Bitcoin ATM is 'horrible for money laundering,' co-creator

Agreement with Satoshi – On the Formalization of Nakamoto Consensus

Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/400
Date: 2018-05-01
Author(s): Nicholas Stifter, Aljosha Judmayer, Philipp Schindler, Alexei Zamyatin, Edgar Weippl

Link to Paper


Abstract
The term Nakamoto consensus is generally used to refer to Bitcoin's novel consensus mechanism, by which agreement on its underlying transaction ledger is reached. It is argued that this agreement protocol represents the core innovation behind Bitcoin, because it promises to facilitate the decentralization of trusted third parties. Specifically, Nakamoto consensus seeks to enable mutually distrusting entities with weak pseudonymous identities to reach eventual agreement while the set of participants may change over time. When the Bitcoin white paper was published in late 2008, it lacked a formal analysis of the protocol and the guarantees it claimed to provide. It would take the scientific community several years before first steps towards such a formalization of the Bitcoin protocol and Nakamoto consensus were presented. However, since then the number of works addressing this topic has grown substantially, providing many new and valuable insights. Herein, we present a coherent picture of advancements towards the formalization of Nakamoto consensus, as well as a contextualization in respect to previous research on the agreement problem and fault tolerant distributed computing. Thereby, we outline how Bitcoin's consensus mechanism sets itself apart from previous approaches and where it can provide new impulses and directions to the scientific community. Understanding the core properties and characteristics of Nakamoto consensus is of key importance, not only for assessing the security and reliability of various blockchain systems that are based on the fundamentals of this scheme, but also for designing future systems that aim to fulfill comparable goals.

References
[AAC+05] Amitanand S Aiyer, Lorenzo Alvisi, Allen Clement, Mike Dahlin, Jean-Philippe Martin, and Carl Porth. Bar fault tolerance for cooperative services. In ACM SIGOPS operating systems review, volume 39, pages 45–58. ACM, 2005.
[ABSFG08] Eduardo A Alchieri, Alysson Neves Bessani, Joni Silva Fraga, and Fab´ıola Greve. Byzantine consensus with unknown participants. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, pages 22–40. SpringerVerlag, 2008.
[AFJ06] Dana Angluin, Michael J Fischer, and Hong Jiang. Stabilizing consensus in mobile networks. In Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, pages 37–50. Springer, 2006.
[AJK05] James Aspnes, Collin Jackson, and Arvind Krishnamurthy. Exposing computationally-challenged byzantine impostors. Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, Tech. Rep, 2005.
[AMN+16] Ittai Abraham, Dahlia Malkhi, Kartik Nayak, Ling Ren, and Alexander Spiegelman. Solidus: An incentive-compatible cryptocurrency based on permissionless byzantine consensus. https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.02916, Dec 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-06.
[AS98] Yair Amir and Jonathan Stanton. The spread wide area group communication system. Technical report, TR CNDS-98-4, The Center for Networking and Distributed Systems, The Johns Hopkins University, 1998.
[Bag00] Walter Bagehot. The english constitution, volume 3. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1900. ¨
[Ban98] Bela Ban. Design and implementation of a reliable group communication toolkit for java, 1998.
[BBRTP07] Roberto Baldoni, Marin Bertier, Michel Raynal, and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni. Looking for a definition of dynamic distributed systems. In International Conference on Parallel Computing Technologies, pages 1–14. Springer, 2007.
[Bit] Bitcoin community. Bitcoin-core source code. https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin. Accessed: 2015-06-30.
[BJ87] Ken Birman and Thomas Joseph. Exploiting virtual synchrony in distributed systems. volume 21. ACM, 1987.
[BMC+15] Joseph Bonneau, Andrew Miller, Jeremy Clark, Arvind Narayanan, Joshua A Kroll, and Edward W Felten. Sok: Research perspectives and challenges for bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2015.
[BO83] Michael Ben-Or. Another advantage of free choice (extended abstract): Completely asynchronous agreement protocols. In Proceedings of the second annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 27–30. ACM, 1983.
[BPS16a] Iddo Bentov, Rafael Pass, and Elaine Shi. The sleepy model of consensus. https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/918.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2016-11-08.
[BPS16b] Iddo Bentov, Rafael Pass, and Elaine Shi. Snow white: Provably secure proofs of stake. https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/919.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2016-11-08.
[BR09] Franc¸ois Bonnet and Michel Raynal. The price of anonymity: Optimal consensus despite asynchrony, crash and anonymity. In Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Distributed computing, pages 341–355. Springer-Verlag, 2009.
[Bre00] EA Brewer. Towards robust distributed systems. abstract. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, page 7, 2000.
[BSAB+17] Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Mustafa Al-Bassam, Sarah Azouvi, Patrick McCorry, Sarah Meiklejohn, and George Danezis. Consensus in the age of blockchains. arXiv:1711.03936, 2017. Accessed:2017-12-11.
[BT16] Zohir Bouzid and Corentin Travers. Anonymity-preserving failure detectors. In International Symposium on Distributed Computing, pages 173–186. Springer, 2016.
[Can00] Ran Canetti. Security and composition of multiparty cryptographic protocols. Journal of CRYPTOLOGY, 13(1):143–202, 2000.
[Can01] Ran Canetti. Universally composable security: A new paradigm for cryptographic protocols. In Foundations of Computer Science, 2001. Proceedings. 42nd IEEE Symposium on, pages 136–145. IEEE, 2001.
[CFN90] David Chaum, Amos Fiat, and Moni Naor. Untraceable electronic cash. In Proceedings on Advances in cryptology, pages 319–327. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1990.
[CGR07] Tushar D Chandra, Robert Griesemer, and Joshua Redstone. Paxos made live: an engineering perspective. In Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 398–407. ACM, 2007.
[CGR11] Christian Cachin, Rachid Guerraoui, and Luis Rodrigues. Introduction to reliable and secure distributed programming. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.
[CKS00] Christian Cachin, Klaus Kursawe, and Victor Shoup. Random oracles in constantinople: Practical asynchronous byzantine agreement using cryptography. In Proceedings of the nineteenth annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 123–132. ACM, 2000.
[CL+99] Miguel Castro, Barbara Liskov, et al. Practical byzantine fault tolerance. In OSDI, volume 99, pages 173–186, 1999.
[CL02] Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), 20(4):398–461, 2002.
[CNV04] Miguel Correia, Nuno Ferreira Neves, and Paulo Verissimo. How to tolerate half less one byzantine nodes in practical distributed systems. In Reliable Distributed Systems, 2004. Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Symposium on, pages 174–183. IEEE, 2004.
[Coo09] J. L. Coolidge. The gambler’s ruin. Annals of Mathematics, 10(4):181–192, 1909.
[Cri91] Flaviu Cristian. Reaching agreement on processor-group membrship in synchronous distributed systems. Distributed Computing, 4(4):175–187, 1991.
[CT96] Tushar Deepak Chandra and Sam Toueg. Unreliable failure detectors for reliable distributed systems. volume 43, pages 225–267. ACM, 1996.
[CV17] Christian Cachin and Marko Vukolic. Blockchain con- ´sensus protocols in the wild. arXiv:1707.01873, 2017. Accessed:2017-09-26.
[CVL10] Miguel Correia, Giuliana S Veronese, and Lau Cheuk Lung. Asynchronous byzantine consensus with 2f+ 1 processes. In Proceedings of the 2010 ACM symposium on applied computing, pages 475–480. ACM, 2010.
[CVNV11] Miguel Correia, Giuliana Santos Veronese, Nuno Ferreira Neves, and Paulo Verissimo. Byzantine consensus in asynchronous message-passing systems: a survey. volume 2, pages 141–161. Inderscience Publishers, 2011.
[CWA+09] Allen Clement, Edmund L Wong, Lorenzo Alvisi, Michael Dahlin, and Mirco Marchetti. Making byzantine fault tolerant systems tolerate byzantine faults. In NSDI, volume 9, pages 153–168, 2009.
[DDS87] Danny Dolev, Cynthia Dwork, and Larry Stockmeyer. On the minimal synchronism needed for distributed consensus. volume 34, pages 77–97. ACM, 1987.
[Dei] Wei Dei. b-money. http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt. Accessed on 03/03/2017.
[DGFGK10] Carole Delporte-Gallet, Hugues Fauconnier, Rachid Guerraoui, and Anne-Marie Kermarrec. Brief announcement: Byzantine agreement with homonyms. In Proceedings of the twentysecond annual ACM symposium on Parallelism in algorithms and architectures, pages 74–75. ACM, 2010.
[DGG02] Assia Doudou, Benoˆıt Garbinato, and Rachid Guerraoui. Encapsulating failure detection: From crash to byzantine failures. In International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, pages 24–50. Springer, 2002.
[DGKR17] Bernardo David, Peter Gazi, Aggelos Kiayias, and Alexan- ˇder Russell. Ouroboros praos: An adaptively-secure, semisynchronous proof-of-stake protocol. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/573, 2017. Accessed: 2017-06-29.
[DLP+86] Danny Dolev, Nancy A Lynch, Shlomit S Pinter, Eugene W Stark, and William E Weihl. Reaching approximate agreement in the presence of faults. volume 33, pages 499–516. ACM, 1986.
[DLS88] Cynthia Dwork, Nancy Lynch, and Larry Stockmeyer. Consensus in the presence of partial synchrony. volume 35, pages 288–323. ACM, 1988.
[DN92] Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor. Pricing via processing or combatting junk mail. In Annual International Cryptology Conference, pages 139–147. Springer, 1992.
[Dol81] Danny Dolev. Unanimity in an unknown and unreliable environment. In Foundations of Computer Science, 1981. SFCS’81. 22nd Annual Symposium on, pages 159–168. IEEE, 1981.
[Dou02] John R Douceur. The sybil attack. In International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pages 251–260. Springer, 2002.
[DSU04] Xavier Defago, Andr ´ e Schiper, and P ´ eter Urb ´ an. Total order ´ broadcast and multicast algorithms: Taxonomy and survey. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 36(4):372–421, 2004.
[DW13] Christian Decker and Roger Wattenhofer. Information propagation in the bitcoin network. In Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2013 IEEE Thirteenth International Conference on, pages 1–10. IEEE, 2013.
[EGSvR16] Ittay Eyal, Adem Efe Gencer, Emin Gun Sirer, and Robbert van Renesse. Bitcoin-ng: A scalable blockchain protocol. In 13th USENIX Security Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’16). USENIX Association, Mar 2016.
[ES14] Ittay Eyal and Emin Gun Sirer. Majority is not enough: Bitcoin ¨ mining is vulnerable. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 436–454. Springer, 2014.
[Fin04] Hal Finney. Reusable proofs of work (rpow). http://web.archive.org/web/20071222072154/http://rpow.net/, 2004. Accessed: 2016-04-31.
[Fis83] Michael J Fischer. The consensus problem in unreliable distributed systems (a brief survey). In International Conference on Fundamentals of Computation Theory, pages 127–140. Springer, 1983.
[FL82] Michael J FISCHER and Nancy A LYNCH. A lower bound for the time to assure interactive consistency. volume 14, Jun 1982.
[FLP85] Michael J Fischer, Nancy A Lynch, and Michael S Paterson. Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process. volume 32, pages 374–382. ACM, 1985.
[Fuz08] Rachele Fuzzati. A formal approach to fault tolerant distributed consensus. PhD thesis, EPFL, 2008.
[GHM+17] Yossi Gilad, Rotem Hemo, Silvio Micali, Georgios Vlachos, and Nickolai Zeldovich. Algorand: Scaling byzantine agreements for cryptocurrencies. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/454, 2017. Accessed: 2017-06-29.
[GKL15] Juan Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, and Nikos Leonardos. The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications. In Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT 2015, pages 281–310. Springer, 2015.
[GKL16] Juan A. Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, and Nikos Leonardos. The bitcoin backbone protocol with chains of variable difficulty. http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1048.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-06.
[GKP17] Juan A. Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, and Giorgos Panagiotakos. Proofs of work for blockchain protocols. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775, 2017. http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.
[GKQV10] Rachid Guerraoui, Nikola Knezevi ˇ c, Vivien Qu ´ ema, and Marko ´ Vukolic. The next 700 bft protocols. In ´ Proceedings of the 5th European conference on Computer systems, pages 363–376. ACM, 2010.
[GKTZ12] Adam Groce, Jonathan Katz, Aishwarya Thiruvengadam, and Vassilis Zikas. Byzantine agreement with a rational adversary. pages 561–572. Springer, 2012.
[GKW+16] Arthur Gervais, Ghassan O Karame, Karl Wust, Vasileios ¨ Glykantzis, Hubert Ritzdorf, and Srdjan Capkun. On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains. https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/555.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2016-08-10.
[GL02] Seth Gilbert and Nancy Lynch. Brewer’s conjecture and the feasibility of consistent, available, partition-tolerant web services. volume 33, pages 51–59. ACM, 2002.
[GRKC15] Arthur Gervais, Hubert Ritzdorf, Ghassan O Karame, and Srdjan Capkun. Tampering with the delivery of blocks and transactions in bitcoin. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 692–705. ACM, 2015.
[Her88] Maurice P Herlihy. Impossibility and universality results for wait-free synchronization. In Proceedings of the seventh annual ACM Symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 276–290. ACM, 1988.
[Her91] Maurice Herlihy. Wait-free synchronization. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 13(1):124–149, 1991.
[HKZG15] Ethan Heilman, Alison Kendler, Aviv Zohar, and Sharon Goldberg. Eclipse attacks on bitcoin’s peer-to-peer network. In 24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15), pages 129–144, 2015.
[Hoe07] Jaap-Henk Hoepman. Distributed double spending prevention. In Security Protocols Workshop, pages 152–165. Springer, 2007.
[HT94] Vassos Hadzilacos and Sam Toueg. A modular approach to fault-tolerant broadcasts and related problems. Cornell University Technical Report 94-1425, 1994.
[IT08] Hideaki Ishii and Roberto Tempo. Las vegas randomized algorithms in distributed consensus problems. In 2008 American Control Conference, pages 2579–2584. IEEE, 2008.
[JB99] Ari Juels and John G Brainard. Client puzzles: A cryptographic countermeasure against connection depletion attacks. In NDSS, volume 99, pages 151–165, 1999.
[KMMS01] Kim Potter Kihlstrom, Louise E Moser, and P Michael MelliarSmith. The securering group communication system. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC), 4(4):371–406, 2001.
[KMMS03] Kim Potter Kihlstrom, Louise E Moser, and P Michael MelliarSmith. Byzantine fault detectors for solving consensus. volume 46, pages 16–35. Br Computer Soc, 2003.
[KMTZ13] Jonathan Katz, Ueli Maurer, Bjorn Tackmann, and Vassilis ¨ Zikas. Universally composable synchronous computation. In TCC, volume 7785, pages 477–498. Springer, 2013.
[KP15] Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos. Speed-security tradeoff s in blockchain protocols. https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1019.pdf, Oct 2015. Accessed: 2016-10-17.
[KP16] Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos. On trees, chains and fast transactions in the blockchain. http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/545.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-06.
[KRDO16] Aggelos Kiayias, Alexander Russell, Bernardo David, and Roman Oliynykov. Ouroboros: A provably secure proof-of-stake blockchain protocol. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1c14/549f7ba7d6a000d79a7d12255eb11113e6fa.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-20.
[Lam84] Leslie Lamport. Using time instead of timeout for fault-tolerant distributed systems. volume 6, pages 254–280. ACM, 1984.
[Lam98] Leslie Lamport. The part-time parliament. volume 16, pages 133–169. ACM, 1998.
[LCW+06] Harry C Li, Allen Clement, Edmund L Wong, Jeff Napper, Indrajit Roy, Lorenzo Alvisi, and Michael Dahlin. Bar gossip. In Proceedings of the 7th symposium on Operating systems design and implementation, pages 191–204. USENIX Association, 2006.
[LSM06] Brian Neil Levine, Clay Shields, and N Boris Margolin. A survey of solutions to the sybil attack. University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 7, 2006.
[LSP82] Leslie Lamport, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease. The byzantine generals problem. volume 4, pages 382–401. ACM, 1982.
[LSZ15] Yoad Lewenberg, Yonatan Sompolinsky, and Aviv Zohar. Inclusive block chain protocols. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 528–547. Springer, 2015.
[LTKS15] Loi Luu, Jason Teutsch, Raghav Kulkarni, and Prateek Saxena. Demystifying incentives in the consensus computer. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 706–719. ACM, 2015.
[Lyn96] Nancy A Lynch. Distributed algorithms. Morgan Kaufmann, 1996.
[Mic16] Silvio Micali. Algorand: The efficient and democratic ledger. http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.01341, 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-09.
[Mic17] Silvio Micali. Byzantine agreement, made trivial. https://people.csail.mit.edu/silvio/SelectedApr 2017. Accessed:2018-02-21.
[MJ14] A Miller and LaViola JJ. Anonymous byzantine consensus from moderately-hard puzzles: A model for bitcoin. https://socrates1024.s3.amazonaws.com/consensus.pdf, 2014. Accessed: 2016-03-09.
[MMRT03] Dahlia Malkhi, Michael Merritt, Michael K Reiter, and Gadi Taubenfeld. Objects shared by byzantine processes. volume 16, pages 37–48. Springer, 2003.
[MPR01] Hugo Miranda, Alexandre Pinto, and Luıs Rodrigues. Appia, a flexible protocol kernel supporting multiple coordinated channels. In Distributed Computing Systems, 2001. 21st International Conference on., pages 707–710. IEEE, 2001.
[MR97] Dahlia Malkhi and Michael Reiter. Unreliable intrusion detection in distributed computations. In Computer Security Foundations Workshop, 1997. Proceedings., 10th, pages 116–124. IEEE, 1997.
[MRT00] Achour Mostefaoui, Michel Raynal, and Fred´ eric Tronel. From ´ binary consensus to multivalued consensus in asynchronous message-passing systems. Information Processing Letters, 73(5-6):207–212, 2000.
[MXC+16] Andrew Miller, Yu Xia, Kyle Croman, Elaine Shi, and Dawn Song. The honey badger of bft protocols. https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/199.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2017-01-10.
[Nak08a] Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf, Dec 2008. Accessed: 2015-07-01.
[Nak08b] Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin p2p e-cash paper, 2008.
[Nar16] Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven. Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies. https://d28rh4a8wq0iu5.cloudfront.net/bitcointech/readings/princeton bitcoin book.pdf?a=1, 2016. Accessed: 2016-03-29.
[Nei94] Gil Neiger. Distributed consensus revisited. Information processing letters, 49(4):195–201, 1994.
[NG16] Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli. The blockchain anomaly. In Network Computing and Applications (NCA), 2016 IEEE 15th International Symposium on, pages 310–317. IEEE, 2016.
[NKMS16] Kartik Nayak, Srijan Kumar, Andrew Miller, and Elaine Shi. Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack. In 1st IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2016. IEEE, 2016.
[PS16a] Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Fruitchains: A fair blockchain. http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/916.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2016-11-08.
[PS16b] Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Hybrid consensus: Scalable permissionless consensus. https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/917.pdf, Sep 2016. Accessed: 2016-10-17.
[PS17] Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. Thunderella: Blockchains with optimistic instant confirmation. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/913, 2017. Accessed:2017-09-26.
[PSL80] Marshall Pease, Robert Shostak, and Leslie Lamport. Reaching agreement in the presence of faults. volume 27, pages 228–234. ACM, 1980.
[PSs16] Rafael Pass, Lior Seeman, and abhi shelat. Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks. http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/454.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2016-08-01.
[Rab83] Michael O Rabin. Randomized byzantine generals. In Foundations of Computer Science, 1983., 24th Annual Symposium on, pages 403–409. IEEE, 1983.
[Rei96] Michael K Reiter. A secure group membership protocol. volume 22, page 31, 1996.
[Ric93] Aleta M Ricciardi. The group membership problem in asynchronous systems. PhD thesis, Cornell University, 1993.
[Ros14] M. Rosenfeld. Analysis of hashrate-based double spending. http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.2009, 2014. Accessed: 2016-03-09.
[RSW96] Ronald L Rivest, Adi Shamir, and David A Wagner. Time-lock puzzles and timed-release crypto. 1996.
[Sch90] Fred B Schneider. Implementing fault-tolerant services using the state machine approach: A tutorial. volume 22, pages 299–319. ACM, 1990.
[SLZ16] Yonatan Sompolinsky, Yoad Lewenberg, and Aviv Zohar. Spectre: A fast and scalable cryptocurrency protocol. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1159, 2016. Accessed: 2017-02-20.
[SSZ15] Ayelet Sapirshtein, Yonatan Sompolinsky, and Aviv Zohar. Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06183.pdf, 2015. Accessed: 2016-08-22.
[SW16] David Stolz and Roger Wattenhofer. Byzantine agreement with median validity. In LIPIcs-Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, volume 46. Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2016.
[Swa15] Tim Swanson. Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems. http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributed-ledgers.pdf, Apr 2015. Accessed: 2017-10-03.
[SZ13] Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. Accelerating bitcoin’s transaction processing. fast money grows on trees, not chains, 2013.
[SZ16] Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. Bitcoin’s security model revisited. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.09193, 2016. Accessed: 2016-07-04.
[Sza14] Nick Szabo. The dawn of trustworthy computing. http://unenumerated.blogspot.co.at/2014/12/the-dawn-of-trustworthy-computing.html, 2014. Accessed: 2017-12-01.
[TS16] Florian Tschorsch and Bjorn Scheuermann. Bitcoin and ¨ beyond: A technical survey on decentralized digital currencies. In IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, volume PP, pages 1–1, 2016.
[VCB+13] Giuliana Santos Veronese, Miguel Correia, Alysson Neves Bessani, Lau Cheuk Lung, and Paulo Verissimo. Efficient byzantine fault-tolerance. volume 62, pages 16–30. IEEE, 2013.
[Ver03] Paulo Ver´ıssimo. Uncertainty and predictability: Can they be reconciled? In Future Directions in Distributed Computing, pages 108–113. Springer, 2003.
[Vuk15] Marko Vukolic. The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: ´ Proof-of-work vs. bft replication. In International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, pages 112–125. Springer, 2015.
[Vuk16] Marko Vukolic. Eventually returning to strong consistency. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a6a1/b70305b27c556aac779fb65429db9c2e1ef2.pdf, 2016. Accessed: 2016-08-10.
[XWS+17] Xiwei Xu, Ingo Weber, Mark Staples, Liming Zhu, Jan Bosch, Len Bass, Cesare Pautasso, and Paul Rimba. A taxonomy of blockchain-based systems for architecture design. In Software Architecture (ICSA), 2017 IEEE International Conference on , pages 243–252. IEEE, 2017.
[YHKC+16] Jesse Yli-Huumo, Deokyoon Ko, Sujin Choi, Sooyong Park, and Kari Smolander. Where is current research on blockchain technology? – a systematic review. volume 11, page e0163477. Public Library of Science, 2016.
[ZP17] Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel. On the necessity of a prescribed block validity consensus: Analyzing bitcoin unlimited mining protocol. http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/686, 2017. Accessed: 2017-07-20.
submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

IOHK  Ouroboros next steps Secret Sharing Explained Visually IOHK  The Daedalus platform Cryptocurrency + Stocks I Am Buying NOW! Bitcoin Recovery Coming! (News + Bybit Trading Analysis) The Cryptographers' Panel 2015

In 2012, security experts Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir downloaded the entire graph for all Bitcoin transactions and followed them back to their origins, concluding that they all descend from one large 2-Quantitative Analysis of the Full Bitcoin Transaction Graph, Dorit, Ron and Adi Shamir (2012), Cryptology ePrint Archive. Also see Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, www.bitcoin.org, October 2008. Shamir’s Secret is a cryptographic technique created by the Israeli cryptographer Adi Shamir. The mathematically confirmed technique permits individuals to safe a secret in a distributed style. The secret sharing approach takes an unique secret and divides it into components and every half is both hidden in several areas or components of the Upon learning of the Whitfield-Diffie solution, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adelman at the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science began building on those mathematical concepts to discover a solution for asymmetric encryption. In April 1977, they succeeded. This became known as RSA after the names of the creators. Bitcoin price forecasting would be of great practical interest given its role as a relatively new virtual “currency”. This presupposes the modeling and verification of some kind of relation

[index] [25019] [13943] [4376] [3013] [1110] [27852] [24530] [23405] [21275] [293]

IOHK Ouroboros next steps

Leading cryptographers at the conference included Whitfield Diffie, pioneer of the public key cryptography that made Bitcoin possible, and Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who came up ... The IEEE Information Theory Society presents an overview of Adi Shamir's 1979 paper on secret sharing. This is part of our series on the greatest papers from information theory. Link to playlist ... bitcoin price, decoina, deconex, decoding, ecoin earn money, ecoin earn money tamil, ecoin explained, coin exhibition, ecoin earn with adi, eco in english, ecoin earn money with aiza, coin ... Max Keiser: China secretly hoarding gold and will unleash crypto backed by metal and destroy USD - Duration: 16:16. Kitco NEWS Recommended for you. New in this video i will show why Bitcoin price is falling and on what price bitcoin can stay what is the future of Bitcoin and is Bitcoin is scam or not i will explain you Every think step by step ...

Flag Counter