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TkeyNet: release date, a brief analysis of the system, future plans

TkeyNet: release date, a brief analysis of the system, future plans

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During the development of the project, we published 3 documents about the technology that we are developing and preparing for the market. Some decisions were changed, but the main idea and goal remained the same — effective financial management.
Since the ICO boom, several years have passed, blockchain and cryptocurrencies have become synonymous and are perceived only as a means of earning money and the obvious advantages of using the technology itself in combination with others are of little interest to anyone. A user, business representatives, or some government officials associate the word “blockchain” directly with cryptocurrency or Bitcoin, without thinking about using systems built on a distributed registry in the current reality.
As we mentioned above, during the development of the project, several documents were published in which we announced our technology and clearly said that we are mixing modern concepts and approaching the market from an economic and scientific point of view, borrowing the best from Bitcoin, Ethereum, DASH, and other alternative currencies.
It is important to note that the concept of Bitcoin or Monero will be different from the concept of TkeyNet. These are other areas and practical application that some market participants may perceive as similar, but this is far from the case.
“When you innovate, you must be prepared for a prolonged lack of understanding of your actions on the part of your environment. You can do something you believe in, but for a long time, people who only wish you well may criticize your endeavors. When faced with such criticism, ask yourself — Are they right? And if you answer this question positively, accept the criticism and adjust your work accordingly. If the answer is negative, if you are firmly convinced of your rightness, you should prepare for a long defense, defending your positions. This approach is a key component of innovation.” ©
The idea of Bitcoin is beautiful, even if it has not yet been accepted by society as planned, but at least the idea of using Bitcoin as a means of accumulating value and storing savings has a place to be. Bitcoin actively strives for a high price mark and dominates the market by more than 50%, and this is a great result. Bitcoin set the necessary vector for many developers around the world, people were able to review the systems used and make their own decisions based on the Bitcoin core, for example, DASH or Ethereum, and users, in turn, learned about such a phenomenon as cryptocurrency.
In General, what was this introduction for? That TKEY should be considered as a universal asset, without defining it as a cryptocurrency. The question may immediately arise, why is this so? It doesn’t have explicit currency properties? Bitcoin also does not have the properties of cash but is called a cryptocurrency, and the types of applications of the peer-to-peer payment system Bitcoin and TkeyNet can differ significantly from each other.
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The purpose of this publication is to tell you about the new features of TkeyNet, when the official transition to the new Protocol will take place, and why TKEY is a universal asset that simply needs liquidity? In General, we will talk about the clear advantages of switching to new technologies that we have been striving for so long and about your benefits of using them accordingly.

What is TkeyNet, and what are its advantages?

TkeyNet is an infrastructure that combines various solutions for users, businesses, and the public sector. Secure corporate networks, payment processors, liquidity, cross-border payments, trading tools, information security, instant exchanges, investment tools. One platform — millions of opportunities.
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When creating TkeyNet, we immediately turned to e-cash protocols, concepts of electronic currencies, considered the movements of Bank international transfers, and also drew attention to the obvious complexity of these systems. Therefore, to build a high-quality architecture of TkeyNet, the team took as a basis — blockchain technology, cryptography, payment and banking system, electronic cash protocols, exchanges, stock markets, DHT, and other p2p networks.
Now more than ever, businesses, users, and most financial market participants need reliable and modern systems that will meet the needs of the market.
For example, a user wants to quickly send funds to another user, and they do not want to think about how the blockchain works and who the “miners” are and what they do for the network. Any of us want to open the app and click a few buttons on the screen to pay for a particular service or send money to relatives abroad and the most importantly, know that the funds will reach you quickly and with a minimum Commission. Or let’s say you came to India, you have some funds in Bitcoin, but you would like to pay for your purchases in the local currency — the Indian rupee without extra conversions.
You are the owner of a payment system or Bank, and you want to receive % for conversion transactions, or banks want to create their consortium for cross-border payments. Either you are an entrepreneur and plan to open an exchange or trading platform for trading various assets, not necessarily digital, but, for example, gold and diamonds, or you are a young and purposeful startup team and want to quickly launch your Digital Bank, or you do not want to do business, and you have several million euros or dollars, you want to get % of their use.
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TkeyNet makes these features available to all participants.
As we can see with you, there are quite a lot of use cases, and it may seem that TKEY is again torn into 100500 different directions, but this is far from the case. Here, a specific and clear direction is Finance and its movement.

How TkeyNet works

Remember, we said that — “to develop the platform on a global level, it is necessary to reach a consensus between government regulation, business, and society. We understand that it is impossible to achieve 100% of this, but it is possible to create favorable conditions favorable to all parties.”
How will the system work? All participants are connected to the system using TkeyNet technology that allows the financial gateway to control their transactions with increased speed, transparency, and efficiency. Independent verification servers constantly compare their transaction records. To hack the system, you will need to get access to all the devices that are logged in.
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TkeyNet solutions offer a cryptographically secure, end-to-end payment flow with the immutability of transactions and redundancy of information contained in them. It is developed to meet each financial gateway’s risk, privacy, and compliance requirements. Since the software is developed to be easily integrated into the existing financial infrastructure, it minimizes any integration costs and failures, and also meets international standards (ISO, etc.).

TkeyNet can be a neutral utility for financial institutions and systems

A gateway is an organization that allows users to invest money and take money out of a pool of liquidity. The gateway accepts currency deposits from users and issues balances to the TkeyNet blockchain.
TkeyNet Protocol provides a single source of truth for counterparties while maintaining the confidentiality of payment data of Bank clients.
TKEY is a universal bill (digital obligation) in the distributed registry TkeyNet.
Gateways install specialized software for interacting with the distributed registry and other system participants. Users, brokers, and other participants interact with the system via mobile or web interfaces. Gateways act as a link between the distributed registry, brokers, users, and other services that allow you to make quick transactions.
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The participants of the system make payments between themselves by using cryptographically signed transactions denominated in digital obligation. This type of transaction uses an internal registry.
In the case of working with Fiat currency and other assets, such as securities and precious metals, the registry records the amounts owed with assets presented as debt obligations. All accounts and transactions are cryptographically secure and verified algorithmically. Payments can only be authorized by the account holder, and all payments are processed automatically, without any third parties or intermediaries. The TkeyNet Protocol checks balances and accounts inside the system for transferring payments and sends payment notifications with minimal delay, which ensures fast calculations in the system.
For more specialized solutions can be created by the Central gateways and the gateways just. A Central gateway is an organization that allows users to invest money and take money out of the liquidity pool. Gateway is an organization that interacts with the Central gateway. Accepts and exchanges digital liabilities for other assets, such as securities.
TkeyNet globally reduces the number of different expenses and automates operational tasks, simplifies and reduces the cost of conducting monetary transactions, and improves traditional financial services.
We understand that it is not easy to tell all the principles of the TkeyNet system in a single publication, especially one that deals with neither one nor two issues. Therefore, you should consider this material as a basis, a base that will help you learn the information that is related to the TkeyNet Protocol most easily after the release of TkeyNet.
Moving a little away from corporate solutions, we suggest you recall some theses from our roadmap, which was published on the official website in the period from September 2018 to November 2019:
“The introduction of the exchanger in web wallets and the app will allow users to send money in one currency, and the recipient will receive it in another currency. For example, a user can buy Tkeycoin for dollars and exchange it for euros or Bitcoin or Ethereum at the current exchange rate.This functionality provides full control of funds through a single trusted and most secure source. Users no longer need to create multiple accounts on third-party resources to make an exchange into a particular currency.With the development of the network, it is possible to implement a multi-exchange that works on the principle of a payment bridge, when the user sends funds to Tkeycoin, and the recipient chooses the receiving currency, let’s say Litecoin, the funds are automatically converted” ©
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We wrote above that TKEY can in principle be used as a universal asset, acting as a digital obligation or an asset as an exchange. By the way, references to this were also published on the official website — tkeycoin.com. In simple words, using one of our web interfaces, you can access TKEYRUB or TKEYUSD or any other asset, such as TKEYGOLD.
TKEYUSD, TKEYRUB, and TKEYGOLD are symbols and can be called differently in the system, for example, TKUSD or GOLDTKEY, so now they should be considered as an example.

Why is TKEY a universal asset?

As before, you can easily and quickly send TKEY to any member of the network and TKEY will have liquidity on the exchange also, TKEY allows you to fast exchange for euros, dollars, or other currencies.
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For the interface, the applications will display functions of digital assets 1:1 to a particular currency, for example, TKEY to RUB, TKey to EUR, or TKEY to Dirhams or TKEY to the pound and vice versa, respectively.
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Therefore, as we said above, TKEY should not be regarded as a cryptocurrency, it is a universal unit inside the system TkeyNet, which may refer to transaction information as exchanges of obligations between banks and transaction TKEY -> TKEY between users, or to carry information about the exchange on the exchange or the exchange of digital assets or gold variations quite a lot, for most of the functions we describe in the release day TkeyNet.

What are the advantages for companies and developers?

First of all, we strive to open the doors for all platform participants. Only through synergy and cooperation can we accelerate the pace of development of the entire system and the introduction of new technologies in the market.
The platform will open doors for developers, who in turn can create technological solutions based on TkeyNet. A working environment will be created, and integration with the TkeyNet platform will be as easy as with the documented SDK or plug-ins. In the course of development, API documentation and ready-made SDKs for developers will be published.
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This will make it easy to use and implement TkeyNet technology in various types of applications, for example, you want to create fast exchanges, we provide you with a framework, back-end, and API, and you create a front-end and launch your service, get your Commission, and are an independent project in the market. An important point is that integration into the existing infrastructure takes place while maintaining the decentralization of the TkeyNet system so that all its internal and external operations remain confidential and verified at the same time.

What are the advantages for users?

This means getting a universal tool for working with financial markets and easily converting an asset into any other asset: euro, dollars, or gold.

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Also, TKEY owners should clearly understand that the more the system develops and there are more participants, namely the corporate segment, projects, and partners, the company will be more stable and thus the project assets will grow stronger.
The popularity of the platform and trust in it directly affects the price of assets, these are the key points of growth signs, the wider and more influential the spread of the company in various areas, the higher its performance in the market.

When will the long-awaited transition to TkeyNet take place?

What changes will be made to the products?

As you understand, everything will change, and this is for the better. At a minimum, products will become faster, lighter, safer, and more versatile.
Changes and new releases will be released as soon as they are ready. In TkeySpace, the TKEY libraries will be rewritten under TkeyNet. A web version of the wallet will appear, and eventually, an application with an exchange interface will be released for quick trading and exchange of various assets, not limited to digital ones. The Tkey Messenger will be adapted for TkeyNet and will be released for previously announced platforms: iOS, Android, Linux, macOS, Windows immediately with the ability to translate directly in the messenger. We will tell you about the messenger architecture on the release day.
All changes and releases will be published and announced after the release of TkeyNet.

What is radically new in TkeyNet?

There will be funds, the Protocol will become much more universal, as well as the TKEY itself. The Protocol will also exclude the possibility of attacks that could have been in Core 1.0, also, the principles of the platform will change. We will publish all technical specifications on the day of release.

Timeline for switching to TkeyNet

The transition to TkeyNet will not take place until August 2020. We will release news and instructions for switching to TkeyNet, so we recommend that you subscribe to the newsletter immediately: https://tkeycoin.com/en/newslette.

Listing on crypto exchanges

The liquidity of the TKEY asset is urgently needed for the development of the entire TkeyNet system, so the company will provide trading platforms for TKey trading and exchange.

Conclusion

The introduction of technologies using digital currencies will create the fastest transition of users and the corporate market to a new level.
FinTech direction makes it possible to manage finances in the most efficient and secure way, without violating the law. This system simplifies, reduces the cost of conducting monetary transactions, and actually improves traditional financial services.
The solution is interesting to everyone who works with money and is used to getting maximum efficiency from it: business, investors, traders, users of banking solutions, the corporate segment, etc. When using the system, large businesses get solutions for interacting with customers online, without using specialized points.
We, in turn, are open to various offers and cooperation on flexible terms. If you have any suggestions or interesting concepts, please contact us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Decentralized finance DFC-leading the next round of financial transformation

Decentralized finance DFC-leading the next round of financial transformation

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The financial industry has been changing from decentralization to centralization and back to decentralization. In the early stages of the entire Internet, decentralized data was used to build a universal distributed read/write system. With the passage of time, the expandability of the Internet has become higher and higher, and the blockchain has gradually emerged, becoming an opportunity to plan and describe the blueprint of financial technology and build a next-generation Internet based on credit.

Opportunities in the era of DFC: Link the world and stand out

The global financial system has created tremendous wealth, but the centralized management of traditional financial institutions often leads to an unfair distribution of resources, and people with resource advantages are more likely to obtain funds. As global inequality becomes more severe, is there a way to break this shackle and give everyone the opportunity to achieve equal wealth growth? DeFi Decentralized Finance came into being.
In the past two years, the DeFi ecosystem has made great progress. According to Consensys reports, there are more than 100 cutting-edge blockchain projects in the field of decentralized finance. DeFi is already an economic system with a value of up to 3 billion yuan. After many years of precipitation, the DFC project has become more and more perfect, and the company has chosen to announce it at this time, taking advantage of the DeFi industry heat wave.
Create a decentralized and prosperous ecosystem

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At present, the DFC project is conveniently connected with other DFC services through clearly defined APIs and standard smart contracts; focusing on its professional fields, integrating with other blockchain projects and building channels, opening the cross-chain exchange ecology to serve customers well, at the end of 2020, the lending and mining ecology will be officially launched, and mortgage lending will be started. The test network will be released in the first quarter of 2020, the stablecoin USDS ecological construction will be gradually completed, and the staking product based on DFC revenue will be launched simultaneously. It is expected that after a year of ecological testing, the main network will be officially released in the third quarter of 2021. In 2022, the construction of cross-chain ecology will be completed, and the community gradually expanded to 14 countries around the world. It will achieve the growth of millions of users worldwide, complete the leap of platform profits of tens of millions of dollars, and gradually develop and upgrade to DFC version 2.0, building more decentralized financial application ecology.
What should be the future blueprint for DFC? No one knows. However, it is foreseeable that DFC will be an important supplement to traditional finance because of its non-access feature. If the emergence of Bitcoin makes low-cost cross-border payments possible, then the development of the DFC system is the second breakthrough in the blockchain system. It is fundamentally changing the settlement structure of the global financial system.
With the development of technology and wide application, a new decentralized financial system came into being. DeFi Coin (hereinafter referred to as DFC) is a cross-chain decentralized financial (DeFi) platform created by the Singapore DIFI Blockchain Foundation. With the decentralized operation and management mechanism of DFC, DFC proves to the world that the promotion of decentralized business structure is a widely used business blueprint for human society. Every innovative product is launched with powerful support behind it.
Adhering to the direction of decentralization and financializing encrypted assets, this is the evolution direction of encrypted assets. Blockchain is born to serve the economic system and financial system. DFC stands out and is expected to become the key to the bull market.
DFC is currently building DeFi and cross-border financial solutions globally. Our scalable public blockchain supports an open financial infrastructure layer-a set of smart contracts. Developers can build products and applications accordingly, without having to start from scratch. In addition, we are also creating products that fully serve cross-border payments, allowing partners to use DFC's global settlement layer in various scenarios, such as import/export, international payroll, and international e-commerce payments.
Of course, the world's largest well-known financial ecosystem created by DFC has reached a strategic partnership with the world's leading C2B blockchain data trading platform Datawallet, Indonesia's head financial technology company Ayo Uang and other large-scale traffic portal platforms. Relying on the advantages of extensive community resources and platform resources, DFC quickly formed a considerable influence on the global scale, with a total financing amount of tens of millions of dollars, and won the favor of more than 20 top blockchain investment institutions and individual investors. At the same time, CNBC, ABC, Yahoo, "The Wall Street Journal", "Forbes", Sinovision, Xinhua News Agency, Phoenix Satellite TV, Sina, SMG Vietnam VITV TV and other top media have been widely reported.
In other words, unlike other functional DeFi projects, DFC is not satisfied with being an "upgraded version" or "alternative" of a traditional financial instrument, but hopes to work together with super volunteers with a high consensus spirit around the world. Using the underlying technology of the blockchain to build a decentralized financial ecosystem with complete bottom, rich applications, and prosperous communities.

DFC ends financial crisis, two-way enabling scenarios

There will be more and more financial products on both the B-end and C-end on DFC, and they will definitely be uneven. However, all products will enter the global unified community evaluation system, and evaluations based on product performance, safety, stability, underlying asset quality and other dimensions will also be chained to become a product traceable credit system.
It is necessary for DFC's invention patents to use blockchain technology to solve existing problems on the Internet. DFC has completely independent intellectual property rights for "an implementation of a decentralized application development platform". The underlying technology platform of the DFC blockchain has the characteristics of high TPS, low latency, security, and 3D data upload, which can fully meet the needs of Internet applications data on-chain, and has applied for more than 300 invention patents, has become the strongest technology community after BAT independent research and development technology.
It is not just technology that drives the decentralized financial system. The power of DFC’s huge community is based on the help of the global community.The global super-volunteer community allocates community traffic and capital resources at any time according to their respective behavior rights and functions. In response to the global community, the DFC project team concentrated on exploring the application of blockchain technology in the field of people's livelihood, contributing to the compliance and practicality of blockchain, and giving back to society with technology. In addition to the strength foundation laid by DFC North American technology development team, the community of South American community developers has also continuously added to the DFC system. Unlike the American community's strong interest in technology, the power of DFC's blockchain cultural ecology has been advancing the globalization process of the DFC community and market. DFC's African community has continuously contributed brand power to users around the world.
There are volunteer communities in 100 countries around the world, and the fission of more than 100,000 communities will change the global world financial system, realize the basic ecology of DFC belonging to all mankind, and bring on-chain life services to users around the world. The decentralized ecological community has promoted the progress and development of the blockchain cultural ecosystem.
In addition, it is worth mentioning that DFC includes all DeFi businesses in the current market-cross-chain asset exchange, decentralized exchanges and stable currency, financial services, loan services, and mining ecology. For DFC finance to develop, it needs to be built on the basis of other higher-frequency businesses, on the basis of the precipitation of a large number of existing assets, and on a reliable stable currency system.
According to the existing ecological deduction, if decentralized transactions can slowly become popular, there will be more and more accumulated and precipitated funds. After more and more precipitated funds, the mortgage will generate decentralized stable coins. Basically, with the flow of decentralized transactions and reliable stablecoins, the development of DFC financial business is much easier, and DFC finance is where the advantages of decentralized transactions are truly reflected, and centralized exchanges cannot really do it. With DFC Finance, decentralized transactions may go hand-in-hand with centralized transactions, or even overtake.
Since the entire community is a strong consensus ecology, the DeFi business can not only quickly land on DFC, but also realize model upgrade. In the future, the ecological scenario of DFC will continue to be concrete, detailed, and implement applications, get rid of the shackles of the platform, build a free economic world with the interconnection of everything using finance as a medium, and enable global fintech business in both directions.

Top teams work hard to build DFC services worldwide

The core of the future form of DFC is to realize a distributed autonomous borderless open financial system, and form a stable, self-evolving community autonomous financial system that supports the full integration of online and offline finance. Therefore, DFC will rely on cross-chain and decentralized exchanges and other technologies, expand the DeFi application ecosystem, establish a community autonomous financial system, implement modern financial transformation of existing digital token products according to certain rules, and improve the communication channels between existing physical finance and digital token finance. In the world of digital tokens, share the latest global economic achievements; in the future architecture, connect with the digital token system issued by global central banks and enterprises, such as DC/EP and Facebook’s Libra.
Based on this, DFC can achieve ecological closed loop and sustainable development, serving billions of users worldwide.
It is understood that the DFC team is an international team, which is composed of global financial professionals and blockchain technology talents. Its blockchain and DeFi technical teams are composed of the Musk rocket startup team, Google artificial intelligence research institution, Russian cryptography and other global diverse teams. At present, these teams have joined the DFC community in accordance with the organization principles of the open source community, and have conducted in-depth and extensive research and construction work. The participation of top international talents has prompted DFC to break through technical barriers and set off a wave of Genesis for the future.
At present, some decentralized financial products have appeared in the cryptocurrency market, and DFC is one of the pioneers. Its founder and CEO Piyush Gupta is a leader in this regard. He has held various positions in Morgan Bank, DLT Association, DAO Decentralized Organization American Association, and now Piyush Gupta said that DFC has passed the 0x Project protocol test and is beginning to break the traditional use case of Bitcoin as a value store, which has become a leader in the development of decentralized financial technology.

DFC Leads Financial Change: The Best Times for Breakers

The first important development of the financial system in history is its own transformation to the direction of "finance". This sentence sounds a bit abstract,to put it in a nutshell, when people finally have enough resources for trading and cooperation, and not just for their immediate survival, abstract finance is formed. For example, extra wheat can be exchanged for pottery, animals, or even original portrait sculptures or toys.
Throughout the history of finance, from coins to paper fiat currencies to digital finance, the latter is probably the most successful form of finance to date. It can realize the DFC vision, tokenize all assets, and open up the financial transformation of global free transactions.
At present, the total monthly transaction volume of popular crypto exchanges can exceed billions of dollars. DFC leads the next round of financial change, from infrastructure to applications to network security, DFC embraces the future of financial technology and is a major opportunity for global finance. We are in the middle of a thousand-year opportunity, there are many changes in the process , and due to our inherent limitations of thinking, we cannot see clearly the trend of future outlets. The economic cycle of DFC's future layout faces huge global challenges, but it also contains rare opportunities. Under internal and external troubles, this is the worst era, but for those who break the game, this is the best era.
submitted by DeFiCoin to u/DeFiCoin [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Oracles

Blockchains are siloed systems that can only reference their own data, established by consensus. Oracles are the solution to the problem of working with external information, which is vital for many everyday use cases.
Blockchains are intentionally self-contained. They reference information only recorded within their immediate ecosystem, that has been agreed upon by a majority of miners. Since the whole point of a blockchain, based on consensus, is that there are no sources of centralisation or single points of failure, that poses a problem.
What happens when you want to engage with external information? Many blockchain-based applications need to process data from the real world. That might be financial information, such as market data and prices from exchanges, for DeFi applications; it could be sporting results, for eSports predictions markets; it could even be atmospheric noise information, for random number generators.
Introducing Oracles
Oracles are the software that serves as a link between these real-world sources of data and the siloed world of the blockchain. They are simple in principle, since they only need to create a series of transactions with the necessary data (ideally formatted in an easily-accessible way) at regular intervals.
However, while anyone can record information to an open blockchain, that is a source of centralisation. So how do you trust an oracle?
The answer is: you don’t. Just like the blockchain’s consensus method itself, you need multiple oracles pulling data from multiple sources, then coming to agreement about the value to record to the blockchain. So you don’t need to trust an individual miner, and you don’t need to trust an individual oracle.
Example: bitcoin price data
As an example, let’s say we want to record bitcoin’s closing price every day to the Ergo blockchain, to give us a long-term and reliable source of price data.
We could take a dozen – or even a hundred – different data feeds, each pulling data from a major exchange. Coinbase, Bitstamp, Kraken, and so on. We make sure that many exchanges are represented, and while it’s good to have several examples of data from the same exchange, we don’t want any exchange over-represented.
Then the parties need to reach consensus about the price. Let’s say there are 100 parties and prices involved. There are different ways they could do that:
The aim is to discard or downweight any outliers, which could be due to extreme price fluctuations on a single exchange, API outages, or dishonest oracle data providers, while retaining many good data points to ensure a single reliable record of price.
Oracles are a hugely important part of the blockchain ecosystem. Once you have robust oracles in place, you can create all kinds of DeFi applications – including stablecoins, which are a vital part of the blockchain economy, and one we’ll be exploring on Ergo in the coming months.
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Recap of Binance English Kava AMA (May 2020)

This AMA was conducted within the Binance English Telegram channel prior to Kava's June 10th launch of its DeFi Lending Platform.

Q1:

Can you give us a little history of KAVA?

Q2:

Could you please tell me what KAVA cryptocurrency is? What problem does it solve?

  • Answer - KAVA is the staking, governance, and reserve asset of the Kava DeFi platform. KAVA is required by node operators to secure transactions on the blockchain. Additionally, when lending fees are paid, they are converted to Kava and burned reducing the overall supply of KAVA tokens. As more users use the Kava lending platform, KAVA should become more scarce overtime.

Q3:

What is the advantage of keeping the KAVA token for a long and short term?

  • Answer - In the short term, if you stake KAVA you can earn additional block rewards every day, block by block. This provides a nice steady return on the Kava usually in the range of 3-20% depending on the number of people staking.
  • We will be opening the gates of DeFi to many top tier assets such as BNB, XRP, ATOM, and BTC which have never been able to use lending, stablecoins, or other DeFi Services. If you are a KAVA hodler you can benefit from owning and having a stake in the network as we grow because as the network grows, Kava is burned and it becomes more scarce as a resource.

Q4:

Chainlink is KAVA’s partner, can you explain more about this partnership?

  • Answer - Yes, this is not the usual chainlink partnership where a blockchain consumes data from Chainlink’s oracle solution.
  • No oracle solution adequate for DeFi applications on Cosmos was available. For this reason, Kava has teamed up with Chainlink to bring its data and reliable oracle solution to the Cosmos ecosystem. Chainlink nodes now will be able to securely publish data directly on the Kava blockchain where it can be used or easily transported to other Cosmos-based blockchains and applications. Chainlink oracles on Kava utilize all the industry-leading technologies of Chainlink, while enabling more frequent price updates and improving the reach and distribution of where that data can be used.
  • Since Kava’s blockchain is built using Tendermint, Tendermint-based blockchains within the Cosmos ecosystem (Binance, Terra, OKChain, Cosmos Hub, Agoric, Aragon, and others) will now be able to retrieve market data such as cryptocurrency, FX, and commodity prices. For DEX’s like Binance this will enable them to create futures, options, and other derivative products they were not able to do so before.
  • TLDR: Kava + Chainlink Data creates the ideal hub for all blockchains and applications to get their DeFi services and Data, and as result makes Kava a natural hub for the growing Cosmos ecosystem.

Q5:

What is the KAVA CDP product? Do you have any exciting things down the pipeline that you can share?

  • Answer - First, let me clarify that CDP simply means “collateralized-debt-position” similar to CDOs that exist in the traditional finance world. What it means is a loan using collateral to back the loan.
  • Kava’s lending platform offers collateralized loans to users who have crypto. Getting a loan with Kava’s platform is great if you don’t want to sell your crypto position, but need short term cash for payments or if you want to use the loan to get a levered / margin position without going through KYC.
  • As for news! Kava’s lending platform is scheduled to officially launch on the mainnet June 10th.
  • At this time, DeFi will be made available to BNB for the first time ever. Also at this time, the Kava DeFi platform will be awarding the first users that have BNB extremely high rewards for being early adopters.
  • Each week, 74,000 KAVA will be given out to all the users who have taken out loans on Kava. Yes, you get free KAVA, for taking out a loan using BNB!
  • If you want to participate, you can learn more about how to do it here!
  • Medium

Q6:

Why should BNB users use KAVA’s lending platform and take out USDX? And how to mint USDX with BNB on KAVA CDP?

  • Answer - Free- maybe let's call it rewards for being good users 😉
  • The rewards are platform growth incentives so that we can grow the platform quickly.
  • Well at launch, definitely the KAVA rewards are a huge reason for BNB users to use it.
  • As for the product long-term, the major use case for our lending platform is to get a levered position without needing an exchange or to go through KYC.
  • How it works is that a BNB holder can deposit their BNB and take out USDX loans - this capital they will take and buy more BNB with it. Most people will use the loan this way to get 2-3x the original BNB amount. If the price goes up on BNB, they win 2-3x the gains!
  • Of course if the price goes down and they cannot repay their loan, the BNB collateral might get liquidated, so be careful, it works just like a margin trading account.

Q7:

Brian do you have any more information or links for our community about this?

Q8:

KAVA was initially planned to launch on Ripple network but later switched to Cosmos Tendermint Core. [email protected] is that something you see in Tendermint Core that is not available anywhere?

  • Answer - For clarification, Kava was never planned to be on Ripple. However, Ripple is a Kava investor, shareholder, and partner.
  • We selected the Cosmos-SDK featuring the Tendermint BFT consensus because during our past work with Ripple, MakerDao, ETH, and other layer 2 work we learned the value of “finality” of blockchains. For example, on ETH, the finality of blocks do not happen right away. You need to reach 15+ blocks to be confirmed on Ethereum to really know a transaction has passed. This results in really slow user experiences that aren’t acceptable in finance or any application really.
  • Tendermint solves this because it makes every transaction final and occur in seconds.
  • Additionally, we chose the Cosmos-SDK as the framework to build our stand alone blockchain, Kava because it allowed us to create our own security model and design which enables Kava as a DeFi platform responsible for millions of dollars of collateral to be very secure in a way we could net get if we built it on any other network.

Q9:

KAVA does cross-chain support. Compared to other DeFi platforms, KAVA offer collateralized loans and stable coins to users too. How will volatility be managed there with so many different collateral systems in CDP?

  • Answer - Volatility is an important consideration and accurate and timely price reference data is needed to make sure the system works.
  • All the collateral positions rely on price feeds from oracles to determine if they are safe or need to be liquidated. Kava has created a novel partnership with Chainlink, where Chainlink oracles that normally run on Ethereum, operate nodes directly on Kava where they can post prices. This Kava to avoid network congestion, high gas fees, and other less desirable issues found on Ethereum, while enabling the oracles with Kava’s fast blocktimes and finality so they can actually deliver price updates 10-20x more frequently than is possible elsewhere. This makes Kava’s price feed data very reliable.
  • In times of volatility, if liquidations occur, the Kava platform automatically auctions collateral off for USDX on the market and burns the USDX. This mechanism keeps the system balanced and USDX algorithmically stable and always fully collateralized by real assets.
  • And it does this transparently, unlike the real world CDOs which caused the world issues in 2008 due to the lack of transparency in their assets and risk.

Q10:

Recently, Binance has released a white paper on BSC, a Binance smart chain. So, what can I get by staking through Binance Coin BNB?

  • Answer - Yay for smart contracts!
  • What can we get by staking bnb?
  • Staking BNB on Kava, or depositing it in a CDP and creating USDX from it earns users KAVA in rewards everyweek. A lot of rewards. In addition, you get USDX to hold which also pays out a savings rate each block that is much better than say what USD in a checking account could do.

Q11:

Various platforms are in Ethereum. So why is Kava not at Ethereum?

  • Answer - I could speak about this for ages, but there is a reason for Ethereum being the home to many hacks and bugs.
  • Kava is not on ethereum because we couldn’t build our system there. The main reasons. as I have mentioned are:
  • (1) Ethereum has congestion, oracle issues, high fees, and slow block times.
  • (2) Ethereum’s open smart contracting system can do anything. This is great for building crypto kitties, but horrible for financial software as it makes all code have infinite attack vectors that hackers can use which are impossible to test for. We built our own chain so we could scope the code and limit what attack vectors are possible.
  • (3) Building in solidity, the language of Ethereum, is horrible. The development environment is bad, testnets don’t work, and many other things are painful. Kava is primarily built in GO which is far superior for financial applications in most respects.
  • (4) The future is Cosmos. Binance, Okchain, terra, Cosmos Hub(ATOM), and Kava all are created using the Cosmos-SDK framework. I believe this is the future and the blockchain developers are moving to this in mass. Over 110 projects now are building with the Cosmos-SDK.

Q12:

What are ways by which Kava project generates profit/revenue to maintain project. What is your revenue model?

  • Answer - Kava is a for-profit financial DAO with over 80 different businesses staking Kava and voting on its evolution. They want to see Kava succeed so they vote to fund operations and developments that drive user growth in Kava. Due to fees paid in Kava and the burning mechanism, as the system grows in users, the Kava supply decreases making those that hold Kava win due to scarcity.

Q13:

Lending/Borrowing has been introduced by Binance. How can this affect the Kava since people can directly borrow BUSD from Binance with BNB used as collateral than going to Kava?

  • Answer - Kava will be featured on Binance as well. The main benefit of Kava is that there is no counterparty. The capital is minted on demand not sourced from somewhere. Binance and other centralized parties on the otherhand need to find capital to provide loans, creating a cost of capital. Kava is much more efficient at providing capital and avoids a lot of regulator issues.
  • I'll add I think BUSD in the future might be usable for collateral to Kava's loans as well. It would be cool 🙂

Q14:

What's your opinions on Future of DeFi & DApps? Do you think that DeFi is the future of current Financial world? Also, How do you see the future of KAVA?

  • Answer - I believe Centralized Finance and the existing infrastructure has a place. It has a lot of issues that cause things like the 2008 crisis and the current insolvency issues that are happening across the world due to trust-based debt with no actual backers other than the people which end up bailing out banks and other financial institutions that have made poor decisions.
  • DeFi's future is bright because it solves this fundamental issue. It removes trust and adds transparency. Kava is right at the foundation for all of DeFi as things grow and mature.

Q15:

Recently, we have seen some big hacks in DeFi platforms. How will KAVA deal with these bad actors of crypto and what security measures have been taken by KAVA for the safety of users' funds?"

  • Answer - Unlike a lot of DeFi startups, we take things seriously. We don't ""move fast and break things"" as Mark Zuckerberg would say.
  • We do a thorough analysis before suggesting to deploy code. Our internal team works very hard to run tests and simulations, once it passes internally, we give it to 3rd party auditors who try and game it and break the code. If it passes there, we give the code to the community to review and vote into the mainnet. In this way, I’d estimate about 100+ people review our code and test it before it goes live and consumers can touch it. I don't know many other project teams that due things with such diligence.

Q16:

Binance for KAVA is a very valuable partner in terms of increasing the number of users, but what is KAVA ready to give equivalent to Binance users? What applications will be integrated into Binance to expand the ecosystem?

  • Answer - Kava gives the BNB users loans. It gives the DEX a stablecoin and the ability to offer margin products. Kava’s connection to binance chain and chainlink data also enables Binance DEX to offer trustless derivatives like options and futures products going forward.

Q17:

Cosmos has limitations on working with PoW coins. How do you technically solve the problem of implementing DeFi products for bitcoin?

  • Answer - Cosmos is great for hard-to-work-with blockchains like BTC. It's flexible in how you can construct bridges. For example, the validator set can have a multisig private key split up into pieces in order to create a trustless escrow and control of assets on other blockchains. In this way, we can create peg zones with Cosmos for the best assets in the world. Once a zone is established, it can be used on Kava and other Cosmos chains.

Q18:

USDX is currently a little-known stable coin. Do you plan to add it to the top exchanges with good liquidity, including Binance?

  • Answer - USDX will be growing quickly. We have a plan to have it listed and get liquidity across several known exchanges shortly after launch.

Q19:

There are several options for using USDX on the KAVA platform, one of which is Margin Trading / Leverage. Is this a selection function or a compulsory function? Wondering since there are some investors who don`t like margin. What is the level of leverage and how does a CDP auction work?

  • Answer - Using Kava for Margin trading is 100% optional. You can choose how you want to use the margin loan. You don’t have to spend the USDX unless you want to. It could be used for everyday payments as well in the case you simply don’t want to sell your underlying collateral. If you don’t want the risk, do small loans with lots of collateral.

Q20:

Will your team have a plan to implement the DAO module on your platform, as it provides autonomy, decentralization and transparency?

  • Answer - DAO - Kava is a for-profit DAO and it’s fully functional already. We have on-chain governance and have underwent several votes and evolutions you can look at. You actually can see some current voting processes taking place here: https://kava.mintscan.io/proposals
  • We recently implemented a cool feature called committees, which enables the DAO to elect a small group of experts to make decisions without needing a vote of the whole user base. This enables the experts to have control over a small portion of the protocol - such as monitoring the debt limit, fees, etc and enables Kava to operate faster and be more adaptable in volatile market conditions.

Q21:

How can we address the possible overloads and security threats caused by increased users in the DeFi scene?

  • Answer - Yes, this is a huge issue for Ethereum, MakerDAO and everyone in the space. I don’t see a bright future for DeFi on Etheruem unfortunately. You can’t have a blockchain do everything well. Tether alone congests most of Ethereum and makes oracle price feeds lag the market. This can cause liquidations that should not happen and real people will lose real funds. It’s a huge issue.
  • The hope is for a dedicated system like Kava to provide a better backbone for DeFi applications going forward.
  • I should point out that Kava is not just a MakerDao for Cosmos or a CDP for Bitcoin. Kava is designed to be a foundational layer for DeFi services that every new blockchain and application will need.
  • Every blockchain will need DeFi services like lending, stablecoins, and data and they need it to be very secure. Kava does all this with its cross-chain lending plarform, USDX stablecoin, and Chainlink data in an incredibly secure, but accessible manner.
  • In this way, Kava aims to connect and serve all the major cryptocurrency communities and build it’s place at the center, where every developer can get what they need to build financial applications of the future."

Q22:

What distinguishes Kava from your existing competitors like Syntetix?

  • Answer - Synthetix isn't really a competitor, but it is an interesting project in terms of mechanism design. We share a lot of common investors and have similar token economic ideas with them. The only blockchain project that could be is MakerDAO, but they can only work with ETH assets due to their design. We are focused on the major cap assets - BTC, BNB, XRP, ATOM and others have a much larger market than ETH to address. BTC is 10x the size alone. Currently no one serves them with DeFi. We’re going after this opportunity and believe it to be a huge one.

Q23:

Why is the KAVA coin not used for Mint, why am I asking that because I see it can also make the value of KAVA coins grow naturally?

  • Answer - Why is Kava not used as a collateral? Well, it could be I suppose. The community might vote for this in the near future if they want us to be like synthetix. It makes the Kava token more valuable and it will incentivize much more locked-up Kava reducing overall circulating supply which is fairly favorable. The main reason we have not done this yet is that we(Kava and its community) are still weighing the risks of doing this given that Kava also functions as a reserve asset. I think it's likely Kava gets added as collateral at some point, but it will likely have a high debt-collateral ratio to address the issues similar to Synthetix which is 750%.

Q24:

How do you prevent in a manipulated KAVA Mint just to take advantage of a token prize when minting?

  • Answer - Minting rewards and manipulation. We’ve thought of this. Each week, the blockchain counts all the blocks, counts how many people had a loan in that period, then takes the average loan amount over time to calculate the rewards. If you open and close a loan - you will get very little rewards. You only get a large reward if you keep the loan open the full period.

Q25:

Who are your oracle providers? Are you also an oracle provider?

  • Answer - Kava may run 1 oracle in the future, but we will always have many and be the minority. Most chainlink oracle node operators are large players in the space that run staking infrastructure companies like cosmostation, chainlayer, chorus one, figment networks, etc. Binance will also be one of our oracles.

Q26:

If we look at all the different types of DeFi products _(decentralized exchanges, stablecoins, atomic swaps, insurance products, loan platforms, trade financing platforms, custody platforms, and crowdfunding platforms) currently covering important areas of traditional finance...where does Kava fit in?

  • Answer - To make any interesting financial product work you need capital, a stable store of value, and price data. These are really hard to get on current blockchain environments. Kava provides all of these.

Q27:

Many people describe Kava as similar to Maker (MKR). How is Kava different? Why do you think Kava has more potential?

  • Answer - MakerDAO is a smart contract with a singular purpose, to serve ETH. It sadly inherited the problems of ethereum. Kava is designed from the ground up for security and interoperability. We are targeting bigger and better assets and have more capabilities to serve them with what their developers and ecosystem need.

Q28:

What is the uniqueness of KAVA project that cannot be found in other project that´s been released so far ?

  • Answer - Well in June 10th, we will be the first ever blockchain project to bring DeFi to another blockchain in a real way. BNB users will have loans, stablecoins, and much more.

Q29:

The gas fee is an issue for blockchain besides scalability. Does your Kava provide a solution for gas?

  • Answer - gas fees are very low on Kava, only high enough to prevent spam. We dont need high fees for TX because validators are paid in block rewards. Additionally, we dont have competing transactions from crypto-kitties or other non-financial applications. This leaves all of Kava's throughput 100% dedicated to scaling financial transactions.

Q30:

Kava project works on DeFi (Decentralized Finance) But what’s the benefits of Decentralized Financial system? What are the possibilities of DeFi over Centralized Finance system?

  • Answer - Open access, no need for trust, and no censorship by singular governments or parties. Kava is accessible anywhere in the world, by anyone.

Q31:

Data supplied by oracles are false at times, how do you prevent this? How reliable are data received by KAVA?

  • Answer - This is why using premium / credentialed APIs is important for oracles. These data sources tend to be more accurate and better managed. Wrong prices can happen - for liquidation systems like Kava, we factor this into our design by using an average of data overtime form all oracles as part of the calculation.

Q32:

Can anyone become a KAVA validator, or is it just an invitation from the project itself? What are the requirements for becoming a KAVA verifier?

  • Answer - Anyone can become a validator, but you will need to stake or have enough stake delegated to you from others to be in the top 100 validators to earn block rewards.

Q33:

DEFI PULSE said that a total of 902M is currently locked. According to you, how will this number change in the next few years, and how will KAVA position itself as the top player in this market segment?

  • Answer - DeFi will only grow through 2020. And likely grow massively.
  • All projects on DeFi pulse are ""ethereum"" based. Kava is going to shake the blockchain world in the next few weeks by being the first ""multi-chain"" project on DeFi pulse and by my estimations we should quickly surpass a lot of the projects on that list.

Q34:

I am an testnet minter and the process seem Simplified, now I want to know if minting of USDX will continue when you launch Mainnet and do you have plans to build your own KAVA WALLET for easy minting on your mainnet

  • Answer - Simple blockchain experience?! high praise! Yes the process will be the same. Kava will not provide interfaces or wallets. Kava Labs builds software for the blockchain, our community members like Cosmostation, Frontier, Trust Wallet build support for people to interact with it.

Q35:

What business plans does Kava have with Seoul (South Korea) after partnering with Cosmostation? Do you plan to expand your products beyond Asia? Have you thought about harnessing the potential of South America?

  • Answer - South Korea is a perfect market for Kava's DeFi. Regulations prohibit fiat-backed stablecoins and margin trading. Kava's platform uses crypto-backed stabvlecoins and can enable users to get loans to margin trade. I am looking forward to further developing the Korean market for Kava, working with close partners like Cosmostation and showing the world real use cases of DeFi.

Q36:

Thank you for taking the time to conduct this AMA. Do you have any parting words, and where can the people go to keep up with all of the new happenings regarding Kava Labs?

  • Answer - Thanks for all the awesome questions! Amazingly thoughtful!
  • I've been promising the world cross-chain DeFi since June of last year. The IEO and mainnet went live Nov 2019. It's been a year of hard work - but an industry first is coming on June 10th. I'm excited. I hope you guys are.
  • Thanks for having me, I hope you become a USDX minter and get KAVA rewards. And last but not least, I love Binance - it's Kava's first home and I'm really happy to open up DeFi to BNB first.
  • To keep up to date w/ all things Kava: Website - Telegram - Telegram for Kava Trading Chat - Twitter - Medium
submitted by Kava_Mod to KavaUSDX [link] [comments]

MKR Holder DAI-gest: Week 17, 2020: Action Required: The State of the Peg

Action Required: The State of the Peg

MKR Holder DAI-gest: Week 17, 2020

Governance Recap April 23, 2020

![Imgur](https://i.imgur.com/Jg3loyp.gifv)
MKR Holder DAI-gest is a weekly Maker governance recap that is written by the community for the community. The best source of Maker Community information is through active participation and engagement. This supplemental publication strives to present all relevant facts and remain free of editorial opinion (Big 3 takeaway excepted). The statements made herein are not the opinions or statements of the Maker Foundation.
DAI-gest is Now Available on Amazon Alexa as a Skill. You can enable it at https://skills-store.amazon.com/deeplink/dp/B087NH82D1?deviceType=app&share&refSuffix=ss_copy for all of your Alexa compatible devices. Then say, "Alexa, Open Maker Governance Digest" and you'll hear the latest issue. Coming soon to Itunes.
Subscribe to MKR Holder's DAI-gest on Substack - Free
Corrections / Comments / Suggestions / Other: @adrianhacker-pdx in the Official Maker Forums or [email protected]

Big 3 Take-Aways for the Week:

Dispositioned Governance Agenda

New

Moving

Stalled

Completed

DAI Digits

Governance Polls and Executive Votes

Passed on April 20, 2020: Executive Vote Adjust the USDC, Sai and Dai Stability Fees

Passed on April 25, 2020: Executive Vote Lower USDC SF, Lower USDC LR, Whitelist Oracles, Raise Dai DC, Raise GSM Delay, Deactivate MKR Oracle in SCD

All recent polls are closed and represented in the most recent Executive Vote. Further information can be found here.

Governance Hot Topics

State of the Peg

Since the Black Thursday event of March 12, 2020, DAI has consistently been trading above the one Dollar price soft-peg it is supposed to maintain. Sometimes grossly over peg by over ten cents. In recent weeks it has been slowly trending back to a Dollar but has not quite gotten there.
Confidence has not yet fully returned regarding the recent market volatility. Also, people are holding on to stable coins due to market fears. This has caused a serious lack of DAI liquidity, creating high demand, and affecting the peg.
Prices this last week ranged from one to two cents above peg. Paraficapital, a larger corporate Maker holder in the governance community posted their concerns in the forum and related the sentiment of worry in the ecosystem regarding DAI being off the peg. This brought about immediate discussion and action regarding monetary policy and collateral on-boarding. The most recent passed Executive Vote contains monetary policy to make minting DAI more lucrative from USDC. Also, some exciting new collateral types are being considered for use in the MakerDAO platform. More on that next...

WBTC as a new collateral type?

WBTC also is known as wrapped Bitcoin is currently being evaluated by the Maker governance community to be on-boarded as approved vault collateral. Wrapped Bitcoin is Bitcoin that is held by the WBTC DAO and then tokenized 1:1 on the Ethereum (ERC-20) blockchain. Bitcoin on the Ethereum blockchain you ask!? It's already here, you can trade it on the https://Oasis.app .
Many players in the DeFi ecosystem are excited about this step. Bitcoin is the most popular and most valuable cryptocurrency. While there is a small amount of WBTC use on current DeFi platforms, it was stated that people have been waiting for Maker to adopt WBTC as a collateral type. It was also said that using WBTC as ERC-20 collateral is the primary use case for ERC-20 Bitcoin. Forum links are listed below for this subject.

Other Collateral Considerations

In addition to WBTC, LINK is being considered for on-boarding as approved vault collateral as well as additional stable coins such as PAX and TUSD. All of these collateral options are hoped to help bring back sufficient DAI liquidity and help return the DAI price peg to exactly one Dollar. Again, see below for the forum links regarding these new collateral types.

MIPS 0 - 12 Due for Initial Polling; if Passed Moving on to Executive Vote

MIPS 0 through 12 has been a high focus subject in the governance community for the last few weeks. These are the first documents that spell out a governance and collateral on-boarding framework for a self-sufficient DAO. This is the beginning of the two to three-year process of handing full control of MakerDAO to the governance community and dissolving the foundation. The very nice flow chart below shows the two possible scenarios for approval or rejection of these MIPS in the Timing Governance Poll. Forum links can be found below for further information.
![MIP Implementation Timeline](https://i.imgur.com/sny6rOf.png)

SCD Shutdown

Single Collateral DAI shutdown is very close. An Executive Vote for shutting down SCD is supposed to be posted on or shortly after April 24, 2020. There will then be a 3-week delay for shutting down. This will give time for people to close out their vaults, and hopefully drain the migration contract.
Stability fees are going to be set to zero to incentivize the closing of vaults. If you are still holding SAI as of the time it shuts down, you should be able to redeem your SAI for ETH via the migration portal at https://migrate.makerdao.com

Forum Activity and Signaling

MakerDAO Community and Governance/Risk Forums
Trending Issues in the Forum:

Weekly Governance and Risk Meeting

Here is a guide from MakerDAO about becoming involved in Governance. The meeting is held every Thursday, 17:00 UTC. During the postmortem and corrective action phase of the recent crypto market prices and resulting fiasco there has been a daily call. This is expected to drop to two calls over the next week. Please check the forums for information related to ad-hoc governance and risk calls that may be happening.
Governance and Risk Meeting Community Guide * Understand the issues that are discussed and governance themes that get explored to build a healthy, secure, Maker Platform. * Get info on how to connect by phone or webcam. * Explore meeting archives.

Events

submitted by adrianhacker to MakerDAO [link] [comments]

How Heterogeneous Sharding Empowers Enterprise

How Heterogeneous Sharding Empowers Enterprise
Despite starting out in the financial industry, we believe that blockchain technology can be applicable and useful to almost any field. QuarkChain is working on developing the most effective and useful enterprise blockchain solution. We did lots of research to understand what kind of blockchain solutions are really needed by enterprises. The first thing I believe is flexibility. In fact, it is a relatively missing feature in most existing projects.

https://preview.redd.it/hym7kpkq5d051.png?width=1350&format=png&auto=webp&s=196fee0da4a6197278d4d800d3e89841db6f5c8f
What does flexibility refer to? With many enterprise business scenarios and geographical differences, can we address all the scenarios with just one public chain? In my opinion, this solution is not viable. The ideal solution should be scenario-based: based on the specifications of the scenario, customize a public chain as a solution. In other words, the solution that addresses all scenarios should be multiple blockchains.
Another question arises: if each business scenario requires its own blockchain to be relatively independent, then how can we make the interactions between these blockchains seamless? How can we ensure a high level of security while crossing chains?
Thirdly, if the business needs to expand, how can we maintain a high level of scalability with few major improvements? As we all know, the biggest problem the existing blockchain solution faces is that, once it is written, it is extremely cumbersome to upgrade. For example, when Ethereum is upgraded from 1.0 to 2.0, it is not something we understand in the traditional sense that the project is modifying the infrastructure from version 1.0 to 2.0. ETH 1.0 and 2.0 are two separate projects which show the whole blockchain ecosystem indeed lacks scalability.
Now we have another question, what kind of roles do public chains and alliance chains play in the ecosystem? We know that alliance chains offer more friendly monitoring capabilities and are easier to satisfy business demands. Public chains are more open and are better for cross-border or some international business scenarios. Based on our understanding and observations of clients, we see that we are trending towards a comprehensive solution that provides both public chains and alliance chains when needed. To be able to satisfy any demands at any time is something that enterprises are looking for. How can one satisfy the varying types of demands? The simple answer is heterogenous sharding.
Let me introduce more about the heterogeneous sharding, the cutting edge technology of QuarkChain. There are three key concepts related to heterogeneous sharding namely single chain, shards, and heterogenous sharding. What is a single chain? It is analogous to a single-lane highway. ETH 1.0, EOS, NEO, hyperledger, public chains, alliance chains, and so on are all single chains. As for sharding, it is like a multi-lane highway. The advantage of a multi-lane highway is that the time needed for a huge amount of traffic to pass through is lesser than that of passing through a single-lane highway.

https://preview.redd.it/7w4fcs7s5d051.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=d1c55ee8637ade010180fa96dd25a1d3ec8c649a
At the same time, sharding can be based on the current traffic to dynamically adjust the number of lanes. If one has three lanes for now, when traffic increases, one can add one, or two, or three more lanes to expand the capacity to allow more traffic to pass through. One thing to note is that, for each lane, one needs to have identical lanes with identical specifications. Such constraint requires us to consider in the first place how wide the lane should be. What kind of materials should be used? Sandstone or granite? Should we plant any greens on both sides? All these specifications are needed during the design phase. After the design, every time when we add lanes, we follow this blueprint to add identical lanes.
In the area of sharding, ETH 2.0, Zilliqa, Harmony, Near are all good examples. If so, then what is heterogenous sharding? Heterogenous sharding, like sharding, has a multi-lane highway but each lane can be designed differently. As the highway in the previous examples requires the same width and the same materials and such, the heterogenous sharding highway allows each lane to be designed differently. In the area of heterogeneous sharding, QuarkChain and Polkadot are the leading examples.
We mentioned earlier that heterogenous sharding allows customized configuration but in terms of what areas? Before addressing this question, let us first establish a few baseline understandings of blockchain. Currently, all the structure of blockchain infrastructure includes all the tokens and public chains we heard of, such as Bitcoin, and Ethereum, anonymous tokens, ZCash, Grin, EOS, and all public chains consist of four important components.
The first component is transaction mode, which also can be referred to as a virtual machine (VM). The second component is called the consensus mechanism. The third component is the ledger model and the fourth component is token economics, which is more related to public chains. Do not be intimidated if you do not understand these four terms. As long as you understand that any blockchain platform must include these four components, then we can proceed to the main discussion.
For example, for ETH1.0, it uses EVM as virtual machine, POW as consensus mechanism, account base as ledger, and inflationary expansion as token economic. ETH is also used for paying transaction fees. For Bitcoin, its token economics is a fixed 21-million token supply of which it just halved its production rate a few days ago. Its ledger model is UXTO and consensus mechanism is POW with its own unique transaction mode called bitcoin type transaction mode. So as you can imagine any blockchain platform must contain these four elements.
However, for each platform, it has a fixed combination of ABCD. Once defined, users cannot modify or customize based on their needs. If the platform defines A as the consensus mechanism, then all users need to follow suit and adopt A as the consensus mechanism. It is similar to our analogy where once the width of the highway lane is defined then everyone has to abide by the specification.

https://preview.redd.it/m4fm65tt5d051.png?width=816&format=png&auto=webp&s=e8319f0d82a1d4ec258f5c949cf7a625cd0ab56e
In contrast, heterogenous sharding allows each new blockchain to be configured completely anew. For each shard on QuarkChain, one can add a new VM. For example, one shard can use EVM while the other one uses Wasm. One shard can use POW as a consensus mechanism while the other uses POS. The same logic can be applied to the ledger model and token economics. With that logic in mind, each lane can look completely different based on the needs of each lane.
Each shard chain in the blockchain can be added based on demand. The maximum number of shards can be added is about 20000. There are four shards in this diagram. Shard 1 uses EVM as a virtual machine, POW as consensus. This shard in fact is similar to ETH and in fact, has incorporated all the ETH functionalities. The second shard is similar to the first shard except that it uses DPos instead of POW as a consensus mechanism, which is used by EOS and Tron.
The third shard uses XVM as a virtual machine, which is a new type of virtual machine. If one day, I would like to have a chain using the latest VM technology, I can implement it quickly on a shard instead of hard forking the existing project. This example demonstrates that out of all the possible VMs or consensus mechanisms, one can choose what it prefers to configure a shard based on business requirements or domains.

https://preview.redd.it/gwg34w5v5d051.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=3a1147d2c7ce69443e6378dbde64308b739bce59
In fact, heterogeneous sharding shares many similarities with cross-chains. What I meant by cross-chain is not interactions between ETH and EOS or between EOS to Tron, but interactions based on the same infrastructure. For example, Cosmos has a strategy: users can leverage its HUB API to launch a new chain easily but one would need to take its own risk in protecting the chain from attacks. Users are welcome to customize the configuration of each of the four components.
For Polkadot, it has a relay chain, which is the main chain that allows users to release a new chain easily. Among the released chains, one can cross the chains for communications. However, a new chain does not enjoy complete freedom in picking the four components: at this stage, each chain can pick its consensus mechanism out of the three limited grandpa options that Polkadot provides. In the future, it will add more options for consensus mechanisms. For protection, Polkadot’s hub will provide hashing power from its relay chain to protect the chains launched under the hub.

https://preview.redd.it/wp8ff6kw5d051.png?width=816&format=png&auto=webp&s=6b86c4e4a669ab54215aa2dc7d55c2b602cb58aa
ETH2.0 shares many resemblances with Polkadot and Cosmos as well. It has one root chain and many shards. However, its shards have to be identical, lacking diversification. Lastly, for QuarkChain, it can launch shard chains with one click like that of Cosmos. What is even better is that each shard supports many types of consensus and allows cross-chains.
To summarize all the questions above, a single chain only allows the building of dApp with no customization. All the four components cannot be modified once the chain is launched. Polkadot and Cosmo support launching a chain with one click and can build a public chain and parallel chain and allow cross-chains. As for QuarkChain, we also support launching one chain with one click. Our solution can customize for public chains as well as alliance chains and allows cross-chains. It can provide a comprehensive solution for public chains and alliance chains, which is something that will satisfy the future demand in enterprises.
I am going to share two actual business cases now. One case is a solution we customized for a major multi-industry business client. This client covers various industries and currently based on three different areas, it has built three different independent single-chain public blockchains, one on hyperledger, one on alliance chain, and one on ETH. The problem they are facing is that for future businesses, if it would like to allow those resources to be moved onto blockchains in the future, how should we design to allow scalability? If it would like to exchange data between different industries, how would it be carried out? Since the different businesses all belong to the same company, it would make sense to share the data across verticals. However, to cross chains between hyperledger, alliance chain, and ETH with three different infrastructure layers are indeed challenging at this moment.
In the future, should we launch the 4th, 5th, 6th chains and so on and enable cross-chains among them? Or is it better to create a new chain that integrates all businesses? Both solutions are not optimal in my opinion. In the end, our solution was using QuarkChain’s infrastructure layer that implements heterogeneous sharding. The root chain acts as the executive level of the parent company that possesses the right to all business data and guarantee security. For each shard chain, the company can customize it based on business needs.
In terms of customization, the four components that make up blockchains can be tuned to fit what the client is looking for. One certain combination can be identical to hyperledger, the other can be the same as alliance chain, and the other for ETH. So one can pick a combination it prefers and add to the root chain. Since different shards are built on the same infrastructure layer, the solution allows cross-chain interactions. In the future, if the client would like to move some businesses onto the chain, it can add shards onto the chain. Such a solution allows scalability and avoids creating a public chain anew.
The second case is for a client who is a large-scale business. The client is looking to build a blockchain-based platform for resource management. Currently, it would like to start small with some test points. Next step, it plans to expand the testing area to more cities and more types of resources. So at the beginning stage, the client wants to start with a few areas and a single type of resource and later on integrate more resources and more cities. The traditional solution would be to create one chain for the particular resource and connect the related areas altogether. In the next stage, when the client decides to expand to more businesses, then it can launch a new blockchain that adds more users and more types of resources, which is like changing from project version 1.0 to project version 2.0.

https://preview.redd.it/a3ghe26y5d051.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=073199e7576b2176116d7201d7181f2dd708fd44
Our QuarkChain solution provides a well-planned solution that uses heterogeneous sharding to avoid the need to relaunch a new chain for each expansion. It can have multiple layers and add shards on each layer. To go into more details, for instance the first layer is the state or equal scale executive level, which is the root chain that controls all the access rights for all data; the second layer is the lower administrative level like the city-level executives, which can use different resources that they have to customize different shards and allow cross-chains among shards. The first layer has a higher level of access rights compared to that of the second layer. In the future, if the project spans across more resources and even rolls up to the national level, we can add a third or even fourth layer whereby each layer enjoys different administrative rights and controls appropriately.
As a leading blockchain technology company, QuarkChain is exploring to use heterogeneous sharding technology to achieve the most innovative ways enterprises are incorporating blockchain to revolutionize their industry. In 2020, QuarkChain plans to expand the enterprise solution into the smart city and large-scale resource management system, bringing high storage capacity, high processing efficiency, safe and reliable enterprise blockchain solutions.
Website
https://www.quarkchain.io
Telegram
https://t.me/quarkchainio
Twitter
https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain
Medium
https://medium.com/quarkchain-official
Reddit
https://www.reddit.com/quarkchainio/
Facebook
https://www.facebook.com/quarkchainofficial/
Discord
https://discord.me/quarkchain
submitted by QuarkChain to quarkchainio [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Oracles

Blockchains are siloed systems that can only reference their own data, established by consensus. Oracles are the solution to the problem of working with external information, which is vital for many everyday use cases.
Blockchains are intentionally self-contained. They reference information only recorded within their immediate ecosystem, that has been agreed upon by a majority of miners. Since the whole point of a blockchain, based on consensus, is that there are no sources of centralisation or single points of failure, that poses a problem.
What happens when you want to engage with external information? Many blockchain-based applications need to process data from the real world. That might be financial information, such as market data and prices from exchanges, for DeFi applications; it could be sporting results, for eSports predictions markets; it could even be atmospheric noise information, for random number generators.

Introducing Oracles

Oracles are the software that serves as a link between these real-world sources of data and the siloed world of the blockchain. They are simple in principle, since they only need to create a series of transactions with the necessary data (ideally formatted in an easily-accessible way) at regular intervals.
However, while anyone can record information to an open blockchain, that is a source of centralisation. So how do you trust an oracle?
The answer is: you don’t. Just like the blockchain’s consensus method itself, you need multiple oracles pulling data from multiple sources, then coming to agreement about the value to record to the blockchain. So you don’t need to trust an individual miner, and you don’t need to trust an individual oracle.

Example: bitcoin price data

As an example, let’s say we want to record bitcoin’s closing price every day to the Ergo blockchain, to give us a long-term and reliable source of price data.
We could take a dozen – or even a hundred – different data feeds, each pulling data from a major exchange. Coinbase, Bitstamp, Kraken, and so on. We make sure that many exchanges are represented, and while it’s good to have several examples of data from the same exchange, we don’t want any exchange over-represented.
Then the parties need to reach consensus about the price. Let’s say there are 100 parties and prices involved. There are different ways they could do that:
The aim is to discard or downweight any outliers, which could be due to extreme price fluctuations on a single exchange, API outages, or dishonest oracle data providers, while retaining many good data points to ensure a single reliable record of price.
Oracles are a hugely important part of the blockchain ecosystem. Once you have robust oracles in place, you can create all kinds of DeFi applications – including stablecoins, which are a vital part of the blockchain economy, and one we’ll be exploring on Ergo in the coming months.
submitted by Guilty_Pea to btc [link] [comments]

Update TKEYSPACE 1.3.0 on Android

Update TKEYSPACE 1.3.0 on Android

https://preview.redd.it/6w93e0afttx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=c00989612ec2d52eb522405e6b6a98bf875e08bb
Version 1.3.0 is a powerful update to TkeySpace that our team has been carefully preparing. since version 1.2.0, we have been laying the foundation for implementing new features that are already available in the current version.
Who cares about the security and privacy of their assets is an update for you.
TkeySpace — was designed to give You full control over your digital assets while maintaining an exceptional level of security, which is why there is no personal data in the wallet: phone number, the email address that could be compromised by hackers — no identity checks and other hassles, just securely save the backup phrase consisting of 12 words.

Briefly about the TkeySpace 1.3.0 update :

  • Code optimization and switching to AndroidX;
  • New section-Privacy;
  • Built-in TOR;
  • Selecting the privacy mode;
  • Selecting the recovery method for each currency;
  • Choosing the address format for Litecoin;
  • Enhanced validation of transactions and blocks in the network;
  • Disk space optimization;
  • Accelerated syncing;
  • Checking “double spending”;
  • The bloom filter to check for nodes;
  • Updating the Binance and Ethereum libraries;
  • A function to hide the balance;
  • Advanced currency charts;
  • Access to charts without authentication;
  • News section;
  • Browser for Tkeycoin;
  • Independent Commission entry for Bitcoin;
  • New digital currencies;
  • Digital currency exchange tab.

Code optimization and switching to AndroidX

A lot of work has been done on optimizing the code to speed up the application, improving the logic, synchronization speed, calculating the hash of cryptocurrencies, and successfully switching to AndroidX.

https://preview.redd.it/h3go5tzgttx41.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=bf311efc73e3577c80f06a21d6b9317bb93ae989

New section: Privacy

  • Enable Tor;
  • Blockchain transaction (the selection of the privacy mode);
  • Blockchain recovery (choosing a recovery method);
https://preview.redd.it/iydfwuhittx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=2ce7c489d893a2ab6b9d6fede57d8b94404edcfb

TOR

Starting with the current update, the TkeySpace wallet can communicate via the TOR network, includes new privacy algorithms, and supports 59 different currencies.

https://i.redd.it/kn5waeskttx41.gif
Tor is a powerful privacy feature for those who own large assets or live in places where the Internet is heavily censored.
Tor technology provides protection against traffic analysis mechanisms that compromise not only Internet privacy, but also the confidentiality of trade secrets, business contacts, and communications in General.
When you enable TOR settings, all outgoing traffic from the wallet will be encrypted and routed through an anonymous network of servers, periodically forming a chain through the Tor network, which uses multi-level encryption, effectively hiding any information about the sender: location, IP address, and other data.
This means that if your provider blocks the connection, you can rest easy — after all, by running this function, you will get an encrypted connection to the network without restrictions.

https://preview.redd.it/w9y3ax4mttx41.png?width=960&format=png&auto=webp&s=972e375fc26d479e8b8d2999f7659ec332e2af55
In TOR mode, the wallet may work noticeably slower and in some cases, there may be problems with the network, due to encryption, some blockchain browsers may temporarily not work. However, TOR encryption is very important when Internet providers completely block traffic and switching to this mode, you get complete freedom and no blocks for transactions.

Confidentiality of transactions (the Blockchain transaction)

The wallet can change the model of a standard transaction, mixing inputs and outputs, making it difficult to identify certain cryptocurrencies. In the current update, you can select one of several modes for the transaction privacy level: deterministic lexicographic sorting or shuffle mode.

Mode: Lexicographic indexing

Implemented deterministic lexicographic sorting using hashes of previous transactions and output indexes for sorting transaction input data, as well as values and scriptPubKeys for sorting transaction output data;
We understand that information must remain confidential not only in the interests of consumers but also in higher orders, financial systems must be kept secret to prevent fraud. One way to address these privacy shortcomings is to randomize the order of inputs and outputs.
Lexicographic ordering is a comparison algorithm used to sort two sets based on their Cartesian order within their common superset. Lexicographic order is also often referred to as alphabetical order or dictionary order. The hashes of previous transactions (in reverse byte order) are sorted in ascending order, lexicographically.
In the case of two matching transaction hashes, the corresponding previous output indexes will be compared by their integer value in ascending order. If the previous output indexes match, the input data is considered equal.

Shuffle Mode: mixing (random indexing)

To learn more about how “shuffle mode” works, we will first analyze the mechanisms using the example of a classic transaction. Current balance Of your wallet: 100 TKEY, coins are stored at different addresses:
x1. Address-contains 10 TKEY. x2. Address-contains 20 TKEY. x3. Address-contains 30 TKEY. x4. Address-contains 15 TKEY. x5. Address-contains 25 TKEY.
Addresses in the blockchain are identifiers that you use to send cryptocurrency to another person or to receive digital currency.
In a classic transaction, if you need to send, for example, 19 TKEY — 100 TKEY will be sent to the network for “melting” coins, 19 TKEY will be sent to the Recipient, and ~80.9 TKEY will return to the newly generated address for “change” in your wallet.

https://preview.redd.it/x595qwdottx41.png?width=806&format=png&auto=webp&s=d9c2ae5620a3410ed83f7e16c018165c8ab35844
In the blockchain explorer, you will see the transaction amount in the amount of 100 TKEY, where 80.99999679 TKEY is your change, 19 TKEY is the amount you sent and 0.00000321 is the transaction fee. Thus, in the blockchain search engine, most of your balance is shown in the transaction.

How does the shuffle mode work?

Let’s look at a similar example: you have 100 TKEY on your balance, and you need to send 19 TKEY.
x1. Address-contains 10 TKEY. x2. Address-contains 20 TKEY. x3. Address-contains 30 TKEY. x4. Address-contains 15 TKEY. x5. Address-contains 25 TKEY.
You send 19 TKEY, the system analyzes all your addresses and balances on them and selects the most suitable ones for the transaction. To send 19 TKEY, the miners will be given coins with x2. Addresses, for a total of 20 TKEY. Of these, 19 TKEY will be sent to the recipient, and 0.99999679 TKEY will be returned to Your new address as change minus the transaction fee.

https://preview.redd.it/doxmqffqttx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=5c99ec41363fe50cd651dc0acab05e175416006a
In the blockchain explorer, you will see the transaction amount in the amount of 20 TKEY, where 0.99999679 TKEY is Your change, 19 TKEY is the amount you sent and 0.00000321 is the transaction fee.
The shuffle mode has a cumulative effect. with each new transaction, delivery Addresses will be created and the selection of debit addresses/s that are most suitable for the transaction will change. Thus, if you store 1,000,000 TKEY in your wallet and want to send 1 TKEY to the recipient, the transaction amount will not display most of your balance but will select 1 or more addresses for the transaction.

Selecting the recovery method for each digital currency (Blockchain restore)

Now you can choose the recovery method for each currency: API + Blockchain or blockchain.
Note: This is not a syncing process, but rather the choice of a recovery method for your wallet. Syncing takes place with the blockchain — regardless of the method you choose.
https://preview.redd.it/gxsssuxrttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd9fe383618dda0e990e86485652ff95652a8481

What are the differences between recovery methods?

API + Blockchain

In order not to load the entire history of the blockchain, i.e. block and transaction headers, the API helps you quickly get point information about previous transactions. For example, If your transactions are located in block 67325 and block 71775, the API will indicate to the node the necessary points for restoring Your balance, which will speed up the “recovery” process.
As soon as the information is received, communication with the peers takes place and synchronization begins from the control point, then from this moment, all subsequent block loading is carried out through the blockchain. This method allows you to quickly restore Your existing wallet.
‘’+’’ Speed.
‘’-’’ The API server may fail.

Blockchain

This method loads all block headers (block headers + Merkle) starting from the BIP44 checkpoint and manually validates transactions.
‘’+’’ It always works and is decentralized. ‘’-’’ Loading the entire blockchain may take a long time.

Why do I need to switch the recovery method?

If when creating a wallet or restoring it, a notification (!) lights up in red near the selected cryptocurrency, then most likely the API has failed, so go to SettingsSecurity CenterPrivacyBlockchain Restore — switch to Blockchain. Syncing will be successful.

Selecting the address format

You can choose the address format not only for Bitcoin but also for Litecoin. Legacy, SegWit, Native SegWit. Go to SettingsManage WalletsAddress Format.

https://preview.redd.it/nqj0nwutttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=fc04b8ee8339ab27d3203ff551013cda7aa9e8db

Working at the code level

Enhanced validation of transactions and blocks in the network

Due to the increased complexity in the Tkeycoin network, we have implemented enhanced validation of the tkeycoin consensus algorithm, and this algorithm is also available for other cryptocurrencies.

What is the advantage of the enhanced validation algorithm for the user

First, the name itself speaks for itself — it increases the security of the network, and second, by implementing the function — we have accelerated the work of the TkeySpace blockchain node, the application consumes even fewer resources than before.
High complexity is converted to 3 bytes, which ensures fast code processing and the least resource consumption on your device.

Synchronization

The synchronization process has been upgraded. Node addresses are added to the local storage, and instant synchronization with nodes occurs when you log in again.

Checking for double-spending

TkeySpace eliminates “double-spending” in blockchains, which is very valuable in the Bitcoin and Litecoin networks.
For example, using another application, you may be sent a fake transaction, and the funds will eventually disappear from the network and your wallet because this feature is almost absent in most applications.
Using TkeySpace — you are 100% sure that your funds are safe and protected from fraudulent transactions in the form of “fake” transactions.

The bloom filter to check for nodes

All nodes are checked through the bloom filter. This allows you to exclude fraudulent nodes that try to connect to the network as real nodes of a particular blockchain.
In practice, this verification is not available in applications, Tkeycoin — decided to follow a new trend and change the stereotypes, so new features such as node verification using the bloom filter and double-spending verification are a kind of innovation in applications that work with cryptocurrencies.

Updating the Binance and Ethereum libraries

Updated Binance and Ethereum libraries for interaction with the TOR network.

Interface

Function — to hide the balance

This function allows you to hide the entire balance from the main screen.

Advanced currency charts and charts without authentication

Detailed market statistics are available, including volumes, both for 1 day and several years. Select the period of interest: 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years.
In version 1.3.0, you can access charts without authentication. You can monitor the cryptocurrency exchange rate without even logging in to the app. If you have a pin code for logging in, when you open the app, swipe to the left and you will see a list of currencies.

https://preview.redd.it/f3thqv1wttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=1906307f7ad1fd6db47bf270ce7c57185267b1a3

News

In the market data section — in the tkeyspace added a section with current news of the cryptocurrency market.

https://preview.redd.it/lz1e7ynxttx41.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=b6f1858d8752cfc6187df5d7b8a2ce25813e2366

Blockchain Explorer for Tkeycoin

Transaction verification for Tkeycoin is now available directly in the app.

Independent Commission entry for Bitcoin

Taking into account the large volume of the Bitcoin network, we have implemented independent Commission entry — you can specify any Commission amount.
For other currencies, smart Commission calculation is enabled based on data from the network. The network independently regulates the most profitable Commission for the sender.

New digital currencies

The TkeySpace wallet supports +59 cryptocurrencies and tokens.

Cryptocurrencies

Tkeycoin (TKEY), Bitcoin (BTC), Litecoin (LTC), Ethereum (ETH), Bitcoin Cash (BCH), DASH, Binance (BNB), EOS.

Stablecoins

TrueUSD (TUSD), Tether USD (USDT), USD Coin (USDC), Gemini Dollar (GUSD), STASIS EURO (EURS), Digix Gold Token (DGX), Paxos Standard (PAX), PAX Gold (PAXG), Binance USD (BUSD), EOSDT, Prospectors Gold (PGL).

ERC-20, BEP2, and EOS tokens

Newdex (NDX), DigixDAO ERC-20 (DGD), Chainlink ERC-20 (LINK), Decentraland ERC-20 (MANA), EnjinCoin ERC-20 (ENJ), the Native Utility (NUT), 0x Protocol ERC-20 (ZRX), Aelf ERC-20 (ELF), Dawn DAO ERC-20 (AURA), Cashaaa BEP2 (CAS), Bancor ERC-20 (BNT), the Basic Attention Token ERC-20 (BAT), Golem ERC-20 (GNT), Mithril ERC-20 (MITH), MEETONE, NEXO ERC-20, Holo ERC-20 (HOT), Huobi Token ERC-20 (HT), IDEX ERC-20, IDEX Membership ERC-20 (IDXM), Bitcoin BEP2 (BTCB), Waltonchain ERC-20 (WTC), KuCoin Shares ERC-20 (KCS), Kyber Network Crystal ERC-20 (KNC), Loom Network ERC-20 (LOOM), Ripple (XRP), Everipedia (IQ), Loopring ERC-20 (LRC), Maker ERC-20 (MKR), the Status of the ERC-20 (SNT), Ankr Network BEP2 (ANKR), OmiseGO ERC-20 (OMG), ^ american English ERC-20 (^american English), Polymath ERC-20 (POLY), Populous ERC-20 (PPT), Pundi X ERC-20 (NPXS), Parser ERC-20 (REP), Revain ERC-20 (R), Binance ERC20 (BNB-ERC20), Gifto BEP2 (GTO).

Exchange of cryptocurrency

The “Limitless Crypto Exchange” tab is available for a quick transition to an unlimited exchange in 200 digital currencies — 10,000 currency pairs.

How do I update TkeySpace to version 1.3.0?

  1. Go to Google Play on your device — My apps and games — find TkeySpace in the list of apps — click Update.
  2. Go to Google Play on your device-write TkeySpace in the search — click on the app icon — Update.
After the update, you will need to restore your wallet.
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Oracles

Blockchains are siloed systems that can only reference their own data, established by consensus. Oracles are the solution to the problem of working with external information, which is vital for many everyday use cases.
Blockchains are intentionally self-contained. They reference information only recorded within their immediate ecosystem, that has been agreed upon by a majority of miners. Since the whole point of a blockchain, based on consensus, is that there are no sources of centralisation or single points of failure, that poses a problem.
What happens when you want to engage with external information? Many blockchain-based applications need to process data from the real world. That might be financial information, such as market data and prices from exchanges, for DeFi applications; it could be sporting results, for eSports predictions markets; it could even be atmospheric noise information, for random number generators.
Introducing Oracles
Oracles are the software that serves as a link between these real-world sources of data and the siloed world of the blockchain. They are simple in principle, since they only need to create a series of transactions with the necessary data (ideally formatted in an easily-accessible way) at regular intervals.
However, while anyone can record information to an open blockchain, that is a source of centralisation. So how do you trust an oracle?
The answer is: you don’t. Just like the blockchain’s consensus method itself, you need multiple oracles pulling data from multiple sources, then coming to agreement about the value to record to the blockchain. So you don’t need to trust an individual miner, and you don’t need to trust an individual oracle.
Example: bitcoin price data
As an example, let’s say we want to record bitcoin’s closing price every day to the Ergo blockchain, to give us a long-term and reliable source of price data.
We could take a dozen – or even a hundred – different data feeds, each pulling data from a major exchange. Coinbase, Bitstamp, Kraken, and so on. We make sure that many exchanges are represented, and while it’s good to have several examples of data from the same exchange, we don’t want any exchange over-represented.
Then the parties need to reach consensus about the price. Let’s say there are 100 parties and prices involved. There are different ways they could do that:
The aim is to discard or downweight any outliers, which could be due to extreme price fluctuations on a single exchange, API outages, or dishonest oracle data providers, while retaining many good data points to ensure a single reliable record of price.
Oracles are a hugely important part of the blockchain ecosystem. Once you have robust oracles in place, you can create all kinds of DeFi applications – including stablecoins, which are a vital part of the blockchain economy, and one we’ll be exploring on Ergo in the coming months.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

Building Ergo: Oracles

Blockchains are siloed systems that can only reference their own data, established by consensus. Oracles are the solution to the problem of working with external information, which is vital for many everyday use cases.
Blockchains are intentionally self-contained. They reference information only recorded within their immediate ecosystem, that has been agreed upon by a majority of miners. Since the whole point of a blockchain, based on consensus, is that there are no sources of centralisation or single points of failure, that poses a problem.
What happens when you want to engage with external information? Many blockchain-based applications need to process data from the real world. That might be financial information, such as market data and prices from exchanges, for DeFi applications; it could be sporting results, for eSports predictions markets; it could even be atmospheric noise information, for random number generators.
Introducing Oracles
Oracles are the software that serves as a link between these real-world sources of data and the siloed world of the blockchain. They are simple in principle, since they only need to create a series of transactions with the necessary data (ideally formatted in an easily-accessible way) at regular intervals.
However, while anyone can record information to an open blockchain, that is a source of centralisation. So how do you trust an oracle?
The answer is: you don’t. Just like the blockchain’s consensus method itself, you need multiple oracles pulling data from multiple sources, then coming to agreement about the value to record to the blockchain. So you don’t need to trust an individual miner, and you don’t need to trust an individual oracle.
Example: bitcoin price data
As an example, let’s say we want to record bitcoin’s closing price every day to the Ergo blockchain, to give us a long-term and reliable source of price data.
We could take a dozen – or even a hundred – different data feeds, each pulling data from a major exchange. Coinbase, Bitstamp, Kraken, and so on. We make sure that many exchanges are represented, and while it’s good to have several examples of data from the same exchange, we don’t want any exchange over-represented.
Then the parties need to reach consensus about the price. Let’s say there are 100 parties and prices involved. There are different ways they could do that:
The aim is to discard or downweight any outliers, which could be due to extreme price fluctuations on a single exchange, API outages, or dishonest oracle data providers, while retaining many good data points to ensure a single reliable record of price.
Oracles are a hugely important part of the blockchain ecosystem. Once you have robust oracles in place, you can create all kinds of DeFi applications – including stablecoins, which are a vital part of the blockchain economy, and one we’ll be exploring on Ergo in the coming months.
submitted by eleanorcwhite to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps
Introduction
ErgoScript is the smart contract language used by the Ergo blockchain. While it has concise syntax adopted from Scala/Kotlin, it still may seem confusing at first because conceptually ErgoScript is quite different compared to conventional languages which we all know and love. This is because Ergo is a UTXO based blockchain, whereas smart contracts are traditionally associated with account based systems like Ethereum. However, Ergo's transaction model has many advantages over the account based model and with the right approach it can even be significantly easier to develop Ergo contracts than to write and debug Solidity code.
Below we will cover the key aspects of the Ergo contract model which makes it different:
Paradigm
The account model of Ethereum is imperative. This means that the typical task of sending coins from Alice to Bob requires changing the balances in storage as a series of operations. Ergo's UTXO based programming model on the other hand is declarative. ErgoScript contracts specify conditions for a transaction to be accepted by the blockchain (not changes to be made in the storage state as result of the contract execution).
Scalability
In the account model of Ethereum both storage changes and validity checks are performed on-chain during code execution. In contrast, Ergo transactions are created off-chain and only validation checks are performed on-chain thus reducing the amount of operations performed by every node on the network. In addition, due to immutability of the transaction graph, various optimization strategies are possible to improve throughput of transactions per second in the network. Light verifying nodes are also possible thus further facilitating scalability and accessibility of the network.
Shared state
The account-based model is reliant on shared mutable state which is known to lead to complex semantics (and subtle million dollar bugs) in the context of concurrent/ distributed computation. Ergo's model is based on an immutable graph of transactions. This approach, inherited from Bitcoin, plays well with the concurrent and distributed nature of blockchains and facilitates light trustless clients.
Expressive Power
Ethereum advocated execution of a turing-complete language on the blockchain. It theoretically promised unlimited potential, however in practice severe limitations came to light from excessive blockchain bloat, subtle multi-million dollar bugs, gas costs which limit contract complexity, and other such problems. Ergo on the flip side extends UTXO to enable turing-completeness while limiting the complexity of the ErgoScript language itself. The same expressive power is achieved in a different and more semantically sound way.
With the all of the above points, it should be clear that there are a lot of benefits to the model Ergo is using. In the rest of this article I will introduce you to the concept of FlowCards - a dApp developer component which allows for designing complex Ergo contracts in a declarative and visual way.

From Imperative to Declarative

In the imperative programming model of Ethereum a transaction is a sequence of operations executed by the Ethereum VM. The following Solidity function implements a transfer of tokens from sender to receiver . The transaction starts when sender calls this function on an instance of a contract and ends when the function returns.
// Sends an amount of existing coins from any caller to an address function send(address receiver, uint amount) public { require(amount <= balances[msg.sender], "Insufficient balance."); balances[msg.sender] -= amount; balances[receiver] += amount; emit Sent(msg.sender, receiver, amount); } 
The function first checks the pre-conditions, then updates the storage (i.e. balances) and finally publishes the post-condition as the Sent event. The gas which is consumed by the transaction is sent to the miner as a reward for executing this transaction.
Unlike Ethereum, a transaction in Ergo is a data structure holding a list of input coins which it spends and a list of output coins which it creates preserving the total balances of ERGs and tokens (in which Ergo is similar to Bitcoin).
Turning back to the example above, since Ergo natively supports tokens, therefore for this specific example of sending tokens we don't need to write any code in ErgoScript. Instead we need to create the ‘send’ transaction shown in the following figure, which describes the same token transfer but declaratively.
https://preview.redd.it/sxs3kesvrsv41.png?width=1348&format=png&auto=webp&s=582382bc26912ff79114d831d937d94b6988e69f
The picture visually describes the following steps, which the network user needs to perform:
  1. Select unspent sender's boxes, containing in total tB >= amount of tokens and B >= txFee + minErg ERGs.
  2. Create an output target box which is protected by the receiver public key with minErg ERGs and amount of T tokens.
  3. Create one fee output protected by the minerFee contract with txFee ERGs.
  4. Create one change output protected by the sender public key, containing B - minErg - txFee ERGs and tB - amount of T tokens.
  5. Create a new transaction, sign it using the sender's secret key and send to the Ergo network.
What is important to understand here is that all of these steps are preformed off-chain (for example using Appkit Transaction API) by the user's application. Ergo network nodes don't need to repeat this transaction creation process, they only need to validate the already formed transaction. ErgoScript contracts are stored in the inputs of the transaction and check spending conditions. The node executes the contracts on-chain when the transaction is validated. The transaction is valid if all of the conditions are satisfied.
Thus, in Ethereum when we “send amount from sender to recipient” we are literally editing balances and updating the storage with a concrete set of commands. This happens on-chain and thus a new transaction is also created on-chain as the result of this process.
In Ergo (as in Bitcoin) transactions are created off-chain and the network nodes only verify them. The effects of the transaction on the blockchain state is that input coins (or Boxes in Ergo's parlance) are removed and output boxes are added to the UTXO set.
In the example above we don't use an ErgoScript contract but instead assume a signature check is used as the spending pre-condition. However in more complex application scenarios we of course need to use ErgoScript which is what we are going to discuss next.

From Changing State to Checking Context

In the send function example we first checked the pre-condition (require(amount <= balances[msg.sender],...) ) and then changed the state (i.e. update balances balances[msg.sender] -= amount ). This is typical in Ethereum transactions. Before we change anything we need to check if it is valid to do so.
In Ergo, as we discussed previously, the state (i.e. UTXO set of boxes) is changed implicitly when a valid transaction is included in a block. Thus we only need to check the pre-conditions before the transaction can be added to the block. This is what ErgoScript contracts do.
It is not possible to “change the state” in ErgoScript because it is a language to check pre-conditions for spending coins. ErgoScript is a purely functional language without side effects that operates on immutable data values. This means all the inputs, outputs and other transaction parameters available in a script are immutable. This, among other things, makes ErgoScript a very simple language that is easy to learn and safe to use. Similar to Bitcoin, each input box contains a script, which should return the true value in order to 1) allow spending of the box (i.e. removing from the UTXO set) and 2) adding the transaction to the block.
If we are being pedantic, it is therefore incorrect (strictly speaking) to think of ErgoScript as the language of Ergo contracts, because it is the language of propositions (logical predicates, formulas, etc.) which protect boxes from “illegal” spending. Unlike Bitcoin, in Ergo the whole transaction and a part of the current blockchain context is available to every script. Therefore each script may check which outputs are created by the transaction, their ERG and token amounts (we will use this capability in our example DEX contracts), current block number etc.
In ErgoScript you define the conditions of whether changes (i.e. coin spending) are allowed to happen in a given context. This is in contrast to programming the changes imperatively in the code of a contract.
While Ergo's transaction model unlocks a whole range of applications like (DEX, DeFi Apps, LETS, etc), designing contracts as pre-conditions for coin spending (or guarding scripts) directly is not intuitive. In the next sections we will consider a useful graphical notation to design contracts declaratively using FlowCard Diagrams, which is a visual representation of executable components (FlowCards).
FlowCards aim to radically simplify dApp development on the Ergo platform by providing a high-level declarative language, execution runtime, storage format and a graphical notation.
We will start with a high level of diagrams and go down to FlowCard specification.

FlowCard Diagrams

The idea behind FlowCard diagrams is based on the following observations: 1) An Ergo box is immutable and can only be spent in the transaction which uses it as an input. 2) We therefore can draw a flow of boxes through transactions, so that boxes flowing in to the transaction are spent and those flowing out are created and added to the UTXO. 3) A transaction from this perspective is simply a transformer of old boxes to the new ones preserving the balances of ERGs and tokens involved.
The following figure shows the main elements of the Ergo transaction we've already seen previously (now under the name of FlowCard Diagram).
https://preview.redd.it/06aqkcd1ssv41.png?width=1304&format=png&auto=webp&s=106eda730e0526919aabd5af9596b97e45b69777
There is a strictly defined meaning (semantics) behind every element of the diagram, so that the diagram is a visual representation (or a view) of the underlying executable component (called FlowCard).
The FlowCard can be used as a reusable component of an Ergo dApp to create and initiate the transaction on the Ergo blockchain. We will discuss this in the coming sections.
Now let's look at the individual pieces of the FlowCard diagram one by one.
1. Name and Parameters
Each flow card is given a name and a list of typed parameters. This is similar to a template with parameters. In the above figure we can see the Send flow card which has five parameters. The parameters are used in the specification.
2. Contract Wallet
This is a key element of the flow card. Every box has a guarding script. Often it is the script that checks a signature against a public key. This script is trivial in ErgoScript and is defined like the def pk(pubkey: Address) = { pubkey } template where pubkey is a parameter of the type Address . In the figure, the script template is applied to the parameter pk(sender) and thus a concrete wallet contract is obtained. Therefore pk(sender) and pk(receiver) yield different scripts and represent different wallets on the diagram, even though they use the same template.
Contract Wallet contains a set of all UTXO boxes which have a given script derived from the given script template using flow card parameters. For example, in the figure, the template is pk and parameter pubkey is substituted with the `sender’ flow card parameter.
3. Contract
Even though a contract is a property of a box, on the diagram we group the boxes by their contracts, therefore it looks like the boxes belong to the contracts, rather than the contracts belong to the boxes. In the example, we have three instantiated contracts pk(sender) , pk(receiver) and minerFee . Note, that pk(sender) is the instantiation of the pk template with the concrete parameter sender and minerFee is the instantiation of the pre-defined contract which protects the miner reward boxes.
4. Box name
In the diagram we can give each box a name. Besides readability of the diagram, we also use the name as a synonym of a more complex indexed access to the box in the contract. For example, change is the name of the box, which can also be used in the ErgoScript conditions instead of OUTPUTS(2) . We also use box names to associate spending conditions with the boxes.
5. Boxes in the wallet
In the diagram, we show boxes (darker rectangles) as belonging to the contract wallets (lighter rectangles). Each such box rectangle is connected with a grey transaction rectangle by either orange or green arrows or both. An output box (with an incoming green arrow) may include many lines of text where each line specifies a condition which should be checked as part of the transaction. The first line specifies the condition on the amount of ERG which should be placed in the box. Other lines may take one of the following forms:
  1. amount: TOKEN - the box should contain the given amount of the given TOKEN
  2. R == value - the box should contain the given value of the given register R
  3. boxName ? condition - the box named boxName should check condition in its script.
We discuss these conditions in the sections below.
6. Amount of ERGs in the box
Each box should store a minimum amount of ERGs. This is checked when the creating transaction is validated. In the diagram the amount of ERGs is always shown as the first line (e.g. B: ERG or B - minErg - txFee ). The value type ascription B: ERG is optional and may be used for readability. When the value is given as a formula, then this formula should be respected by the transaction which creates the box.
It is important to understand that variables like amount and txFee are not named properties of the boxes. They are parameters of the whole diagram and representing some amounts. Or put it another way, they are shared parameters between transactions (e.g. Sell Order and Swap transactions from DEX example below share the tAmt parameter). So the same name is tied to the same value throughout the diagram (this is where the tooling would help a lot). However, when it comes to on-chain validation of those values, only explicit conditions which are marked with ? are transformed to ErgoScript. At the same time, all other conditions are ensured off-chain during transaction building (for example in an application using Appkit API) and transaction validation when it is added to the blockchain.
7. Amount of T token
A box can store values of many tokens. The tokens on the diagram are named and a value variable may be associated with the token T using value: T expression. The value may be given by formula. If the formula is prefixed with a box name like boxName ? formula , then it is should also be checked in the guarding script of the boxName box. This additional specification is very convenient because 1) it allows to validate the visual design automatically, and 2) the conditions specified in the boxes of a diagram are enough to synthesize the necessary guarding scripts. (more about this below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”)
8. Tx Inputs
Inputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by orange arrows. An input arrow may have a label of the following forms:
  1. [email protected] - optional name with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the target endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the INPUTS collection of the transaction.
  2. !action - is a property of the source of the arrow and gives a name for an alternative spending path of the box (we will see this in DEX example)
Because of alternative spending paths, a box may have many outgoing orange arrows, in which case they should be labeled with different actions.
9. Transaction
A transaction spends input boxes and creates output boxes. The input boxes are given by the orange arrows and the labels are expected to put inputs at the right indexes in INPUTS collection. The output boxes are given by the green arrows. Each transaction should preserve a strict balance of ERG values (sum of inputs == sum of outputs) and for each token the sum of inputs >= the sum of outputs. The design diagram requires an explicit specification of the ERG and token values for all of the output boxes to avoid implicit errors and ensure better readability.
10. Tx Outputs
Outputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by green arrows. An output arrow may have a label of the following [email protected] , where an optional name is accompanied with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the source endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of the related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction.

Example: Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

Now let's use the above described notation to design a FlowCard for a DEX dApp. It is simple enough yet also illustrates all of the key features of FlowCard diagrams which we've introduced in the previous section.
The dApp scenario is shown in the figure below: There are three participants (buyer, seller and DEX) of the DEX dApp and five different transaction types, which are created by participants. The buyer wants to swap ergAmt of ERGs for tAmt of TID tokens (or vice versa, the seller wants to sell TID tokens for ERGs, who sends the order first doesn't matter). Both the buyer and the seller can cancel their orders any time. The DEX off-chain matching service can find matching orders and create the Swap transaction to complete the exchange.
The following diagram fully (and formally) specifies all of the five transactions that must be created off-chain by the DEX dApp. It also specifies all of the spending conditions that should be verified on-chain.

https://preview.redd.it/piogz0v9ssv41.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=e1b503a635ad3d138ef91e2f0c3b726e78958646
Let's discuss the FlowCard diagram and the logic of each transaction in details:
Buy Order Transaction
A buyer creates a Buy Order transaction. The transaction spends E amount of ERGs (which we will write E: ERG ) from one or more boxes in the pk(buyer) wallet. The transaction creates a bid box with ergAmt: ERG protected by the buyOrder script. The buyOrder script is synthesized from the specification (see below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”) either manually or automatically by a tool. Even though we don't need to define the buyOrder script explicitly during designing, at run time the bid box should contain the buyOrder script as the guarding proposition (which checks the box spending conditions), otherwise the conditions specified in the diagram will not be checked.
The change box is created to make the input and output sums of the transaction balanced. The transaction fee box is omitted because it can be added automatically by the tools. In practice, however, the designer can add the fee box explicitly to the a diagram. It covers the cases of more complex transactions (like Swap) where there are many ways to pay the transaction fee.
Cancel Buy, Cancel Sell Transactions
At any time, the buyer can cancel the order by sending CancelBuy transaction. The transaction should satisfy the guarding buyOrder contract which protects the bid box. As you can see on the diagram, both the Cancel and the Swap transactions can spend the bid box. When a box has spending alternatives (or spending paths) then each alternative is identified by a unique name prefixed with ! (!cancel and !swap for the bid box). Each alternative path has specific spending conditions. In our example, when the Cancel Buy transaction spends the bid box the ?buyer condition should be satisfied, which we read as “the signature for the buyer address should be presented in the transaction”. Therefore, only buyer can cancel the buy order. This “signature” condition is only required for the !cancel alternative spending path and not required for !swap .
Sell Order Transaction
The Sell Order transaction is similar to the BuyOrder in that it deals with tokens in addition to ERGs. The transaction spends E: ERG and T: TID tokens from seller's wallet (specified as pk(seller) contract). The two outputs are ask and change . The change is a standard box to balance transaction. The ask box keeps tAmt: TID tokens for the exchange and minErg: ERG - the minimum amount of ERGs required in every box.
Swap Transaction
This is a key transaction in the DEX dApp scenario. The transaction has several spending conditions on the input boxes and those conditions are included in the buyOrder and sellOrder scripts (which are verified when the transaction is added to the blockchain). However, on the diagram those conditions are not specified in the bid and ask boxes, they are instead defined in the output boxes of the transaction.
This is a convention for improved usability because most of the conditions relate to the properties of the output boxes. We could specify those properties in the bid box, but then we would have to use more complex expressions.
Let's consider the output created by the arrow labeled with [email protected] . This label tells us that the output is at the index 0 in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction and that in the diagram we can refer to this box by the buyerOut name. Thus we can label both the box itself and the arrow to give the box a name.
The conditions shown in the buyerOut box have the form bid ? condition , which means they should be verified on-chain in order to spend the bid box. The conditions have the following meaning:
  • tAmt: TID requires the box to have tAmt amount of TID token
  • R4 == bid.id requires R4 register in the box to be equal to id of the bid box.
  • script == buyer requires the buyerOut box to have the script of the wallet where it is located on the diagram, i.e. pk(buyer)
Similar properties are added to the sellerOut box, which is specified to be at index 1 and the name is given to it using the label on the box itself, rather than on the arrow.
The Swap transaction spends two boxes bid and ask using the !swap spending path on both, however unlike !cancel the conditions on the path are not specified. This is where the bid ? and ask ? prefixes come into play. They are used so that the conditions listed in the buyerOut and sellerOut boxes are moved to the !swap spending path of the bid and ask boxes correspondingly.
If you look at the conditions of the output boxes, you will see that they exactly specify the swap of values between seller's and buyer's wallets. The buyer gets the necessary amount of TID token and seller gets the corresponding amount of ERGs. The Swap transaction is created when there are two matching boxes with buyOrder and sellOrder contracts.

From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts

What is interesting about FlowCard specifications is that we can use them to automatically generate the necessary ErgoTree scripts. With the appropriate tooling support this can be done automatically, but with the lack of thereof, it can be done manually. Thus, the FlowCard allows us to capture and visually represent all of the design choices and semantic details of an Ergo dApp.
What we are going to do next is to mechanically create the buyOrder contract from the information given in the DEX flow card.
Recall that each script is a proposition (boolean valued expression) which should evaluate to true to allow spending of the box. When we have many conditions to be met at the same time we can combine them in a logical formula using the AND binary operation, and if we have alternatives (not necessarily exclusive) we can put them into the OR operation.
The buyOrder box has the alternative spending paths !cancel and !swap . Thus the ErgoScript code should have OR operation with two arguments - one for each spending path.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = {} val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
The formula for the cancelCondition expression is given in the !cancel spending path of the buyOrder box. We can directly include it in the script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
For the !swap spending path of the buyOrder box the conditions are specified in the buyerOut output box of the Swap transaction. If we simply include them in the swapCondition then we get a syntactically incorrect script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = { tAmt: TID && R4 == bid.id && @contract } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
We can however translate the conditions from the diagram syntax to ErgoScript expressions using the following simple rules
  1. [email protected] ==> val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0)
  2. tAmt: TID ==> tid._2 == tAmt where tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID)
  3. R4 == bid.id ==> R4 == SELF.id where R4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]].get
  4. script == buyer ==> buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes
Note, in the diagram TID represents a token id, but ErgoScript doesn't have access to the tokens by the ids so we cannot write tokens.getByKey(TID) . For this reason, when the diagram is translated into ErgoScript, TID becomes a named constant of the index in tokens collection of the box. The concrete value of the constant is assigned when the BuyOrder transaction with the buyOrder box is created. The correspondence and consistency between the actual tokenId, the TID constant and the actual tokens of the buyerOut box is ensured by the off-chain application code, which is completely possible since all of the transactions are created by the application using FlowCard as a guiding specification. This may sound too complicated, but this is part of the translation from diagram specification to actual executable application code, most of which can be automated.
After the transformation we can obtain a correct script which checks all the required preconditions for spending the buyOrder box.
/** buyOrder contract */ def DEX(buyer: Addrss, seller: Address, TID: Int, ergAmt: Long, tAmt: Long) { val cancelCondition: SigmaProp = { buyer } // verify buyer's sig (ProveDlog) val swapCondition = OUTPUTS.size > 0 && { // securing OUTPUTS access val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0) // from [email protected] buyerOut.tokens.size > TID && { // securing tokens access val tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID) val regR4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]] regR4.isDefined && { // securing R4 access val R4 = regR4.get tid._2 == tAmt && // from tAmt: TID R4 == SELF.id && // from R4 == bid.id buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes // from script == buyer } } } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
A similar script for the sellOrder box can be obtained using the same translation rules. With the help of the tooling the code of contracts can be mechanically generated from the diagram specification.

Conclusions

Declarative programming models have already won the battle against imperative programming in many application domains like Big Data, Stream Processing, Deep Learning, Databases, etc. Ergo is pioneering the declarative model of dApp development as a better and safer alternative to the now popular imperative model of smart contracts.
The concept of FlowCard shifts the focus from writing ErgoScript contracts to the overall flow of values (hence the name), in such a way, that ErgoScript can always be generated from them. You will never need to look at the ErgoScript code once the tooling is in place.
Here are the possible next steps for future work:
  1. Storage format for FlowCard Spec and the corresponding EIP standardized file format (Json/XML/Protobuf). This will allow various tools (Diagram Editor, Runtime, dApps etc) to create and use *.flowcard files.
  2. FlowCard Viewer, which can generate the diagrams from *.flowcard files.
  3. FlowCard Runtime, which can run *.flowcard files, create and send transactions to Ergo network.
  4. FlowCard Designer Tool, which can simplify development of complex diagrams . This will make designing and validation of Ergo contracts a pleasant experience, more like drawing rather than coding. In addition, the correctness of the whole dApp scenario can be verified and controlled by the tooling.
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