -- you can check this by entering the input string (after the 220020 part) into this website’s Binary Hash field and checking the resulting RIPEMD160 hash. The resulting hash is 21bdc73fb15b3bb7bd1be365e92447dc2a44e662, which corresponds to the output hex above, and this means the coins were forwarded to the same spending script but in "non-segwit form". You will need to re-assemble the same multi-signature setup and enough private keys on a Bitcoin Cash wallet. (Sorry for the succinct explanation here. Ask in the comments for more details perhaps.)

No match -- what?!

If the string does not match (identically in the Normal case above, or after properly hashing in the Multisig case above), then your coins were sent elsewhere, possibly even taken by an anonymous miner. :'(

Step 2: How To Do the Recovery

Recover "Normal" address transactions (P2PKH above)

This is for recoveries where the input string started with “160014”.
Option 1 (BIP39 seed):
Option 2 (single key):
Option 3 (xprv -- many keys):
Code:
mkey = "yprvAJ48Yvx71CKa6a6P8Sk78nkSF7iqqaRob1FN7Jxsqm3L52K8XmZ7EtEzPzTUWXAaHNfN4DFAuP4cdM38yrE6j3YifV8i954hyD5rhPyUNVP" from electroncash.bitcoin import DecodeBase58Check, EncodeBase58Check EncodeBase58Check(b'\x04\x88\xad\xe4'+DecodeBase58Check(mkey)[4:]) 
Option 4 (hardware wallet):

How to Recover Multisignature wallets (P2WSH-in-P2SH in segwit parlance)

This is for recoveries where the input string started with "220020.
Please read the above instructions for how to import single keys. You will need to do similar but taking care to reproduce the same set of multisignature keys as you had in the BTC wallet. Note that Electron Cash does not support single-key multisignature, so you need to use the BIP39 / xprv approach.
If you don’t observe the correct address in Electron Cash, then check the list of public keys by right clicking on an address, and compare it to the list seen in your BTC wallet. Also ensure that the number of required signers is identical.
submitted by NilacTheGrim to btc [link] [comments]

CryptoTools.net - A simple client-side cryptographic tool suite

Hey everyone! My apologies in advance from the plug, but I just wanted to show off my project, CryptoTools.net. It has no ads, no trackers, and does not ask for money.

Backstory

I got sick of bouncing around from site to sketchy site while trying to perform the simplest of cryptographic operations: things like hashing a string, converting base64, or encrypting a string. Each site had their own way of doing things as well, with a large portion of them POSTing all of the data to the server for it to do the calculations (a major no-no for those unfamiliar). Even some of the good sites were single-purpose with clunky UIs and forgettable URLs. I have yet to meet anyone who has memorized every OpenSSL command, myself included.
There's no shortage of crypto implementations in Javascript, but they're usually implemented in the background of a larger application, not presented in plain form for users to take advantage of as they please.
For these reasons, I decided to make my own collection of tools. All client side, easy to use, mobile friendly, and compatible with OpenSSL! Most tools also include DIY instructions for self-serve. All source code is on GitHub and all libraries are attributed to their authors. Rule #1 of crypto is to never roll your own crypto, so only outside libraries were used for that.

Tools

I hope at least some of you find these tools as useful as I do! I'm always open to suggestions for improvement. Thanks for reading!
submitted by rotorcowboy to cryptography [link] [comments]

Bitcoin address in season 4 episode 10

There is a Bitcoin address (1MbwAEKJCtPYpLPxEkUmZxwjk63nQrpbXo) in the last episode as probably some of you know, but there is also another string that has length of 51 characters and that's exactly same as length of the private key (uncompressed) in WIF format. Here is this string:
JU8390jiQwalilap12ljiLieoaluEkeu903LHehaidlcmleadea
Unfortunately the string begins with "J" while each private key begins with "5" and then the second character is "J" or "K" or "H". I have tried to decipher the text with Caesar algorithm but with no success.
What is your opinion, could be this really a private key? If so have you any other ideas how could it be decrypted?

PS. There is also another string that looks like Bitcoin address (same length), but it contains invalid characters like 'l', 'O' and '0' which don't exist in BTC addresses:
1sw3nvMsxaQlDNJKOVgr0aODvuKCZfRmR4
submitted by drunkmax00va to MrRobot [link] [comments]

Bitcoin address and private key in S04E08

Bitcoin address and private key in S04E08
Hello,
I didn't seen that posted anywhere so I will do it here. There was a bitcoin address in python code in last episode of Mr robot. As you can see on screenshot below. First is the public Bitcoin address which you can find here:
https://www.blockchain.com/btc/address/1MbwAEKJCtPYpLPxEkUmZxwjk63nQrpbXo
First transaction was +0.00013370 BTC :)
The second is probably private key, I didn't check it because someone (probably other viewer) transferred funds already but looking at length seems like a bitcoin private key (encoded using base58 check, also called Wallet Input Format). Anyway, nice easter egg :)
https://preview.redd.it/ty5s5derhy041.png?width=647&format=png&auto=webp&s=11dffe80faca945b536e1eac257b9bdd3cf9929e
submitted by blose1 to MrRobot [link] [comments]

A Guide To The BCH Fork on November 15th - Be Informed!

BCH November 15th Forking Guide
 
Intro
As you may have heard, on 15th November 2018 the Bitcoin Cash Blockchain will fork into at least two separate chains. We felt it our duty to provide information to the community on the situation that we hope will offer some clarity on this rather complex situation.
 
What Is A Fork?
A fork occurs when at least one group of miners decide to follow a separate set of rules from the current consensus protocol. Due to the way bitcoin is designed, these miners will then operate on a separate network from the current network. This was in fact how Bitcoin Core and Bitcoin Cash was created from the original Bitcoin. Both changed the consensus rules in different ways that made them incompatible.
To make the current situation slightly more complex, there are to be two sets of miners that are changing the protocol rules away from the current protocol. It is not expected that the currently operating consensus rules will be in operation by any significant set of miners after November 15th. This means that after November 15th there will be two new sets of competing protocol rules. For simplicity these will be described as the BitcoinABC ruleset and the BitcoinSV ruleset (although other implementations such as Bitcoin Unlimited, bcash, bchd, BitcoinXT and bitprim all also have the ABC consensus ruleset).
This is quite a unique fork situation as one side (BitcoinSV) has indicated that they will be willing to attack their competition (BitcoinABC) using reorgs and doublespends to destabilise and reduce confidence in it.
 
BitcoinABC Fork Details
The main new features in the BitcoinABC that make it incompatible with the current protocol are CTOR and DSV.
To summarise:
CTOR (Canonical Transaction Ordering) is a technology that allows blocks to be transmitted in a much more efficient way. This means that as blocks become larger as the network gains more adoption, the hardware and bandwidth requirements on nodes is decreased. This reduces centralisation pressures and allows us to scale the network with fewer adverse effects. You can read more about CTOR in this excellent ARTICLE by u/markblundeberg.
DSV (CheckDataSigVerify) is a technology that allows oracles directly on the Bitcoin blockchain. This means that the transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain can be dependent on actions that happen in the real world. For example you could bet on the weather tomorrow, or if a specific candidate wins an election, all directly on the blockchain. You can read more about DSV at this excellent ARTICLE by u/mengerian.
 
BitcoinSV Fork Details
The main new features in the BitcoinSV that make it incompatible with the current protocol are an increase in the default block size limit to 128MB, increase of the 201 opcode limit within Bitcoin’s script system to a maximum of 500 opcodes, and a new set of opcodes including; OP_MUL, OP_LSHIFT, OP_RSHIFT, OP_INVERT.
The increase in the default block size limit will in theory allow miners on the BitcoinSV ruleset to produce and propagate blocks up to 128MB in size. It may be the case that the current state of the network cannot handle, or at least sustain, 128MB blocks but this will allow miners to decide if they want to try and produce blocks over 32MB (the current protocol limit agreed upon by miners).
Increasing the opcode limit will allow miners to make transactions using scripts of larger lengths. This means that more complex scripts can be developed.
The new opcodes allow new operations to happen within the Bitcoin scripting system.
 
What Are Your Options?
When the fork happens your coins will become available on both chains. This is because both chains will share the same blockchain history up until the point the fork occurs. Things are unfortunately not quite as simple as that (when are they ever in cryptoland?). Transactions that would be valid on both chains will occur on both chains. Your transactions will be considered valid on both chains as long as you do not use any of the exclusive features from either ruleset, or use inputs from transactions that are considered invalid on one of the chains. You can alternatively split your coins so that you can control them exclusively on each chain.
So what should you do? We won’t recommend what you should do with your own money, and this is not financial advice, but here are some of your options.
 
Do Nothing and HODL
The simplest option is to keep your Bitcoin Cash in a wallet you control and wait for things to blow over. Make sure you have the private keys and or the seed written down in at least one place to be able to recover your funds if needed. As long as you do not move your funds they will be available on both chains after the fork.
Risks - Price volatility. Like always the price can go up and down any amount. Only risk what you can afford to lose.
 
Sell BCH for Fiat
Another simple option is to sell your BCH for fiat. This means moving your Bitcoin Cash to an exchange such as Bitstamp.net, Kraken.com or Coinbase, and then selling them for a fiat currency. You may also consider then withdrawing your funds to your bank account for extra security (exchanges have been known to implode with everyone’s funds every now and again).
Risks - If the BCH price increase while you hold fiat your BCH holdings will be less if and when you buy back. Exchanges and banks can confiscate your money if they like (that why love Bitcoin remember). By selling you may also be liable for taxes in your jurisdiction.
 
Split Your Coins and HODL
If you want to be ready for anything then you can split your coins after the fork occurs. This means that you will be able to control your coins exclusively on each chain. You will still need to make sure you have your wallet(s) backed up and have the private keys and seeds written down somewhere.
To split your coins you can use a tool developed on Electron Cash HERE. This is unfortunately not a simple tool to use right now. Make sure to read the tips and advice given in that thread. You can also use http://forkfaucet.cash/ to receive a tiny amount of split coins to your address(es) so that they will become split once you spend from them.
Risks - This has the same risks as simply HODLing your BCH. You should also be aware that some services have decided to refuse to use split coins during the fork. This means that if you send them split coins they will not allow you to spend them. These services include: Yours.org, moneybutton, HandCash, CentBee and CoinText.
 
Split Your Coins and Sell Some
If you interested in gambling on which chain will be more successful you can split your coins using the method above, and can then send coins from either chain to an exchange that allows buying and selling of specific sides of the chain. Most exchanges have decided to close deposits and withdrawals of BCH and even trading of BCH until the outcome of the forks have become more clear. After the fork occurs exchanges will likely make announcements about whether which chain they will support (potentially both), and you will then be able to trade each fork as separate cryptocurrencies.
Risks - By selling your coins on one of the chains you will no longer be invested in that side of the fork. In the case that one side of the fork ceases to exist and you are only holding coins on that side, you will have lost that money. By selling you may also be liable for taxes in your jurisdiction.
 
Summary
It is unfortunate that Bitcoin Cash has to go through a fork without unanimous consensus on the new protocol rules. The unique situation with this fork, in particular, has presented some interesting new issues, and it is likely that we as a community will learn a lot from it.
We hope that in similar situations in the future that the major entities in the industry, including miners, developers, businesses and community leaders can come together to find compromise that keeps the ecosystem stable and focused on adoption.
Further Resources
You can get more information at bitcoincash.org, bitcoinabc.org, bitcoinsv.io, and bitcoin.com.
If you have further questions about this or just want to discuss the fork in general, we encourage you to join our chat at bitcoincashers.org/chat and join the conversation.
 
Edit: The fork will occur at roughly 17:40 UTC+0 15.11.2018
Edit 2: Join a livestream at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxeeQ_-QVNo
submitted by cashassociation to btc [link] [comments]

Tachyon Protocol Technical Guide #2 Tachyon Security Protocol

In our last article, we explored the fundamentals of TBU (or Tachyon Booster UDP). TBU is the core of Tachyon’s architecture which will replace the Application, Transport and Internet layers of the conventional TCP/IP protocol.
What Is TBU? How Does TBU Work?
The core of Tachyon Protocol includes four parts — TBU(Tachyon Booster UDP), TSP(Tachyon Security Protocol)…
medium.com
Today we will take a look at TSP, or Tachyon Security Protocol. As the name suggests, TSP is that part of Tachyon which ensures that the ecosystem remains safe from hackers and user data remains hidden from the outside world. The two main weapons in TSP’s arsenal are Asymmetric end-to-end Encryption and Protocol Simulation Scheme.
ECDHE-ECDSA Asymmetric end-to-end Encryption
The data that you send over the Internet passes through a host of servers, routers, and devices. There’s simply no way of knowing how secure any of these data gateways are. For all you know, your data might be intercepted by hackers at multiple points.
The most reliable safeguard against this problem is end-to-end encryption, which scrambles user data such that only the recipient can make any sense out of it. Even if a hacker intercepts this data, it would seem all gibberish. It’s only when the data reaches its correct destination that it is unscrambled and the original message is revealed.
Let’s say at a birthday party, Jim wants to send a secret message to his friend Rob; but the party is teeming with other kids, and he can’t risk the secret being let out. Luckily for Jim, both he and Rob have been taking French classes outside their school hours. Jim jots down the message in French on a piece of paper, and asks the other kids to relay it over to Rob. Now even if any of his friends open the chit, he won’t be able to make any meaning out of it. Smart move, Jim!
Ordinary point-to-point networking suffers from 2 major threats:
1.Network Sniffing

Hackers can use Network Sniffing tools to intercept and analyze the data flowing over computer network links. Most of these Sniffers work mainly with TCP/IP packets, but more sophisticated tools can work lower in the network hierarchy and even intercept Ethernet frames.
To counter such data hacking techniques, TSP creates encryption keys in insecure channels (where data points are unfamiliar with the credentials of each other) by implementing ECDH — ECDSA and Ephemeral Key. ECDH — ECDSA are a class of cryptographic algorithms which come under what is known as Elliptic Curve Cryptography.
TSP also uses AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) to ensure that even if the message is intercepted, the attacker wouldn’t be able to read it. In addition to this, a set of hash algorithms, such as HMAC, SHA2 and Keccak, are deployed so that in case the attacker is able to alter the data, the message would be automatically ignored.
In some instances, although the attacker is unable to decode the message, he might still be able to acquire some statistical feature information from it. TSP safeguards against this through a combination of different techniques, such as using a public symmetric encryption key, adding random data to the transmitted message, and encrypting the information part (such as the frame byte of the data packet).
Moreover, the likelihood of an encryption key being deciphered increases with multiple usages. TSP avoids any such risks by automatically renegotiating the encryption key after the connection transmits a certain length of data.
  1. Man-in-the-middle Attack (MITM)
In MITM, the attacker actually pretends to be one of the communicating parties and intercepts the communication. In 2018, well known hardware wallet manufacturer Ledger became the victim of MITM attacks. A piece of malware that made its way into the user’s computer would simply modify the “Bitcoin receive address” as displayed on the Ledger Wallet app. The satoshis that were supposed to make their way to the user’s wallet ended up being directed to the attacker’s public address instead.
TSP protects against MITM attacks by using ECDH (or Elliptic-Curve Diffie–Hellman), a key agreement protocol that allows two parties to establish a shared secret communication over an insecure channel. This makes it possible for the identities of both parties to be verified before any data is transmitted. Through ECDH, each of these parties generates an elliptic-curve public-private key pair. As long as this private key is not exposed, MITM attacks can be prevented.
Protocol Simulation Scheme
A distinct feature of TSP is the Protocol Simulation Scheme, which allows Tachyon to simulate well known communication protocols, such as UDP, TCP, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and SMTP. So while Tachyon encrypts data packets using its own TBU protocol stack (discussed in our last article), anyone who intercepts this data would assume that the data belongs to the communication protocol being simulated.
Though Protocol Simulation, TSP guarantees that the real content of the communication is concealed, in order to avoid information unwarranted interception and exposure. It also fools firewalls and other third party applications into letting Tachyon data flow unhindered — a feature that is really useful in Tachyon’s VPN application.
Today, HTTP/HTTPS is the most commonly used communication protocol in the World Wide Web. However, in most cases, the data that is transmitted is completely unencrypted, which makes it vulnerable to hacking. Moreover, HTTP-based communication checks neither the identity of the node with which communicating is being established, nor the integrity of the message being transmitted.
In case of Tachyon, not only is the data encrypted in multiple levels, but the nature of the data packet is concealed as well. For example, in case of SMTP simulation, the data will resemble an ordinary e-mail; while in case of HTTPS simulation, the data traffic will appear like the user is visiting a website such as Google or BBC News.
submitted by Rlindras to Crypto_General [link] [comments]

#HEX Snapshot WARNING : 2 weeks! December 2nd 0:00:00 UTC

#HEX Snapshot WARNING : 2 weeks! December 2nd 0:00:00 UTC
UPDATE : Sunday, November 17th, 2019.
The time of the HEX snapshot has finally been announced!!!
Below is the official announcement quoting Richard Heart.

The HEX.win snapshot will occur December 2nd at the first Bitcoin block mined after 00:00:00 UTC. You must have access to the private keys to your Bitcoin address having a balance at that exact blockheight to be able to submit a claim after. If you have a normal or segwit bitcoin address, you are very likely to be eligible to claim.
https://www.timeanddate.com/countdown/generic?iso=20191202T00&p0=1440&msg=HEX.win%20Bitcoin%20Snapshot&font=sanserif
To read more about which addresses are eligible, please visit https://hex.win/techspecs.html.
The HEX contract will be targeted for launch at 00:00:00 UTC the next day after the snapshot. You will have a day to gather up ETH and convert BTC into ETH to join the Adoption Amplifier on day 1. This way you can both FreeClaim and then transform the BTC to ETH to transform into HEX via the AA system. If you don’t already have BTC it’s very likely you will make much more HEX buying ETH to send to the AA system, than by buying BTC just to FreeClaim with it. The math is here: https://hex.win/adoption-amplifier.html

https://preview.redd.it/4c4x95k9n7z31.png?width=1782&format=png&auto=webp&s=05c83554f473d91ae62300f619391b3b409045a5

That’s it! Get ready! 2 weeks!
Remember to use my referral link if I helped you to learn about HEX!
We both benefit more!
https://hex.win/?r=0xF8656b3f2c0D0bEd70d7276fdEC6BD082263437A
•••
Read further if you are interested in the fundamental reason you want to be involved with HEX.

https://hex.win/?r=0xF8656b3f2c0D0bEd70d7276fdEC6BD082263437A
If I am bringing you HEX now for more or less the first time and you are convinced of the fundamental reason after you have read this article that you should get involved with HEX then kindly use my referral link because, after all, I brought it to your attention, plus you not only I benefit! You get an extra 10% HEX when you claim using a referral link versus not using one.
So how does it work.
Basically, anyone holding Bitcoin at the exact time and blockheight of the Bitcoin blockchain of the HEX snapshot will be able to claim free HEX ERC-20 tokens into an Ethereum address you own. Without referral bonuses and all the rest of the bonuses the ratio is 10000 HEX : 1 BTC.
I don’t care how much BTC you have or how little you think you have, you must claim or you will be crying later I guarantee it. Free will exists of course, and not paying attention does have consequences. However, there is absolutely nothing to lose by claiming HEX which you will only have a certain amount of time from the snapshot to claim (51 weeks) and the longer you wait, the less HEX you are able to claim designedly so.
If HEX is successful it will be #2 next to Bitcoin in a few years. I will explore speculative possibilities of this later on. I will help everyone be sure to be able to claim on Day 0 to maximize our bonuses. HEX is the most brilliant project in all of cryptocurrency. I don’t care if anyone claims otherwise, for what more common financial service or product is there in the whole world besides currency? Certificate of Deposit, aka Time Deposit, which is essentially the ability to “stake” capital for a contracted length of time, and in exchange the counter-party bank compensates you for your “risk” or your “investment” into their centralized system, by “guaranteeing” interest paid in return to you as per terms and conditions of aforementioned contract.
HEX is a stroke of genius that has gone largely unrecognized in the crypto space. Mainly I surmise because some people deplore Richard Heart for how successful he’s been in the past, plus how generally right he’s been about many things which particularly unintelligent people hate and fail to appreciate, and how idiots defined as idiots because they don’t even examine the project objectively because they just can’t stand Heart for whatever stupid reason. They think Richard Heart is arrogant? No, it is they that are arrogant that deny the tremendous possibility HEX represents and may accomplish. So they refuse like close-minded people do to even consider the possibilities of such a project as Hex. People like that deserve to stay broke or get broke.
Why is HEX so brilliant?
Well first have a review of what is a traditional Certificate of Deposit.
https://everipedia.org/wiki/lang_en/Certificate_of_deposit
Who needs a traditional fiat-based Certificate of Deposit anymore? It makes zero sense now that we have the smart-contracted trustless-interest functionality enabled by cryptography and inimitably clever game theoretics, a novel invention that will rapidly enough emerge and burst onto the theater of crypto, HEX.
Well how much money in the world is currently bonded up into contracts, these so-called Certificate of Deposits (more accurately called time deposits)? According to Richard Heart the number is $7 trillion between the United States and China alone! Wait a minute, what was the market cap of Bitcoin when it was $20k in December 2017? Well not even half a trillion. Pathetic!

Remember when?
So why am I mentioning Bitcoin’s previous ATH marketcap? Because to imagine the fullest possibility of HEX we have to imagine the fullest possibility of Bitcoin. Obviously Bitcoin when going down for ages everything else sinks incalculably faster! On the other hand when Bitcoin is in a bull run for multiple years culminating in an explosion of energy which it blows off at the “top” everything else is rising and exploding also like fireworks, the sounds of millions at once getting REKT, by the so-called dumping of whales of their favorite “shitcoins” on their frightful heads as they are left eternally weeping over heavy bags chanting “how did the government let this happen!”
The point is Bitcoin will continue as it has in the past in cycles, which is part and parcel of the design of it by Bitcoin’s creator, Satoshi Nakamoto, profound genius, probably deceased. If we can imagine that Bitcoin will as Trace Mayer calls it as “a blackhole on the world’s balance sheet” to continue to function as such, it will voraciously proceed to eat every single fiat currency of the world out of existence. Bitcoin is an intelligence test and a solution to the problem of power. Where power can corrupt, it must corrupt, because power corrupts only those that love having it most, and obviously, who enjoys most working to possess more and more power? Think just what am I advocating for? To what principle or philosophy is my devotion, or am I just a loyal slave to the “hand that pays my salary I shall not question”? Cryptocurrency is ultimately about FREEDOM. We’ve already won this is what few understand. How does the saying go, “first they deny and laugh at you, then they fight you, and then you win.”
Bitcoin is destined to be valued at, in today’s dollar terms, trillions upon trillions of dollars. Anyone who suggests otherwise just don’t get it, because perhaps they just can’t get it.
https://www.bitcoin.kn/
https://digitalik.net/btc/sf_model
What’s the speculative highly approximated math?
18,000,000 Bitcoin * $1,000,000 = $18,000,000,000,000
Is that possible? Definitely. How soon, who knows.
Why is this relevant to HEX?
Because I am trying to imagine what the marketcap of HEX would be 5 years out, 10 years out, 15 years out. And how am I supposed to do that except to use Bitcoin as a basis? I don’t care in the slightest what the marketcap valuation of HEX is in terms of U.S. Dollars. Who cares? Do you really expect the US Dollar to still have the same purchasing power it does today in the near to far future? The answer is simply that it will not for reasons you can learn from Andreas Antonopolous, a gifted patient educator on the beauty and elegance of the invention of bitcoin and its implications on the world.
Now, these speculations are necessary to estimate the potential marketcap of HEX. We know there exists $7 trillion in conventional CDs between the United States and China. That’s the market demand in other words strictly in terms of US Dollars and not even including all the other currencies. Obviously all of that isn’t going to dump into HEX overnight. However, long term that is definitely the potential. What’s going to happen as the dollar loses global hegemony? What is going to be the value of those conventional CDs then? Will the market, i.e. the demand, just disappear? Of course not, it will just find the next best thing, which will just so happen to be HEX, which is designed to specifically replace those CD’s by a technologically superior mechanism that decentralizes the same functionality offered by banks. Not to mention the fact that people who would have otherwise been privy to CDs but couldn’t because of certain stupid limitations imposed on them by the banks will now have the same opportunity permissionlessly available to them via HEX.
I think Bitcoin can easily be $1,000,000 in the next 10 years, but what about 15 years, maybe $10,000,000? Why 15 years? Because with HEX you are given the option to set your trustless-interest yielding time-deposits for up to 15 years! And all I care about at the end of the day when my stakes have completed the set time is not the value of HEX in terms of dollars but in terms of Bitcoin. How many satoshi’s is 1 HEX? My argument or suggestion is just this : Given the market that HEX, as an innovative technology which obsoletizes traditional CD’s, dares to claim and probably even exceed by far, it is not unreasonable to speculate that HEX could very well become #2 next to Bitcoin in the future.

HEX Time-Deposit trustless-interest functionality will make CD's obsolete.
What am I saying here? I’m saying in the future, we won’t be measuring different cryptos against each other in terms of their dollar values but rather in terms of their satoshi values, or bitcoin values. And I think HEX at that point will comprise anywhere in a range of 5%-15% the marketcap of bitcoin itself, for the value of HEX in terms of bitcoin will be such that it is as IF 5%-15% of the bitcoin marketcap was locked in HEX. Obviously HEX is its own currency, however what is it measured against? The answer can only be bitcoin. So if I want to know what the marketcap of HEX in bitcoin would be in 15 years, I just have to guess what the marketcap of BTC will be in 15 years. As aforementioned, BTC if would be $1,000,000 implies a marketcap of very roughly $18 Trillion. 5%-15% of $18 Trillion is $0.9 Trillion — $2.7 Trillion. How soon would Bitcoin be $1,000,000 though? Who knows. The time is the unknown variable, we already know the potential, the question isn’t how or what, is when. But I’d estimate less than 10 years. With HEX, stakes can be set for up to 15 years. Daresay Bitcoin could be valued at $10,000,000 in 15 years? That would be equal to roughly $180 Trillion.
Could it? Supposing it would for imagination’s sake, what would the marketcap in % of Bitcoin’s marketcap be the value of HEX? 5%-15% of $180 Trillion is $9 Trillion — $27 Trillion.
Conclusively the argument is clear, simply that HEX has the potential to fulfill an incredible demand for time-deposits in the near and distant future as slowly CD’s become antiquated and laughably inferior in terms of profitability versus the technologically superior alternative that is a crypto no one requires any permission to use and can be anyone, anywhere, anytime. Not only that, it also unlocks the capacity for absolutely everyone to come online and use a tool that does not discriminate against anyone. No accreditation required. No permission necessary. All you need is capital, a trustless contract, and patience, and now you have the ability to make time your friend.
https://hex.win/?r=0xF8656b3f2c0D0bEd70d7276fdEC6BD082263437A
•••
#HEX #cryptocurrency #time-deposit #trustless-interest
submitted by an_amnesia to u/an_amnesia [link] [comments]

Technical: Pay-to-contract and Sign-to-contract

What's this? I don't make a Technical post for a month and now BitPay is censoring the Hong Kong Free Press? Shit I'm sorry, it's all my fault for not posting a Technical post regularly!! Now posting one so that we have a censorship-free Bitcoin universe!
Pay-to-contract and sign-to-contract are actually cryptographic techniques to allow you to embed a commitment in a public key (pay-to-contract) or signature (sign-to-contract). This commitment can be revealed independently of the public key / signature without leaking your private key, and the existence of the commitment does not prevent you from using the public key / signature as a normal pubkey/signature for a normal digital signing algorithm.
Both techniques utilize elliptic curve homomorphism. Let's digress into that a little first.

Elliptic Curve Homomorphism

Let's get an oversimplified view of the maths involved first.
First, we have two "kinds" of things we can compute on.
  1. One kind is "scalars". These are just very large single numbers. Traditionally represented by small letters.
  2. The other kind is "points". These are just pairs of large numbers. Traditionally represented by large letters.
Now, an "Elliptic Curve" is just a special kind of curve with particular mathematical properties. I won't go into those properties, for the very reasonable reason that I don't actually understand them (I'm not a cryptographer, I only play one on reddit!).
If you have an Elliptic Curve, and require that all points you work with are on some Elliptic Curve, then you can do these operations.
  1. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide scalars. Remember, scalars are just very big numbers. So those basic mathematical operations still work on big numbers, they're just big numbers.
  2. "Multiply" a scalar by a point, resulting in a point. This is written as a * B, where a is the scalar and B is a point. This is not just multiplying the scalar to the point coordinates, this is some special Elliptic Curve thing that I don't understand either.
  3. "Add" two points together. This is written as A + B. Again, this is some special Elliptic Curve thing.
The important part is that if you have:
A = a * G B = b * G Q = A + B 
Then:
q = a + b Q = q * G 
That is, if you add together two points that were each derived from multiplying an arbitarry scalar with the same point (G in the above), you get the same result as adding the scalars together first, then multiplying their sum with the same point will yield the same number. Or:
a * G + b * G = (a + b) * G 
And because multiplication is just repeated addition, the same concept applies when multiplying:
a * (b * G) = (a * b) * G = (b * a) * G = b * (a * G) 
Something to note in particular is that there are few operations on points. One operation that's missing is "dividing" a point by a point to yield a scalar. That is, if you have:
A = a * G 
Then, if you know A but don't know the scalar a, you can't do the below:
a = A / G 
You can't get a even if you know both the points A and G.
In Elliptic Curve Cryptography, scalars are used as private keys, while points are used as public keys. This is particularly useful since if you have a private key (scalar), you can derive a public key (point) from it (by multiplying the scalar with a certain standard point, which we call the "generator point", traditionally G). But there is no reverse operation to get the private key from the public key.

Commitments

Let's have another mild digression.
Sometimes, you want to "commit' to something that you want to keep hidden for now. This is actually important in some games and so on. For example, if you are paying a game of Twenty Questions, one player must first write the object they are thinking of, then fold or hide it in such a way that what they wrote is not visible. Then, after the guessing player has asked twenty questions to narrow down what the object is and has revealed what he or she thinks the object being guessed was, the guessee reveals the object by unfodling and showing the paper.
The act of writing down commits you to the specific thing you wrote down. Folding the paper and/or hiding it, err, hides what you wrote down. Later, when you unfold the paper, you reveal your commitment.
The above is the analogy to the development of cryptographic commitments.
  1. First you select some thing --- it could be anything, a song, a random number, a promise to deliver products and services, the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.
  2. You commit to it by giving it as input to a one-way function. A one-way function is a function which allows you to get an output from an input, but after you perform that there is no way to reverse it and determine the original input knowing only the final output. Hash functions like SHA are traditionally used as one-way functions. As a one-way function, this hides your original input.
  3. You give the commitment (the output of the one-way function given your original input) to whoever wants you to commit.
  4. Later, when somebody demands to show what you committed to (for example after playing Twenty Questions), you reveal the commitment by giving the original input to the one-way function (i.e. the thing you selected in the first step, which was the thing you wanted to commit to).
  5. Whoever challenged you can verify your commitment by feeding your supposed original input to the same one-way function. If you honestly gave the correct input, then the challenger will get the output that you published above in step 3.

Salting

Now, sometimes there are only a few possible things you can select from. For example, instead of Twenty Questions you might be playing a Coin Toss Guess game.
What we'd do would be that, for example, I am the guesser and you the guessee. You select either "heads" or "tails" and put it in a commitment which you hand over to me. Then, I say "heads" or "tails" and have you reveal your commitment. If I guessed correctly I win, if not you win.
Unfortunately, if we were to just use a one-way function like an SHA hash function, it would be very trivial for me to win. All I would need to do would be to try passing "heads" and "tails" to the one-way function and see which one matches the commitment you gave me. Then I can very easily find out what your committed value was, winning the game consistently. In hacking, this can be made easier by making Rainbow Tables, and is precisely the technique used to derive passwords from password databases containing hashes of the passwords.
The way to solve this is to add a salt. This is basically just a large random number that we prepend (or append, order doesn't matter) to the actual value you want to commit to. This means that not only do I have to feed "heads" or "tails", I also have to guess the large random number (the salt). If the possible space of large random numbers is large enough, this prevents me from being able to peek at your committed data. The salt is sometimes called a blinding factor.

Pay-to-contract

Hiding commitments in pubkeys!
Pay-to-contract allows you to publish a public key, whose private key you can derive, while also being a cryptographic commitment. In particular, your private key is also used to derive a salt.
The key insight here is to realize that "one-way function" is not restricted to hash functions like SHA. The operation below is an example of a one-way function too:
h(a) = a * G 
This results in a point, but once the point (the output) is known, it is not possible to derive the input (the scalar a above). This is of course restricted to having the input be a scalar only, instead of an arbitrary-length message, but you can add a hash function (which can accept an arbitrary-length input) and then make its output (a fixed-length scalar) as the scalar to use.
First, pay-to-contract requires you to have a public and private keypair.
; p is private key P = p * G ; P is now public key 
Then, you have to select a contract. This is just any arbitrary message containing any arbitrary thing (it could be an object for Twenty Questions, or "heads" or "tails" for Coin Toss Guessing). Traditionally, this is symbolized as the small letter s.
In order to have a pay-to-contract public key, you need to compute the below from your public key P (called the internal public key; by analogy the private key p is the internal private key):
Q = P + h(P | s) * G 
"h()" is any convenient hash function, which takes anything of arbitrary length, and outputs a scalar, which you can multiply by G. The syntax "P | s" simply means that you are prepending the point P to the contract s.
The cute thing is that P serves as your salt. Any private key is just an arbitrary random scalar. Multiplying the private key by the generator results in an arbitrary-seeming point. That random point is now your salt, which makes this into a genuine bonafide hiding cryptographic commitment!
Now Q is a point, i.e. a public key. You might be interested in knowing its private key, a scalar. Suppose you postulate the existence of a scalar q such that:
 Q = q * G 
Then you can do the below:
 Q = P + h(P | s) * G Q = p * G + h(P | s) * G Q = (p + h(P | s)) * G 
Then we can conclude that:
 q = p + h(P | s) 
Of note is that somebody else cannot learn the private key q unless they already know the private key p. Knowing the internal public key P is not enough to learn the private key q. Thus, as long as you are the only one who knows the internal private key p, and you keep it secret, then only you can learn the private key q that can be used to sign with the public key Q (that is also a pay-to-contract commitment).
Now Q is supposed to be a commitment, and once somebody else knows Q, they can challenge you to reveal your committed value, the contract s. Revealing the pay-to-contract commitment is done by simply giving the internal public key P (which doubles as the salt) and the committed value contract s.
The challenger then simply computes:
P + h(P | s) * G 
And verifies that it matches the Q you gave before.
Some very important properties are:
  1. If you reveal first, then you still remain in sole control of the private key. This is because revelation only shows the internal public key and the contract, neither of which can be used to learn the internal private key. So you can reveal and sign in any order you want, without precluding the possibility of performing the other operation in the future.
  2. If you sign with the public key Q first, then you do not need to reveal the internal public key P or the contract s. You can compute q simply from the internal private key p and the contract s. You don't even need to pass those in to your signing algorithm, it could just be given the computed q and the message you want to sign!
  3. Anyone verifying your signature using the public key Q is unaware that it is also used as a cryptographic commitment.
Another property is going to blow your mind:
  1. You don't have to know the internal private key p in order to create a commitment pay-to-contract public key Q that commits to a contract s you select.
Remember:
Q = P + h(P | s) * G 
The above equation for Q does not require that you know the internal private key p. All you need to know is the internal public key P. Since public keys are often revealed publicly, you can use somebody else's public key as the internal public key in a pay-to-contract construction.
Of course, you can't sign for Q (you need to know p to compute the private key q) but this is sometimes an interesting use.
The original proposal for pay-to-contract was that a merchant would publish their public key, then a customer would "order" by writing the contract s with what they wanted to buy. Then, the customer would generate the public key Q (committing to s) using the merchant's public key as the internal public key P, then use that in a P2PKH or P2WPKH. Then the customer would reveal the contract s to the merchant, placing their order, and the merchant would now be able to claim the money.
Another general use for pay-to-contract include publishing a commitment on the blockchain without using an OP_RETURN output. Instead, you just move some of your funds to yourself, using your own public key as the internal public key, then selecting a contract s that commits or indicates what you want to anchor onchain. This should be the preferred technique rather than OP_RETURN. For example, colored coin implementations over Bitcoin usually used OP_RETURN, but the new RGB colored coin technique uses pay-to-contract instead, reducing onchain bloat.

Taproot

Pay-to-contract is also used in the nice new Taproot concept.
Briefly, taproot anchors a Merkle tree of scripts. The root of this tree is the contract s committed to. Then, you pay to a SegWit v1 public key, where the public key is the Q pay-to-contract commitment.
When spending a coin paying to a SegWit v1 output with a Taprooted commitment to a set of scripts s, you can do one of two things:
  1. Sign directly with the key. If you used Taproot, use the commitment private key q.
  2. Reveal the commitment, then select the script you want to execute in the Merkle tree of scripts (prove the Markle tree path to the script). Then satisfy the conditions of the script.
Taproot utilizes the characteristics of pay-to-contract:
  1. If you reveal first, then you still remain in sole control of the private key.
    • This is important if you take the Taproot path and reveal the commitment to the set of scripts s. If your transaction gets stalled on the mempool, others can know your commitment details. However, revealing the commitment will not reveal the internal private key p (which is needed to derive the commitment private key q), so nobody can RBF out your transaction by using the sign-directly path.
  2. If you sign with the public key Q first, then you do not need to reveal the internal public key P or the contract s.
    • This is important for privacy. If you are able to sign with the commitment public key, then that automatically hides the fact that you could have used an alternate script s instead of the key Q.
  3. Anyone verifying your signature using the public key Q is unaware that it is also used as a cryptographic commitment.
    • Again, privacy. Fullnodes will not know that you had the ability to use an alternate script path.
Taproot is intended to be deployed with the switch to Schnorr-based signatures in SegWit v1. In particular, Schnorr-based signatures have the following ability that ECDSA cannot do except with much more difficulty:
As public keys can, with Schnorr-based signatures, easily represent an n-of-n signing set, the internal public key P can also actually be a MuSig n-of-n signing set. This allows for a number of interesting protocols, which have a "good path" that will be private if that is taken, but still have fallbacks to ensure proper execution of the protocol and prevent attempts at subverting the protocol.

Escrow Under Taproot

Traditionally, escrow is done with a 2-of-3 multisignature script.
However, by use of Taproot and pay-to-contract, it's possible to get more privacy than traditional escrow services.
Suppose we have a buyer, a seller, and an escrow service. They have keypairs B = b * G, S = s * G, and E = e * G.
The buyer and seller then generate a Taproot output (which the buyer will pay to before the seller sends the product).
The Taproot itself uses an internal public key that is the 2-of-2 MuSig of B and S, i.e. MuSig(B, S). Then it commits to a pair of possible scripts:
  1. Release to a 2-of-2 MuSig of seller and escrow. This path is the "escrow sides with seller" path.
  2. Release to a 2-of-2 MuSig of buyer and escrow. This path is the "escrow sides with buyer" path.
Now of course, the escrow also needs to learn what the transaction was supposed to be about. So what we do is that the escrow key is actually used as the internal public key of another pay-to-contract, this time with the script s containing the details of the transaction. For example, if the buyer wants to buy some USD, the contract could be "Purchase of 50 pieces of United States Federal Reserve Green Historical Commemoration papers for 0.357 satoshis".
This takes advantage of the fact that the committer need not know the private key behind the public key being used in a pay-to-contract commitment. The actual transaction it is being used for is committed to onchain, because the public key published on the blockchain ultimately commits (via a taproot to a merkle tree to a script containing a MuSig of a public key modified with the committed contract) to the contract between the buyer and seller.
Thus, the cases are:
  1. Buyer and seller are satisfied, and cooperatively create a signature that spends the output to the seller.
    • The escrow service never learns it could have been an escrow. The details of their transaction remain hidden and private, so the buyer is never embarrassed over being so tacky as to waste their hard money buying USD.
  2. The buyer and seller disagree (the buyer denies having received the goods in proper quality).
    • They contact the escrow, and reveal the existence of the onchain contract, and provide the data needed to validate just what, exactly, the transaction was supposed to be about. This includes revealing the "Purchase of 50 pieces of United States Federal Reserve Green Historical Commemoration papers for 0.357 satoshis", as well as all the data needed to validate up to that level. The escrow then investigates the situation and then decides in favor of one or the other. It signs whatever transaction it decides (either giving it to the seller or buyer), and possibly also extracts an escrow fee.

Smart Contracts Unchained

Developed by ZmnSCPxj here: https://zmnscpxj.github.io/bitcoin/unchained.html
A logical extension of the above escrow case is to realize that the "contract" being given to the escrow service is simply some text that is interpreted by the escrow, and which is then executed by the escrow to determine where the funds should go.
Now, the language given in the previous escrow example is English. But nothing prevents the contract from being written in another language, including a machine-interpretable one.
Smart Contracts Unchained simply makes the escrow service an interpreter for some Smart Contract scripting language.
The cute thing is that there still remains an "everything good" path where the participants in the smart contract all agree on what the result is. In that case, with Taproot, there is no need to publish the smart contract --- only the participants know, and nobody else has to. This is an improvement in not only privacy, but also blockchain size --- the smart contract itself never has to be published onchain, only the commitment to it is (and that is embedded in a public key, which is necessary for basic security on the blockchain anyway!).

Sign-to-contract

Hiding commitments in signatures!
Sign-to-contract is something like the dual or inverse of pay-to-contract. Instead of hiding a commitment in the public key, it is hidden in the signature.
Sign-to-contract utilizes the fact that signatures need to have a random scalar r which is then published as the point R = r * G.
Similarly to pay-to-contract, we can have an internal random scalar p and internal point P that is used to compute R:
R = P + h(P | s) * G 
The corresponding random scalar r is:
r = p + h(P | s) 
The signing algorithm then uses the modified scalar r.
This is in fact just the same method of commitment as in pay-to-contract. The operations of committing and revealing are the same. The only difference is where the commitment is stored.
Importantly, however, is that you cannot take somebody else's signature and then create an alternate signature that commits to some s you select. This is in contrast with pay-to-contract, where you can take somebody else's public key and then create an alternate public key that commits to some s you select.
Sign-to-contract is somewhat newer as a concept than pay-to-contract. It seems there are not as many applications of pay-to-contract yet.

Uses

Sign-to-contract can be used, like pay-to-contract, to publish commitments onchain.
The difference is below:
  1. Signatures are attached to transaction inputs.
  2. Public keys are attached to transaction outputs.
One possible use is in a competitor to Open Timestamps. Open Timestamps currently uses OP_RETURN to commit to a Merkle Tree root of commitments aggregated by an Open Timestamps server.
Instead of using such an OP_RETURN, individual wallets can publish a timestamped commitment by making a self-paying transaction, embedding the commitment inside the signature for that transaction. Such a feature can be added to any individual wallet software. https://blog.eternitywall.com/2018/04/13/sign-to-contract/
This does not require any additional infrastructure (i.e. no aggregating servers like in Open Timestamps).

R Reuse Concerns

ECDSA and Schnorr-based signature schemes are vulnerable to something called "R reuse".
Basically, if the same R is used for different messages (transactions) with the same public key, a third party with both signatures can compute the private key.
This is concerning especially if the signing algorithm is executed in an environment with insufficient entropy. By complete accident, the environment might yield the same random scalar r in two different runs. Combined with address reuse (which implies public key reuse) this can leak the private key inadvertently.
For example, most hardware wallets will not have any kind of entropy at all.
The usual solution to this is, instead of selecting an arbitrary random r (which might be impossible in limited environments with no available entropy), is to hash the message and use the hash as the r.
This ensures that if the same public key is used again for a different message, then the random r is also different, preventing reuse at all.
Of course, if you are using sign-to-contract, then you can't use the above "best practice".
It seems to me plausible that computing the internal random scalar p using the hash of the message (transaction) should work, then add the commitment on top of that. However, I'm not an actual cryptographer, I just play one on Reddit. Maybe apoelstra or pwuille can explain in more detail.
Copyright 2019 Alan Manuel K. Gloria. Released under CC-BY.
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Best General RenVM Questions | September 2019

Best General RenVM Questions | September 2019 *These questions are sourced directly from Telegram

Q: Given the RenVM Mainnet Roll-out Plan, what are the differences between how Darknodes participate in the P2P Network, Consensus, and Execution within RenVM?
A: An outline of each component and its role in RenVM system is outlined below:P2P NetworkThe peer-to-peer network is used for two core purposes: peer discovery, and message saturation. Peer discovery allows Darknodes to learn about other active Darknodes in their shard, and in the network at large. Message saturation ensures that all messages sent around the network are seen by everyone.
ConsensusThe consensus engine is used to reach a strict ordering of transactions that go through RenVM. This ensures that the Darknodes powering RenVM are able to agree on what actions to take, and when.
ExecutionThe execution engine is used to run secure multiparty computations. This is how actions in RenVM are ultimately taken. These actions involve generating private keys, signing interoperability transactions, and, in the future, running general-purpose application logic. And all of this in secret.

Q: How do I shut down my current Darknode(s)?
A: Follow this instruction set explicitly and you won't have any issues: https://renproject.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/360020365234-How-to-Fully-Deregister-a-Darknode

Q: Is running a Darknode on Chaosnet useful for the team?
A: Yes, by running a Chaosnet Darknode you are inherently helping us test. One of the core purposes of Chaosnet is to the real world incentives of RenVM. Running (and continuing to run) a Chaosnet Darknode says something about the incentives at play: they’re enough to get people running Darknodes. And this helps us! In fact, by not running a Chaosnet Darknode you’re also inherently helping us test. It’s telling us there’s something not quite right with the incentives.

Q: And what's the incentive for someone to collude and attack the network during Chaosnet?
A: The ability to steal real BTC/ZEC/BCH, the want to help us test the network, the want to betray their fellow colluders and take their REN bonds, and of course, some (wo)men just want to watch the world burn.

Q: All of this de-registering and re-registering for mainnet is a bit annoying, is it necessary?
A: We do certainly understand the point as it's been discussed at length but registration for the RenVM Mainnet is a necessary component (applying automatic updates for current Darknodes to run RenVM is not technically feasible). This announcement is very much an administrative piece to ensure our community has plenty of time and notice to proceed at the speed they prefer. Chasonet is designed for testing and those willing to actively experiment, but certainly not mandatory and there is no pressure on the general community to be active during this period.
In summary for those who prefer to be less active, should de-register their current Darknode(s) and wait patiently for activation at the release of Mainnet SubZero, no other action is needed.

Q: Is RenVM secure against quantum computing?
A: The core of RZL sMPC is theoretical secure. This means that no amount of compute power can break it (making it post-Q safe). There are some parts of it that are not (zkSNARKs and some hashes that aren’t known whether or not they’re post-Q safe) but these are easy to replace (with zkSTARKs and some post-Q safe hashes).
RZL sMPC provides ECDSA signatures because that’s what it is used by Ethereum, Bitcoin, etc. Whatever solution they come up with, will be the solution that RZL has to be upgraded to use (the whole point of RenVM is not to tell other chains how to do things, and still provide interop; this means waiting on them to define their solution and then working with that).
In short, if a QC can steal funds from RenVM, it’s because it can steal funds from any Ethereum/Bitcoin/etc. private key.

Q: If I don't deregister my Darknode by RenVM Mainnet, will I lose my 100K REN?
A: The REN bond is safe forever. You can deregister your Darknode from the legacy Mainnet whenever. We recommend doing it now, because it can take three days, and once Chaosnet rolls around that’s where our support focus will be.

Q: When shifting in funds, say a user doesn't have eth funds and this call fails const newSigResult = await ethSig.submitToEthereum (web3.currentProvider). what is the best way for that user to pick up where they left off if they leave the web page to get some ETH, and then come back? Should the app generates a new shift in the object, override the params and gateway address objects, re-submit to RenVM, and then make the above call again? Assume the transaction info such as original params and gateway address are stored in local storage so those will be available when the user comes back.
A: This is the approach we take. We store the RenVM tx in local storage and then when the user comes back we can construct the Ethereum tx and hand it to them for signing again. You can construct the RenVM tx locally and store it before asking the user to send their BTC to the gateway to protect against unexpected shutdowns. This way, you can recover from them leaving the app at any point in the process without loss of funds. (This also allows you to resend the RenVM tx in the event that the first send fails for any reason.)

Q 1: Could you elaborate on the proportionality of (a) Total value of bonded REN (b) Total value of assets under RenVM control? Does RenVM require (b) <= (a) at all times? RenVM would need an Oracle to determine the USD value of both (a) and (b).
A 1: The oraclisation is done by the Darknodes. Each of them assesses what they determine that value of (a) and (b) to be and if 2/3rds of them independently decide (b) can be increased then the network will be able to go ahead with the computation. We do require (b) < (a) but have not determined the exact ratio. Because Darknodes are randomly sampled (and constantly reshuffled) from the entire group, this value can consider the entire amount of REN bonded (not just the REN bonded by one shard).
Q 2: There's potentially an incentive-misalignment issue here: Darknodes would want to bypass the (b) < (a) limit in order to continue to process more tx's and collect fees.
A 2: True, but there’s also a natural incentive for Darknodes to want to keep the network secure. A hack would likely render their REN to drop dramatically in price and they’re REN will be locked for 2-3 months after deregistration. This is also true of users. They should be wary of keeping assets locked up when it nears the secure threshold. This can be encouraged by scaling down the burning fees/raising minting fees to encourage the movement of funds “in the right direction”

Q: Quick question: right now, a developer can choose to wait for 0 confirmations before minting zBTC on Ethereum when shifting in real BTC. Will the RenVM network require a minimum number of bitcoin confirmations, or is that always up to the application developer? If it's up to the developer, what if the developer chooses 0 confirmations, mints zBTC, and then double spends on the bitcoin network, invalidating that original bitcoin transaction? shouldn't that invalidate the zBTC that was already minted from the original 0 conf transaction?
A: The developer cannot choose. RenVM will wait for the appropriate number of confirmations. On Testnet, this number is currently set to zero because it makes testing easier. On Mainnet, there will be systems for people to take on the “confirmation risk” and provide float. Devs can also set it up so that people can deposit ahead-of-time. We are also exploring Lightning and similar concepts.

Q: I've noticed an increase of tx's made through RenVm, how tests are going on; have you met any unexpected obstacles?
A: We’ve encountered a few issues with nodes when they are rebooted/crash (we are constantly rebooting/crashing them to make sure the network continues to operate as expected under those circumstances). But, we have fixes in the work for all these issues and it hasn’t prevented us from being able to add new features (BCash and SegWit support has recently hit Devnet and will be arriving on Testnet soon).

Q1: If home chain = destination chain, then RenVM is effectively a mixing service?
A1: It can be used that way, definitely. But, it has to have a few more privacy features enabled, shifting alone won’t do.
Q2: RenVM mints Aztec notes for example?
A2: Yep, that’s the plan; we need to wait until the Ignition ceremony before this can be done. It’s one of the next features in our pipeline though! BTC would “appear” on Ethereum with no known owner. And, if you wait an amount of time between getting the authorizing from RenVM and using the signature, then it would be impossible to trace it back to the request that went to RenVM.

Q: When I go to the Command Center, the page doesn't load?
A: One has to be on the Kovan Testnet (on Metamask). To do this, select the top middle button on your Metamask tab and click Kovan Test Network (Purple circle). If you’d like to see it in action, submit a trade on our Testnet Dex Demo (https://renproject.github.io/renvm-demo/) and see it proceed through RenVM via the Hyperdrive tab: https://dcc-testnet.republicprotocol.com/hyperdrive

Q: Mixicles & RenVM: It seems like Mixicles could be used to preserve privacy features for on and off-chain settlements in a blockchain agnostic way. Wouldn’t this be seen as a threat as smart contracts could now replace a darkpool while maintaining the element of anonymity?
A: Mixicles (and all other ZK on-chain stuff we’ve seen) gives you privacy on the chain. So you can prove things have been done right (one of the things we like about public blockchains), without exposing any information about the thing (an issue with public blockchains). But, the prover still has access to the information. This rules it out for many kinds of private apps. RenVM gives you absolute privacy. You can do things with data, and prove things about data, without anyone anywhere ever knowing anything about the data. This is much more general.

Q: Can’t people just fork RenVM?
A: What ultimately prevents forks is the network effect. All projects that want to take decentralization seriously need to open-source their implementations. Almost by definition, a decentralized network is nothing but its community of people willing to work together; this is the very essence of “trust no-one except for the majority”. If you refuse to open-source you don’t have a community, you have hostages.
Building up momentum and creating a large network and community is incredibly valuable and not something that can be forked. Bitcoin is still Bitcoin, despite the large number of forks that have been created, and most of the time forks don’t overtake or outpace the original because there is too much inertia in the original community.
There are other, less philosophical, benefits too. Open-source code means you can get more feedback, people can help fix bugs, identify potential security issues, anyone can validate the implementation, people can build their own implementations (resulting in highly desirable “N versioning” which prevents a single bug compromising all nodes).

https://renproject.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001180915-General-RenVM-Questions-September-2019
submitted by RENProtocol to RenProject [link] [comments]

I'm Giving Away 0.5BTC to Whoever Finds My Lost Electrum Password

A little over a year ago, on 10/22/2016, the price of bitcoin was going up, and the size of the blockchain was growing like crazy, so I decided to transfer a 10.511 BTC wallet I had on a thumb drive from a Bitcoin Core wallet to Electrum (I knew I soon wouldn't have enough space on my HDD for the entire blockchain, which Core requires.) So I fired up Electrum, copied down the addresses, and transferred all 10.511 BTC.
One minute later, my heart sank, and I realized what a complete moron I was - this was a wallet I had setup when i first installed Electrum a year earlier, and I had NO IDEA what the password or seed words were.
So now I have 10.511 BTC stuck in an Electrum 2.8.3 (EDIT - I see 2.8.3 now, but that didn't even exist on 8/4/2015, so I must've upgraded at some point - SEE BELOW) wallet that I have no access to whatsoever. I've heard that there are people on bitcoin with cracking capabilities, so I wanted to give the community a shot.
Here's how this will work. I've extracted partial-MPK data from the extract script I received from btcrecover, a popular password recovery program. With this, you can check passwords. Whoever posts or pm's me the correct password first (along with their receiving address) will receive 0.5 BTC from the following address - 1EoKwutew3rfmKbsNcmi53qMRe84v2Cj4H (one of the five addresses in this wallet that makes up the total 10.511 BTC)
Electrum2 partial encrypted master private key, iv, and crc in base64:
For use in btcrecover:
ZTI6goX84upkxg6DGPWNoLhM9nMUz4scIgd8eGAE8yqAGrK55C7F 
For use with JohnTheRipper:
default_wallet:$electrum$2*8285fce2ea64c60e8318f58da0b84cf6*7314cf8b1c22077c786004f32a801ab2 
As far as hints go, here's what I'm 99% sure of:
Or any of the following 6 characters:
1 ! ` ~ ' (backslash - reddit won't display it) 
So those are about all the clues I have. I recommend someone trying a dictionary attack first, and then brute-forcing it. I promise, promise promise I will deliver 0.5BTC to whoever finds the password. I'm recovering 10BTC on top of that, so 0.5BTC is a reasonable price to pay for my idiotic mistake.
Good luck, and Happy Holidays!
. . .
Edit: I will check back every few hours and try all the passwords posted - please don't take random guesses... use btcrecover or John The Ripper to find the actual password using the partial encrypted master private key, iv, and crc in base64 that I posted above (I have to check all these, after all...)
Edit 2: Tried all the passwords posted in this thread until 1:34am EST. Going to bed for now, but will check back in the morning.
EDIT 3: Some people are pointing out that the version doesn't make any sense, since 2.8.3 didn't exist when I created the wallet. You're, right, this version came out in 2017. I am sorry I got this wrong - I've been looking at Electrum 2.8.3 for the past year or so, as I've been trying to open this thing, so I assumed that was it, but its not. All I know is, I downloaded Electrum for the first time on this computer on 8/4/2015 at around 4am EST. Does anyone know what version that is? If its 1.X, PLEASE tell me so I can update the partial encrypted master private key above, as the one above I used an extract script for 2.X!!!
EDIT 4: I'm 99% certain you will find the password if you brute force lowercase letters a-z, after removing some "non-interesting" letters like z,q, etc. Its just about which letters to guess. The ONLY numbers that could POSSIBLY be at the end are "15". So either it ends in 15 or it doesn't, there's no way I'd use any other numbers. So please, whoever has access to a large bank of CPU's, PLEASE try using btcrecover (or better yet, JTR) to try a-z, minus some less-popular characters. Possibly the letters ""a b c d e f i k l m n o r s t w y", but I could be missing some. Also, PLEASE POST YOUR BITCOIN ADDRESS ALONG WITH YOUR ANSWER! I will send you coins from 1EoKwutew3rfmKbsNcmi53qMRe84v2Cj4H, one of the addresses in the locked wallet.
Finally, I just want to be clear - I will give the 0.5 BTC reward to whoever helps me open this wallet - whether they figured out some crazy technical workaround, find the password itself, or gave me hints that allowed me to discover the password myself, whoever helps me unlock these funds first will be rewarded.
EDIT 5: Some people are curious as to whether this is indeed my wallet. Yes, it is: the first 0.1BTC I sent to the wallet on 8/4/2015 was sent directly to this wallet from my Coinbase account. Proof: https://imgur.com/a/zsjZw
EDIT 6 - MAKING PROGRESS BABY! If you're using btcrecover, please put this in your token file:
 ^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^2^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^3^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^4^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^5^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^6^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^7^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^8^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] ^9^%[abcdefiklmnorstuwy] 15$ 
Add as many lines as you think there are digits (probably 9-12), remembering to change the number of the line in the beginning, and change the group of letters that you think might be included in the pw. THE LESS LETTERS YOU INCLUDE, THE GREATER THE LENGTH YOU CAN CHECK. Please remember to add the tags "--no-eta" and "--no-dupchecks" so you don't run out of memory. Unfortunately my machine can only do 600kP/s, so I can't find it myself, but someone with access to a lot of servers can probably find the password very quickly!!!
EDIT 7 - Making a bit of progress, very very slowly. Here's an important clue: when I created this wallet, which, remember, was the very first Electrum wallet I ever created, I would have made sure to add enough complexity so that the complexity meter below the password input box says "Strong". I would've never clicked Continue if the complexity-indicator said I "Weak" or "Medium". So if there's some way to ignore ALL "Weak" or "Medium" passwords, that could speed up the search significantly. It looks like if you use just lowercase a-z, when you add a single "!" at the end for increased complexity, the minimum total characters that gets you a "Strong" password is 12 ((a-z)x11 + "!"). Nobody's been searching for this quite yet, because 11 characters is a lot, and it could be more. The only way I see this happening is if you do a hybrid dictionary+brute force attack, of if you substantially cut down on the number of letters tested by eliminating "uninteresting" letters like q, z, v, x, etc. Based on everything, I think the total is at least 12 characters, but no more than 16, and contains a special character at the end (such as !, 1, ~, (~ if you don't hold shift, reddit won't display it), ', or \ - these are the 6 special characters I usually use by themselves at the end of a password - ' and \ because they're right next to Enter on a standard US keyboard, and ! or 1 (or !1 or 1! together) or ` or ~ because they're my go-to's).
I've also looked through my photo archive from that time period and found a DIFFERENT seed for a wallet I made on Aug. 18th, 2015 (crunch sunny range evoke rapid use bubble gloom pill gossip blanket tired accident - there's about 3 bucks in there for whoever wants it). The password for this wallet was originally "testtesttest".
EDIT 8 - Still no password as of 12/12/2017, and this will be my last edit. If you find the password, PM me.
EDIT 9 - I will update this page as soon as the password is found. If you are seeing this message, it means the password has not yet been found.
submitted by corneliusvanderbilt to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Need help figuring out if a dom is trying to scam me

I apologize if this is super long winded.
I am completely new to the BDSM world. A few weeks ago I started talking to a Dom through a site called AdultFreindFinder(she contacted me) and i'm now pretty sure its a scam but I would like a few others opinions to see if my hunch is correct.
I am going to post the transcripts of our email exchange and hopefully someone with more experience can shed light on this for me.
on AFF chat:
Her:
I'm new here and the website sent me your profile and says you are my new match, I don't know if you got my profile as well. After checking your profile out and seeing our compatibility chart is very high, I guess we might be a match after all. So this what I am looking for, am looking for a submissive pussy licking sex slave who is interested in BDSM/Kinky play, the key word here being SUBMISSIVE and BDSM/KINKY play. I know this is not for everyone, but if this something you want or dream about we can fulfill your fantasies together do check out my profile and send me a message ASAP.
Mistress Ann.
P:S This is going to be a soft BDSM sex slave, very mild bondage, this will be exploring more of pleasure than pain. Disregard this message if you don't have any submissive tendencies at all.
Me:
This is intriguing and I am interested in learning more about you and the domain of submission. I will be honest and say that I have very little experience in the kinky play area but I consider myself very open to experience.
Her:
Perfect let's continue this conversation in a more private environment. What I seek is a smart, intelligent, obedient and eager to serve sub and I think that might be you. Reply this message with your email address so I can contact you and set in motion the process to make you my submissive slut just because I don't get on here as much as I would like and I wouldn't want to leave you in limbo about making you my sex slave...
Mistress Ann.
Me:
At this point I give her a throw away email address

Chat moves to email:
Her:
I'm very pleased to be contacting you via regular email, the little exchanges we have had so far shows that our interest is aligned. This is the first step into making you all that you can become in serving and making me happy and in the process satisfying you as well and you need to be dominated by such a beautiful lady as myself in a real-life scenario.
This is not a trail for you to know and discover if you are submissive or not. For this, to work you have to know you are submissive and ready to stay submissive. If at this point you are unsure, I'll advise you to stop reading this email now, ignore it and not reply so no more time is wasted cause this is going nowhere if you are not truly submissive. If you have kept on reading and sure you are submissive then we can move forward and proceed.
I expect you to always be honest with me to be my slave, respecting me goes without saying slave you must always remember that you are the slave always in this relationship, therefore, I make all the decisions in this dynamic and you must always refer to me as MISTRESS. Like I previously pointed out and am sure by now you know that for this to work on any level you have to be submissive not playing at it. You will be dominated and toyed with by me for both our pleasures and the full spectrum of BDSM which may include, ass worship, anal penetration (mine), physical humiliation, psychical punishment (yours), forced masturbation, as long as its within your boundaries,you will be punished accordingly if you fail to attain my goals of you pleasing me. I will have variations of cute names that I will call you such as slut pie, sex slut you will answer to these names when I call you.
Anything public is of limits for me slave, I value my privacy very much, this means that all our plays will only be behind closed doors to assure maximum discretion, at no point will I send you any nude pictures of me via any medium even after our sessions have started. I hope you are insatiable as I am and ready to go on for long hours to please me, slave. During our plays protection will be paramount until such a time that you can show me that you are clean, safe and disease free as I am. For now, you are under a period of evaluation that will help me to determine if you are suitable to be my slave in the long term cause that's my ultimate goal. Since we have established that you are indeed submissive I don't envisage any problems with making you my slave and that process can start after you have replied this email.
Your Mistress Ann.
Me:
Yes Mistress.
Her:
Excellent my slave, I'll like to start with knowing your name.
Mistress Ann.
Me:
I give her my nickname
Her:
I am a mature and sexy 36-year-old woman, divorced and originally from Germany. I came over here 5 years ago back when I was still married to my husband. I was married for 4 years and divorced for 2.My whole life is here now a slave and am looking forward to making you a part of it. I don't know the caliber of women you have come across in your life but there is none in my class. I have been an active player in this lifestyle for a while and know what am doing, of course, you are welcomed to make your thoughts known if you think they are contrary to mine but with respect, remember you are the slave always. I am a bisexual domme with experience of unparalleled domination and alluring control. I want to make you my slave with my understanding of the Psychological and Physical aspects of this lifestyle. I am strict when the occasions call for it and sensual and provocative when I choose to be. I am quite generous and you have to be as well to be my slave.
Like I emphasized in my previous email we are moving ahead because I am sure by now you know for sure that you are submissive that this is definitely for you, so you won't have any problems relinquishing control to me slave? I can be free early in the day or late in the evening depending on my workload, I can work around your availability as well, let me know what times you think are best for you my slave. I want to start spending time with you ASAP slave, am ready to meet and start training you, you do however have to satisfy all of my criteria to be my acceptable slave slut and this you will know in due time my slut, its a short process that you must go through. At least we should be able to have at least a session together within a 2 week period, we will be able to manage this more effectively after a couple of sessions together. Training will be at my place for straight up sessions, we met on a sex site we both know that our aim is sexual gratification, so there will be no wining and dining just making our fantasies and desires a reality.
My fantasies and desires are more "BD" and very much less of "SM".So there will be no sadistic intentions towards you my slave. There will be more of role-playing and playing with sensual toys and accessories my slave, am familiar with almost every scenario of role-playing my slut, just keep in mind my slut whatever role we are playing Sexy professor and student, Sexy nurse, and patient whatever it is am always in control. I am a mistress with little limits, dominant very strict and caring, I have been a mistress for a pretty long time, as a lifestyle choice and I have experienced almost every fetish, either with slaves that I have owned myself or at fetish parties with my other dommes friends. However, I would love to know your limits so it can help me in molding you to be my perfect slave. I live in Oakland, so planning for our sessions with being easier and less stressful. We live in close proximity to each other we can have short sessions of about 2-3 hours at regular intervals.
I have further instructions for you.I'm dead serious about being the ONLY mistress you can have other filings(non-dominant girlfriend/wife) but I must be your only mistress, when you are with me, I want your full attention if you are going to be the slave for me I hope you are, if by now you still have others(dominant women), I want you to get rid of them and that is my first order to you and it requires your maximum obedience. Your second task is to send decent pictures of yourself to me in your next email no dick pics slave, I want to see what you look like and reply with more details about you using my email as a source of inspiration.
Your Mistress Ann.
(she sent me pictures of herself in lingerie as well at this point)
Me:
Mistress,
I am ready to submit and be your slave.
I am a 29 year old single man, never married and no significant women in my life currently. I am 5'8" tall and have a fit/athletic build. I have never had a mistress before and I look forward to being your slave. I trust you and only you to be my mistress. I think its admirable that you are so true to yourself and know who you are and what you want. I am happy to serve you and be a part of that vision.
My schedule shifts from week to week, there are times when I am very busy or out of town and other times when I am free. Later in the evening/night can work for me more consistently, however morning may also be open depending on the day. If I am in town weekends are generally open and available. This we can work out on a session to session basis and I will do my utmost best to conform to your preference. I would also like to start ASAP. I am okay with the frequency of at least 1 session every 2 weeks, however I am open to increasing this as you train me to be your slave. This can start as soon as tomorrow(Sunday 5/5). I will be unavailable from 5/8-5/13 as I will be out of town.
In terms of my limits, I am fairly open to most things on the "BD" side of things. I feel as you train me and our relationship as mistress and slave grows that my hard and soft limits will become more clear as I gain understanding of how I will be serving you and what types of things we will be doing. One hard limit I have currently is not overextending my right shoulder backwards as I recently injured it and it is in the later stages of healing. This should not be a problem after a few more weeks. In terms of the "SM" side of things, you have already mentioned that this will be limited given your desires for me as your slave. That being said I am not comfortable with severe physical abuse resulting in excessive bleeding and scarring especially on commonly exposed areas of the body such as the face. As I mentioned earlier these limits will evolve as we journey down this path.
I have attached pictures of myself for you. I recently decided to get rid of my hair and have included pictures of me both with and without. I don't take many pictures of myself. Please let me know if you would like more.
I am ready to relinquish control to you and give you my undivided attention.
Your slave
Her:
I Wore Up Thinking About Using You My Sex Slave
You arrived as instructed at your Goddess home for training to commence. You knock on the door and wait. I open the door and using my finger signal for you to enter. I point to the floor, you remove your clothing and fold it neatly and place them in the corner, you turn around and then get down onto your knees and lower your head, and place your hands behind your back.
I place a collar on your neck, then I secure your hands behind your back. I then instruct you to look at me, as you raise your head I start to remove my clothes. I notice you becoming extremely hard and excited from seeing your Goddess remove her clothes, standing there with only her bra and panties on, I instruct you to remove my already soaked panties being so wet expecting you since using your teeth. You come closer to me on your knees and gently get your teeth on the waistband of my panties and slowly work them down, moving around me and focusing on the waistband of my panties. As you finally remove my panties, I have already removed my leash and now I look down on you attaching the leash to your collar and say," slut, if you are very good in your training today you will be rewarded very generously" you reply, yes Mistress." I then lead you to the side of the bed with you leash like my little slut bitch that you are...
I take the bonds of your hands and tell you to get on the bed, no on the bed I tie your hands to the headboard and your legs to the foot of the bed and then I start smothering you with my pussy while I popped your cock and balls with my crop (gently). I'm grinding my pussy in your face wiping my nectar all over you, and the sweet smell of juicy wet pussy and the stinging from my crop made your sissy cock so hard. Soon I'll cum in your face and force you to eat all of it. Then I take some clamps and placed them on each of your nipples. You grit your teeth as the sharp pinching sensations running through your body. Your mistress pops your cock and balls again with her crop turning your throbbing cock harder and harder. She pauses and then gently strokes it with her hand and spits on it. Mistress leans down and takes your cock in her mouth. She strokes up and down giving you firm bites along with your cock head and shaft as she goes. Then your mistress climbs on top of you and allows you to feel her pussy slide down on your cock while she tugs on the chain attached to the nipple clamps. You grimace in the sweet pain that makes you thrust up deep inside her. You so want to grab her and grind inside her, but she has you tied, and you are at my mercy as I tease you by pulling my pussy off of you and pulling on your nipples again. She uses her crop to spank your cock once again. I continue this cycle repeatedly training your cock to be obedient to my pussy until finally your Mistress mounts you for the final time and bounces up and down and back and forth on your grinding her clit down on you till you can hold it no longer. At that moment, Mistress gives a gentle yank on the nipple clamps and I cum so hard and intense feeling the sweet pain run down your body and through your cock as you erupt inside me.
Your Very Horny Mistress Ann.
Me:
I want nothing more than to please you mistress. Your desires are one with my desires. Please use me.
Her:
My Sex Slave,
I am very happy getting to know you better and glad I choose you to be my fucktoy bitch slave. Your words portray respect, readiness, and willingness to serve as my worthy sub. I am going to do everything to make you my perfect slave, through light and erotic assignments, teasing and other activities that will bring your true submissive nature out to the surface my fucktoy slut.
Been a lifestyle domme my slut, am not in a mistress mode all the time, when our relationship takes off there will be some flirting, kissing and touching that might be considered vanilla a scenario where we just enjoy each other and not necessarily in a Mistress/slave setting. However, keep in mind that our relation stems from a Mistress and slave dynamic and you must remember you are the slave always. I do a little volunteer work when I can and am a registered member of the red cross. I work as an interior designer and decorator, it can be quite a tasking job with deadlines and perfectionist clients but I like to push myself as much as I can and I enjoy it. I am excited and looking forward to the memorable times we'll share together as Mistress and slave.
This is my evaluation so far my fucktoy bitch slave ***, through our communication, you have opened up to me my slave and with a little training, you can become my perfect male slut. Your response to my erotic email very enthusiastic my slave and it showed me that indeed you are ready to become a fucktoy bitch slave. We'll proceed with starting our session. I'll get back to you on the dates and times we can begin. Reply ASAP.
Love Your Mistress Ann.
Me:
Mistress,
The more I learn about you, the more I feel like I have to learn from you. I am ready to begin this new relationship with you as your slave. I hold volunteer service in a high respect and am turned on by the fact that you do work for the greater good. I am eager to begin training with you. Nothing would make me happier than to be the slave you want me to be even in those times where you are not in mistress mode, I am your slave.
I have actually recently become interested in interior design of small intentional spaces for the purpose of creating the most ideal environments to support mind, body and soul. I would love to learn from you in that way as well.
My anticipation to serve you grows by the minute, I look forward to hearing back from you.
Your humble slave
Her:
My pussy licking cum slavetoy
I want you to grab my ass in ecstasy while I ride your face with my juicy wet pussy. I want our bodies to connect on a spiritual level with our hands, fingers, breathe and everything else sensually entwined. I have a very wild imagination and I would love to help you reach your highest point of pleasure as you serve me, I want to take you on a journey (long term) if you prove worthy of my SUPREMACY. Your cock is mine to do with as I please my fucktoy bitch slave, this means you can only cum with my permission slave, from now on, no jerking off with my permission slave. I will teach you to make me squirt uncontrollably, I'll convert you into a fully automated pussy licking, ass worshiping slave puppy.
My panties are soaked thinking about using you my fucktoy slut love ***, we can have our sessions on the 15th and 17th and we can start in the morning around 11 am or evening around 5 pm on these dates. Let me know my fucktoy bitch slave if this timeline works for you. If we proceed from this point my slave there will be some financial commitments for both of us.
I have different approaches I used in training my slaves in the past my slave, I will study you my slave and determine what specific technique to use in teaching you all the different ways to please me. I have had 3 long term subs in the past my slave, one before I was married, another briefly about a year ago and I currently own a female slave that I play with from time to time,she is an air hostess so don't get to play with her as much as I would like which prompted my search for a male slave,I've been looking for a male slut for a little time now and I think I have found the perfect slave in you my slut. Looking forward to putting my collar of possession on you my slave and attach your leash and walk you around in your true submissive nature, you must not disobey my direct orders and wish slave, to please me you must always follow my instructions when it pertains to our mistress slave relationship. Respond ASAP
Your Mistress Ann.
(she sent me regular clothes pictures in this email(same woman from previous as per pictures)
Me:
The way you convey your desire through words is unparalleled. You paint a picture in my imagination that only makes me want to serve you more mistress. My primary purpose is to serve you and fulfill your deepest desires, anything above that is a mere bonus. My pleasure is secondary to your will and I will do anything to please you. I cant wait to be trained to be everything you want me to be. I can already feel the tension and its growing. You are now in control of my sexual impulses. The journey has already begun. I will worship you as the goddess you are. Lead and I will follow.
The 15th and the 17th works for me, I am not entirely sure of my work schedule yet. Lets tentatively meet in the morning on the Wednesday the 15th and in the evening on Friday the 17th.
I am open to the financial commitments. I'm curious about what this will entail?
I know that from the moment I lay eyes on you, I will be lost in your ocean. Unable to do anything but surrender.
Your humble slave
Her:
My fucktoy bitch slave, we'll begin our session on the evening of the 15th my fucktoy bitch slave ***. I am sure you know any form of relationship at some point will involve some financial decisions (dinner, the occasional gift and such).In a relationship like this, the financial decisions come early on in bondage clothing, bondage tools, and toys my fucktoy bitch slave to augment our experience. I enjoy been dominant so am Mistress, not a Dominatrix so I don't do this for money and I don't expect you to pay for sessions or anything like that my slave, however for our fantasies to become a reality and sessions reach its sexual satisfying peak there are tools needed to augment that experience my slave.
Your Mistress Ann.
Me:
Yea I expected all of that.
Is there anything you would like me to get prior to our first session mistress? I want to be as ready as possible so that I may be able to serve you to the best of my ability. Your slave
Her:
My Fucktoy Bitch Slave,
Your darkest passions still lie dormant inside you my fucktoy slut, I haven't even begun to tap in your full total submissiveness, my slave. These desires are waiting, sweltering and pulsing with every breath waiting for your Goddess to awaken them with just a single touch and mold and stimulate you into perfection. I will be hosting our training session at my home in Oakland my fucktoy bitch slave. I will like to spend at least spend up to 3 hours with you my fucktoy bitch during our first session, our first time together is going to be quite exciting, you and I are going to discuss at length what's about to happen in our session together and both decide on a safe word if one as to be chosen.
Like I mentioned my slave we at the point where a financial commitment is required. There are a few tools and equipment that have to be available before our sessions begin my slave. I don't use bondage tools that have shared with the previous slave, these are going to be new and exclusive for you and me my fucktoy bitch slave. I have discreet supplier my fucktoy bitch slave and a list of which includes but not limited to Deluxe SS/Leather Collar,Locking Men‘s Chrome Collar w/ Ring,KinkLab Double-Lock Police-Style Handcuffs,Nylon Rope, 25-ft,Adjustable Wrist,Corinthian Corset Dress,leather chastity Briefs With Penis Hole,Nipple Clamps and Cock Ring Set,Pjur Back Door Glide,Envy Five Rechargeable Silicone Vibrator. So am ready and willing to make a commitment to making you my slave by paying at least half of this cost of the toys right now, I presume that you are willing, ready and able to do the same before our training begins my fucktoy bitch slave. If you are unable to make this commitment at least 2 days before the date your training starts now my slave, we will have to reschedule for another time.
This is a one time only payment and these are the tools we will continue to use as long as you are my fucktoy bitch ***. Your quota my slave will be $800 and you will make payment to the toys' supplier my fucktoy bitch in readiness for our session to begin. This will show me that you are indeed ready and willing to be committed to being my sissy fucktoy bitch. I will be waiting for your response
Love Your Forever Mistress Ann.
Me:
Yes mistress, I am out of town. I apologize for the delayed responsiveness, I am away from my computer and phone most of the time while I am here. I will be back in town on Monday night or Tuesday morning. Please advise me of further details about the next steps and I will do my best to proceed within the given time frames that you provided.
My fire to serve you grows every day.
Your slave
Her:
My fucktoy bitch slave ***, I hope you are having a great time at the festival, my slave. I'm super excited as well my fucktoy bitch slave, can't stop thinking of using you my slut. Planning on getting a collar with maybe your name on it my fucktoy bitch slave what do you think. Like I alluded to my slave you'll be making payment for your share of the bondage gear directly to my supplier. She is a mistress as well very versed in the lifestyle, reliable and I always get my bondage tools from her. The method of payment will be bitcoin, my slave. Are you familiar with bitcoin?
Love Your Mistress Ann.
Me:
Mistress,
Forgive me for my lack of responsiveness, I did not get back from my trip until yesterday and had work straight away until 8pm.
I am not too familiar with bitcoin. That being said, I dont quite understand why all this discretion needs to take place in the acquisition of simple items for our sessions. It seems a bit much given that we haven't met yet.
Her:
Ok, slave ***, first you don't reply to my emails on time and now you are the expert on what as to happen before we begin our sessions?

Thats where we've left off so far and im not sure if I should continue conversing with her or if I should just call it quits. It seems sketch that the acquisition of these toys/items will be done through her friend and that its paid for using bitcoin. This feels like a textbook toys scam to me but a very well played one. That being said if it isn't I can only imagine the things that will ensue....
submitted by Subslave111 to BDSMAdvice [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Private Key Scanner 🔔 more💲💲💲 - YouTube Bitcoin Lesson  Keys & Addresses 2020-BITCOIN PRIVATE KEY RECOVERY(SCANNER)A LIGHT MODE VERSION, INSTANT POSITIVE BITCOIN PVT KEYS!!! Tutorial: How to get Private Key of any Bitcoin Address using Working Method Bitcoin Address CraCker To PrivateKey 2020

A Bitcoin address, or simply address, is an identifier of 27-34 alphanumeric characters, beginning with the number 1, 3 or bc1, that represents a possible destination for a bitcoin payment.Addresses can be generated at no cost by any user of Bitcoin. It is also possible to get a Bitcoin address using an account at an exchange or online wallet service. It also contains the public and private key for each of your bitcoin addresses. Your bitcoin private key is a randomly generated string (numbers and letters), allowing bitcoins to be spent. A private key is always mathematically related to the bitcoin wallet address, but is impossible to reverse engineer thanks to a strong encryption code base. Bitcoin private key is a secret number that allows cryptocurrency to be spent. Every Bitcoin address has a matching private key, which is saved in the wallet file of the person who owns the balance. The private key is mathematically related to the address, and is designed so that the Bitcoin address can be calculated from the private key, but importantly, the same cannot be done in reverse. An example private key. In Bitcoin, a private key is a 256-bit number, which can be represented one of several ways. Here is a private key in hexadecimal - 256 bits in hexadecimal is 32 bytes, or 64 characters in the range 0-9 or A-F. Bitcoin uses the secp256k1 elliptic curve with 256 bit private/public key pair cryptography to render ECDSA functionality. The two bitcoin explorer (bx) commands below replicate statements/results in the site references above. Note the private key is a 256-bit hexadecimal encoded number.

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Bitcoin Private Key Scanner 🔔 more💲💲💲 - YouTube

Bitcoin address with activities recorded so you can keep the private key and watchout for anytime you see funds in it you can transfer it to your wallet.You should email to get your Bitcoin ... Because only when you create a new address you create a new private key that will be stored encrypted in your wallet.dat (your private key database). so you can watch this video till end if you ... #btcprivatekeysbitcoin private key finder,bitcoin private key hack,bitcoin private key finder 2019,bitcoin private key 2019,bitcoin private key recover,bitcoin private key database,bitcoin private ... The ownership of Bitcoin is determined by the digital private key, Bitcoin address and digital signature. Private keys are created by users and stored in wallet files or database, rather than ... As long as you have your Redd coin private key and a Bitcoin address you can take the Bitcoin that is on your paper wallet and move it into another wallet. But this will specifically show you how ...

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