Bitcoin Asic Chip Design - Carnes Meireles

Novice, Intermediate or Expert? A Quiz to Test Your Bitcoin Knowledge

Think you know the ins-and-outs of bitcoin? Test yourself with 30 questions that grill you on Bitcoin’s history, technology and politics. The 30 questions are split up into three segments ranging from novice to intermediate to expert, and cover a wide range of topics across the Bitcoin landscape.
If you get stuck or want to check your answers along the way, an answer sheet has been added below the quiz. Of course, these questions cover only a few points about Bitcoin so far — with so many new developments taking place, there is always more to learn. Good luck!
Novice Questions 1. Who created bitcoin?
a. Vitalik Buterin b. Gavin Andresen c. Satoshi Nakamoto d. Charlie Lee e. Jackson Palmer 2. What is the original document that proposed Bitcoin, considered by many in the space to be a “must read”?
a. The Bitcoin White Paper b. The Golden Proposal c. E-Money: Bitcoin and the Blockchain d. The Bitcoin Manifesto e. The Bitcoin Constitution 3. What is the name of the bitcoin exchange from Japan that famously collapsed in 2014 due to a devastating hack?
a. Tradehill b. Bitstamp c. Mt. Gox d. Blockchain.info e. Bit Trade 4. How many bitcoin will ever be created?
a. Unlimited b. 77,340,109 c. 3,500,000 d. 21,000,000 e. 18,650,000 5. What is the name of the off-chain scaling solution that is being developed to mitigate bitcoin’s fees and long transaction times?
a. Instasend b. Second Layer Network c. Lightning Network d. Quick Net e. The Bitcoin Payment Network 6. Which of the following statements is NOT true about bitcoin wallets?
a. Wallets can come in many forms, as long as they hold your private keys. b. Wallets have addresses that anyone can use to see the current number of unspent bitcoins in them. c. The only thing someone needs to access a wallet is the private key. d. It is possible to send bitcoin by signing the transaction offline and then broadcasting the transaction later. e. To open a wallet you must submit a request to the wallet provider. 7. What is the name of the technology underlying Bitcoin?
a. Bitchain b. Blocklink c. Blockchain d. CoinLedger e. Satoshisquare 8. True or false? Bitcoin can be sent to an Ethereum address.
a. True b. False 9. The first underground marketplace on the dark web which used bitcoin as its native currency and was created by Ross Ulbricht was called:
a. Black Onion b. BTC Market c. East India Trading Company d. Silk Road e. Worldwide Drug Emporium 10. Bitcoins can be divisible down to the eighth decimal point. What is that unit called?
a. Bit b. Satoshi c. Naki d. Shill e. Bitsat Intermediate Questions 11. Which traditional stock exchange was the first to list bitcoin futures contracts?
a. The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) b. The Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) c. The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) d. The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) e. None of the above. Futures contracts are only available on cryptocurrency exchanges like BitMex and Bitfinex. 12. The computers that find new blocks are called:
a. Accountants b. Miners c. Mitigators d. Associates e. Verifiers 13. Which of the following is NOT true about Bitcoin Cash, a fork from Bitcoin?
a. Bitcoin Cash was created over an ongoing debate within the Bitcoin community over scaling and transaction speed. b. Roger Ver uses bitcoin.com to convince new investors that Bitcoin Cash is the original bitcoin. c. Bitcoin Cash is commonly referred to as “Bcash” because (some) bitcoin proponents don’t want to give the forked currency the brand recognition that Bitcoin has accumulated since 2009. d. Bitcoin Cash uses the SHA-256 hash function (the same as Bitcoin). e. Bitcoin Cash removed its block size limit completely. 14. Where is the Bitcoin processing server located?
a. Washington, D.C., USA b. London, England c. Undisclosed location d. The United Nations votes on a new location every two years e. None of the above — Bitcoin has no processing server 15. What date was the Bitcoin network launched?
a. November 5, 2008 b. May 1, 2010 c. January 3, 2009 d. December 31, 2008 e. April 23, 2010 16. When was Bitcoin’s all-time high exchange rate achieved (as of 9/11/18)?
a. January 12, 2016 b. July 15, 2017 c. December 17, 2017 d. August 3, 2018 e. January 10, 2014 17. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Bitcoin is owned by the NSA. b. By 2030, all bitcoins will have been mined. c. Bitcoin has smart contract capabilities. d. Before Satoshi created Bitcoin, he and a group of developers premined roughly 1 million coins. e. Only select people can mine bitcoins. 18. How often, on average, can we expect a new block be found by miners?
a. > 1 second b. 2 minutes c. 10 minutes d. 60 minutes e. 6 hours 19. What is Bitcoin Pizza Day, May 22nd?
a. A day every year where people who hold bitcoin pay forward a random pizza to a stranger b. The day when a computer programmer, Laszlo Hanyecz, paid 10,000 bitcoins for two pizzas in 2010 c. The day Satoshi announced his favorite food is pizza d. The day Vitalik compared bitcoin’s security to that of a soggy pizza e. A day sponsored by Pizza Hut where you can pay for pizza with bitcoin 20. How many new bitcoins should be created each day with the current block reward, on average?
a. 2,200 except for February 29 on leap years b. 1,800 c. 5,000 d. 7,200 e. 150 Expert Questions 21. What is the difference between a soft fork and a hard fork?
a. A soft fork happens when the code of a project is copied with permission of the original developers. A hard fork happens when the code of a project is copied without the permission of the original developers. b. A hard fork is a backwards-incompatible protocol change because it makes previously invalid blocks or transactions valid. A soft fork is a backwards-compatible protocol change because it makes previously valid blocks or transactions invalid. c. A hard fork occurs when miners in a mining pool cannot agree on how the block reward should be divided. A soft fork occurs when miners in a mining pool collectively decide to change how block rewards should be distributed. d. None of the above. 22. What does ASIC stand for?
a. Applied Socioeconomic Investment Compository b. Application Specific Integrated Circuit c. Anonymous Spending Instrument for Cryptocurrencies d. Alternative Synthetic Interoperability Circuit e. Antiquated System for Implied Cryptography 23. What does an ASIC do for Bitcoin?
a. Allows consumer access to high-level investment information, similar to a Bloomberg terminal b. Allows users to trade cryptocurrencies between different blockchains c. Anonymously allows users to send cryptocurrencies that aren’t entirely private d. Performs one specific task of solving a mathematical problem in order to find a new block e. Allows developers to cross reference current technology stacks with older languages 24. Is Bitcoin truly anonymous?
a. Yes, people who use bitcoin cannot have their transactions traced by anyone. b. No, bitcoin addresses are derived from IP addresses. c. No, all transactions are recorded on a global transparent ledger that can be traced using analytical technologies. d. No, addresses openly show the name of the user. e. No, bitcoins can be linked to a user’s social security number. 25. What is SHA 256?
a. A secure hashing algorithm used by Bitcoin, originally designed by the NSA b. A set of rules that miners and nodes must follow c. A scheme devised by Craig Wright to convince people he is Satoshi d. An annual conference in New York for blockchain enthusiasts e. The language Satoshi and early developers used to communicate behind closed doors 26. What is a nonce?
a. An empty value in each block that is filled by the miner of that block b. Another name for a node c. A mining device faster than an ASIC d. A part inside a processing chip used in mining e. A name for a troll in Reddit forums 27. What is “difficulty” in relation to Bitcoin?
a. A measure of how hard it is to explain what Bitcoin is b. A measure of how difficult it is to find a hash below the target c. A measure of long it takes to send bitcoin between addresses d. A measure of how difficult it is for bitcoin to move a certain number of basis points e. A measure of how hard it is for Bitcoin to recover to its all-time high 28. What is multi-sig verification?
a. An older method of confirming bitcoin transactions now replaced by single-sig verification b. Verification that a user is allowed to hold bitcoins in a certain address by requiring multiple signatures from friends and family c. A form of verifying if someone is telling the truth by having multiple signatures from people monitoring the event taking place d. A process by which miners select which transaction to verify by having three other miners create a signature giving permission for the transaction to be verified e. A technology to verify wallets by requiring multiple signatures to process a single transaction with enhanced security 29. Bitcoin consumes roughly 1 percent of the world’s energy consumption. What does this mean about its security?
a. A malicious actor doesn’t need to consider the total energy consumption in order to successfully execute a 51% attack. b. Bitcoin is secure to the point that it would require approximately 0 .0001% of the entire world’s energy consumption to attack the network. c. Bitcoin is secure to the point that it would require approximately 1% of the entire world’s energy consumption to attack the network. d. A malicious actor would need 10 times the amount of Bitcoin’s energy consumption in order to successfully attack the network. 30. What is a Merkle Root in Bitcoin?
a. A hash of all transactions in a block that allows any specific transaction to be verified without downloading the entire blockchain b. A series of complex data that uniquely identifies the owner of an address c. A program designed by David Merkle that uncovers the largest inactive bitcoin wallets d. A cryptocurrency developed by the chancellor of Germany e. A part of a complex system of underground “roots” that power the Bitcoin blockchain How did you do? Answers:
  1. c. Satoshi Nakamoto
  2. a. The Bitcoin Whitepaper
  3. c. Mt. Gox
  4. d. 21,000,000
  5. c. Lightning Network
  6. e. To open a wallet, you must submit a request to the wallet provider.
  7. c. Blockchain
  8. b. false
  9. d. Silk Road
  10. b. Satoshi
  11. d. The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE)
  12. b. Miners
  13. e. Bitcoin Cash removed its block size limit completely. (The limit is actually 32MB.)
  14. e. None of the above — Bitcoin has no central server
  15. c. January 3, 2009
  16. c. December 17, 2017
  17. c. Bitcoin has smart contract capabilities
  18. c. 10 minutes
  19. b. The day when a computer programmer, Lazlo Hanyecz, paid 10,000 bitcoins for two pizzas in 2010
  20. b. 1,800
  21. b. A hard fork is a backwards incompatible protocol change because it makes previously invalid blocks or transactions valid. A soft fork is a backwards compatible protocol change because it makes previously valid blocks or transactions invalid.
  22. b. Application Specific Integrated Circuit
  23. d. Performs one specific task of solving a mathematical problem in order to find a new block
  24. c. No, all transactions are recorded on a global transparent ledger that can be traced using analytical technologies
  25. a. A secure hashing algorithm used by Bitcoin, originally designed by the NSA
  26. a. An empty value in each block that is filled by the miner of that block
  27. b. A measure of how difficult it is to find a hash below the target
  28. e. A technology to verify wallets by requiring multiple signatures to process a single transaction with enhanced security
  29. c. Bitcoin is secure to the point that it would require 1% of the entire world’s energy consumption to attack the network. (side note: bitcoin mining, while energy intensive, can be done in an eco-friendly, even carbon-neutral, manner. And it’s getting better all the time.)
  30. a. A hash of all transactions in a block that allows any specific transaction to be verified without downloading the entire blockchain.
The article is from Bitcoin Magazine.
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Ulord’s 8 Technical Advantages

Ulord’s 8 Technical Advantages
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https://preview.redd.it/6b4n6ivmjej11.jpg?width=900&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7344f3335e085ae864a1bedc55ed4c305e14eb34
In order to meet needs of Internet content distribution, the original chain of Ulord introduces master node system. The structure of master node is established as a peer-to-peer distributed content distribution network (InterPlanetary File System, IPFS), which provides massive cloud storage resource pool and unified global addressable space storage resource. Considering the sustainable development of Ulord, voting system and budget system are introduced. Voting system can not only carry out intelligent evaluation on a variety of applications on application layer, but also can assist budget system, fund more developers to devote themselves into Ulord development, and make the ecological development of Ulord in a virtuous circle with more applications. In other implementations, Ulord can be compatible with smart contract, make the application of Ethernet be transplanted to the Ulord network. Ulord adopts the mixed mining mechanism of POW and POS, so as to ensure that the development of the block network is not held by hashrate.

1.Master node system

The whole node refers to server or common PC running the full client on the P2P network, which plays a role of spread of transactions and blocks in the blockchain network. To maintain normal operation of all nodes, a large amount of cyber source needs to be consumed, such as storage space and network flow. According to Zap Chain Magazine statistics, the number of all nodes in the bitcoin network shows a decreasing trend, which requires additional 40 seconds for block broadcasting. The community has put forward many solutions, such as the introduction of new award plan of Microsoft Research and the Bitnodes incentive plan, and try to increase the number of nodes, but without good solution.

https://preview.redd.it/mpp7l9pljej11.png?width=506&format=png&auto=webp&s=49a622c12123ed15e83450db66542ef520de228a
In order to maintain a healthy and stable blockchain backbone network, Dashi puts forward the solution of hierarchical network. Through the introduction of master node system, the stable backbone network can form to solve communication delay. In the system of Dashi, 1000 nodes of dash can be stored and upgraded to the master node. If it can be stable online in a period of time, 45% of income of each block network will be taken. But now, the master node system of Dashi still has many problems in the design and implementation. Firstly, according to the design rules of Dashi, the total number of coin of the whole system is about 17 million, and approximately 8 million have been issued. While the number of the master node is maintained at about 4800. As each master node needs to have 1000 dashes as guarantee, nearly 5 million Dashi coins are locked in master node. The number of circulating Dashi coins in the market is less than 3 million, which is obviously contrary to the initial design theory of bitcoin, and cannot guarantee a sufficient currency circulation in the market. Secondly, in the design of master node, there is no discrimination or considering QoS, and master node service quality is uneven. Therefore the network communication cannot achieve the desired results. Finally, only users with some computer knowledge can build master node, not all people have such a foundation. To entrust the third party often brings the risk to assets, so it is necessary to let more people participate in the maintenance of the master node network. As shown in Figure 3, considering different application scenarios, Ulord makes further improvement and optimization to the master node system as follows:
Voting mechanism of master node is introduced to enhance Ulord service quality.
In order to encourage users to join in the master node construction, Ulord distributes 25% of the entire network benefits to master node holders. While QoS assessment mechanism is introduced, and under the principle of survival of the fittest, some master nodes which do not meet the requirements will be eliminated. Therefore master node users must continuously invest and maintain to ensure good condition of nodes. QoS assessment mechanism mainly considers from the following several aspects:
Data packet loss rate: packet loss rate between master node and adjacent nodes is judged by ping-pong operation. If it exceeds a certain threshold, the node state is judged not to meet the service requirements, and the master nodes list is eliminated.
Network communication delay: the delay between master node and adjacent nodes is judged by ping-pong operation. If it exceeds a certain threshold, the node states is judged to not meet the service requirements, and the master nodes list is eliminated.
Data retransmission number: when retransmission times of master node and adjacent user node are too high, the user node will broadcast it on the entire network. When the reported number of this master node reaches the threshold, the master nodes is eliminated from master node list.
Proof-of-Stake mechanism is introduced to provide IPFS service.
In order to meet distribution mechanism of Ulord network, a large number of nodes are needed to bear the Internet data, and provide more high-quality video and data flow service. In Ulord, it ensures the network storage service with high quality from two aspects. First, in the Ulord network, 1TB of hard drive storage space is needed as a qualification guarantee for master node; through distributed technology, Ulord can integrate these master nodes into a massive storage resource pool. Second, in order to confirm that each master node is actually stored with data, Proof-of-Stake mechanism is introduced. This mechanism can randomly carry out integrity verification to the master node data by data holding proving and data recovery proving to ensure that the master node can provide stable data storage service. The main factors of the nodes are as follows:
Storage capacity: according to storage capacity size, the income is calculated in proportion.
Storage value: according to storage data value, determine whether the platform effective data are stored, and determine whether to calculate the income;
Store IOPS: IOPS (Input/ Output Operations per Second), that is the number of read/write (I/O) operations per second, measures the performance of disk random access. According to disk performance, judge whether to calculate the income.
More general master node platform. Ulord will provide a better user experience for user, while bringing more high-quality storage and network server for the system itself. To attract more investors to participate in the construction of the master node network, we will develop master node client software across the platform, including windows/Linux/OS x/Android and other mainstream systems. For Linux system, Docker package image will be provided directly for users to install conveniently.

2. Sidechain

Sidechain is not specifically referring to a certain chain, but refers to any chain
that obeys the rules of the sidechain. The Ulord sidechain rule means that the Ulord sidechain can verify the data from the Ulord main chain, and through the Two-way Peg (2WP), the UlordToken is safely transferred between the mainchains and sidechains at a fixed exchange rate to achieve assets transfer between the chains.
The Two-way Peg is roughly divided into the following stages:
a. Send a 2WP transaction to lock the UlordToken in the main chain;
b. Wait for a confirmation period, making the transaction confirmed by enough
blocks;
c. Transfer the UlordToken to the sidechain and provide proof of SPV or
miner’s vote;
d. Wait for a reorganization period to prevent double spending;
e. Unlock the UlordToken for normal use on the sidechain;
After a period of time, if the user wants to redeem the UlordToken to the main chain, the reverse action can be performed. The redemption operation provides a sidechain user with an exit mechanism to prevent users from being forced to bind assets to unwanted sidechain applications.
Each sidechain can operate in different networks, with independent economic patterns and corresponding DAPPs. Developers can construct a sidechain and then dock it to the Ulord main chain. While inheriting and reusing the Ulord main chain technology, they also share the pressure of the Ulord main chain.
Each DAPP deployed on the sidechain is allowed to have a unique set of ledgers. According to different application scenarios of the DAPP, the sidechain’s consensus mechanism and block parameters are allowed to be reformed. And because the sidechain is an independent system, the serious problem of DAPP on the sidechain will only affect the sidechain itself and will not affect the Ulord main chain.
Ulord supports multiple sidechains, each of which can support one or more DAPPs. Sidechains can have their own virtual machines, publish smart contracts, and remain compatible with Ethereum virtual machines.

3. Voting system

Voting system has two major roles on Ulord. The first is to evaluate the plan proposed by developers and promote community contribution to Ulord; the second is to review resources and sites on Ulord to maintain the orderly development of Ulord ecology. If there are developers contributing to Ulord good solutions or codes, they can get system rewards. Whether to award and how much reward of developers contribution are decided by community vote. In addition, Ulord allows users to publish their own site, which may cause the problem that a large number of applications launch make the entire ecosystem in disorder and difficult to govern. In order to purify the network environment and make Ulord ecology a healthy development, consensus evaluation mechanism is introduced for Ulord network intelligent maintenance. The resources posted by user on Ulord have a unique 160bit hash value. All master nodes can vote the site resources issued by users on Ulord and show their position. When the number of opposing votes in a certain period of time exceeds threshold value, the network will automatically prohibit resource transmission, and give time to make publishers rectify. If there is no rectification in the specified time, Ulord will automatically delete it. There are three kinds of voting types: Yes, No and Abstain.

4 .Budget system

In order to promote the healthy development of Ulord ecosystem, Ulord prepares 10% of income for developers of the whole community. Ulord provides unified proposal entrance for community development. The community developers can submit the improvement proposal of Ulord through the entrance. The submitted proposal will be broadcast to Ulord, and sent to users in the form of message. All Ulord users have rights to vote. When the number of a proposal support exceeds a certain threshold value (the current system is set to 30%), the proposal will be approved. Then, the developer submitting the proposal will begin to accept budget system support. For the same proposal, users need to make voting twice. After the first voting, development team will receive budget support, but only 50% of the budget will be provided for developers. Only after developers complete and launch the second voting, the user can receive the remaining 50% of budget support.
In concrete implementation, a super block will be automatically generated in every 17000 blocks, and funding for the community developers can be achieved through this block. The number of coinbase coin of super block is the sum of the blocks between the previous super block and the current super block after deducting of 10% of income, then txout is the budget address passing the budget. If the current super block has no budget, the funds will be automatically stored in the pool of funds, which is used for the following plan budget support.

5.Smart contract

Unified domain name mechanism
Ulord allows the users to call the API of platform layer to publish their own site service. In order to make Ulord users to get convenient access to other users’ resources on the Ulord platform, the readable character string easy to remember can be used as domain name. Before the user releases the resource, by specifying the domain name site, he can apply for the readable domain name easy to remember. But there is a need to bind certain amount of UlordTokens. With the passage of time, the quantity of UlordTokens will be gradually consumed with increasing of block; in other words, all the resources and websites on Ulord will be gradually consumed with the increasing block height. All UlordTokens consumed for applying for a domain name will flow into the underlying network and become a part of the cost of billing.
To support the readable domain name system, we introduce a new data structure Domain Claimtrie to store all domain names and the associated information on Ulord. As shown in Figure 5, in Domain Claimtrie, each node corresponds to a domain name, at the same time, each node also holds the node’s related transaction information, including a transaction. When the user applies for the domain name, it must be bound with a certain number of UlordTokens; the new domain name is allowed for registration, which is unique in Ulord. The user is supported for cancellation of domain name. After the domain name is cancelled, the domain name is automatically released. To support the integrity of the domain name tree, we modify the block structure of blockchain and adds a field Domain Claimtrie.
Properties of smart contract
Ulord has attribute of smart contract, and introduces the design concept of gas. But Ethernet gas consumes gas in each operation. Compared to the gas concept of Ethernet, Ulord adopts a more simplified and abstract method. The resources and site posted on Ulord by user will consume resources on the Ulord network. Therefore when the user releases resources or site, a certain amount of UlordTokens is needed to bound. With growing of block height, UlordToken will be gradually consumed, and the user needs to recharge the new UlordTokens to the corresponding address to ensure the ownership of domain name. At the same time, through sidechain technology, it can be compatible with Ethernet virtual machine, release smart contract, and allow users to publish their tokens. There is a certain proportion of exchange relationship between tokens and UlordToken. Ulord allows users to customize their releasing of site service, and through the issuance of their tokens, they can operate their own sites.

6 .Consensus algorithm

Ulord combines PoW (Proof of Work) and PoS (Proof of Storage) as the consensus algorithm. Among them, PoW uses the self-designed CryptoHello algorithm. The algorithm uses multiple serial cryptographic primitive operation. With the characteristics of computer architecture, it has the mining characteristics of permanent prevention of ASIC. POS mechanism is to encourage more master nodes to join. By providing more storage space, it brings in revenue for their own, and provides massive distributed storage space for Ulord.
PoW implementation mechanism
To make full use of idle resources for mining, Ulord uses the CPU mining algorithm CryptoHello. We have learned from the memory-hard PoW algorithm design ideas, combined with the features of the CPU, GPU, ASIC and other architecture, and designed a PoW algorithm CryptHello for CPU architecture optimization.
The method has 3 steps:use a pseudo-random sequence to initialize the working memory, modify the working memory, and produce the final result based on the working memory contents. As shown in Figure 8
In the initialization of the working memory stage, the input is calculated using the SHA3 function to initialize the linear congruence pseudo-random number generator seed. The working memory is continuously filled in units of K blocks (32 bytes per block), where the former K-1 block is generated by a pseudo-random number generator, and the last block is a random selection of one of the hash function families (16 different hash functions) based on the previously filled content and updates the random number generator seed.
At the initial modification of the memory, the SHA3 function is used to generate the seed of the random number generator based on the last piece of the work memory, and a state variable whose length is L bytes is initialized. This is followed by C main cycles, in each of which 64L subcycles will be performed. In the subcycle, a pair of addresses will be generated by the random number generator. The byte data in the two addresses in the work memory and the byte data in the state vector are combined and exchanged using exclusive OR methods to update the memory contents and state vector contents. After the end of the sub-cycle, the function vector of the hash function family will be used to update the state vector and re-initialize the random number generator seed. According to the existing parameter design, one quarter of the working memory will be modified.
In the final result generation phase, the content of d (a random number no greater than D) blocks in the contiguous XOR memory is updated with the hash function family, and d is recalculated to the last block of the working memory. Finally the SHA3 function is used to form the final result.
The main features of the above algorithm include:
a. The working memory capacity selects the CPU-oriented cache capacity optimization, but it is difficult for the GPU or the ASIC to meet the memory capacity requirement for executing a large number of PoW algorithms at the same time;
b. A family of hash functions constructed by 16 hash functions is randomly selected and executed. This will increase the chip area to realize ASIC, and it will cause the GPU’s multi-threaded execution of different paths, reducing its parallelization efficiency;
c. Strict serial execution sequence are used during the working memory modification stage, and they are accessed in units of bytes to control the execution parallelism of the ASIC or GPU and significantly reduce the memory system efficiency;
d. The control logic of the entire scheme is complex, the required memory capacity is large, and the memory access address is irregular. It is difficult to implement the ASIC by using a conventional method of stacking a large number of acceleration component modules.
The actual test shows that the above performance of PoW on the CPU is proportional to its number of cores.
PoS implementation mechanism
The main reason for collapse of bitcoin network node is lack of reward for running nodes. With the passage of time, more and more users will be connected to the whole network, so demand for bandwidth will become higher, demand for funds from node operator will be more, then the operation cost of the nodes increase. Considering rising cost, node operator must reduce their operating costs or operation light client, but this is not conducive to network health. The introduction of the master node technology can effectively avoid reduction of master node and prolong communication time. In Ulord, QoS is considered in the selection of master node, and master node is a full node. Block and trading can spread quickly through master node. Operation of a master node needs 10000 UlordTokens and more than 1TB of storage space. The deposit stored in the master node is not lost, which allows investor to earn certain return on investment when providing service for the whole net to reduce the UlordToken price volatility. In the Ulord network, the master node will account for 25% of the entire network revenue.

7. Privacy protection

Ulord uses the most popular privacy protection zk-SNARK technology to protect the trading privacy. In Ulord blockchain, to create a valid transaction includes the following three things:
a. Ensure that the currency in the address has not been spent in previous trading;
b. The sender proves that he is the currency “holder” in the way of authorized signature;
c. The transaction input is equal to output.
The ledger itself proves the money is not spent out before and does not require sender to do anything. The sender only proves that he is holder of the currency, and hopes to send out the currency in the way of electronic signature through the private key corresponding to address. To make the signature verified, the sender’s address must be open. Correspondingly, receiver must publicly accept his address to finish the transaction. In Ulord, it is simple to verify that the input and output of the transaction are equal, because the number of transmission is completely exposed.
Zero knowledge proof (specifically, zk-SNARKs) to verify the above three elements can protect privacy of users from revealing, without exposing sender, receiver and transferring amount. Every successful transaction is accompanied with zk-SNARK, and it proves that: the input asset exists, and has not been previously spent. The person who creates the transaction authorizes the transaction cost, and the input number and type are equal to the output number and type. The information for cost output (that is to create a new zk-SNARK) is attached to the transaction. It is encrypted with the public key of payee, and only used for the payee.
Figure 11 zk-SNARK technology protects transaction privacy
8.Instant payment
With the master node technology, the users can send and receive instant irreversible transaction. Once the instant transaction forms, the input of transaction is locked to the corresponding particular transaction, currently, the locking time of the whole net transaction is about 4 seconds. If a locking consensus is reached in the master node network, all transactions and blocks against it will always be refused, unless they can match the corresponding transaction ID which was locked at that time.
In this way, users can purchase goods and services through Ulord and receive payment confirmation quickly, without intervention from any centralized organization. Ulord can easily meet relevant business scenarios for instant payment.
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Log of AMA with Skycoin

boldninja Let's all give a warm welcome to @synth from SkyCoin.net and for taking the time to do this AMA
synth *hello
mike Hi Synth
jakethepanda Hey @synth
thrice.pi Hey synth
dr10 Hi
boldninja I think we can start - you guys know the drill. Give him some time to respond (no more than 2-3 questions on backlog so he can catch up)
dr10 How would you - shortly & in easy words - sum-up the advantages of SkyCoin to magazines and non-crypto people?
mgaruccio Can you explain a bit about the mesh net? Is it just an mpls network between nodes or is there something deeper going on?
michaelthecryptoguy Whassup @synth
tranzer hi synth. I have a question - are those coins that are not in circulation in any cold wallets since only a portion is currently available according to CMC? What would you say is the 1 unique feature that Skycoin has?
synth It is very difficult, because Skycoin is a very large project and already has +6 years of development. Different parts of the project have different objectives.
The cryto, coin part is about solving the problems with the existing consensus algorithms. Being able to do +300 transactions a second, transactions in seconds instead of minutes (faster than credit cards), eliminating miners, eliminating block rewards (eliminating inflation) and eliminating 51% attack and the other problems with mining.
then there are other repos and experimental projects under github.com/skycoin such as a meshnet and distributed VPN prototype, where people will be paid coins for forwarding traffic. Also prototypes of distributed social media application, with peer to peer data replication and different experimental projects. Research into immutable data structures for next generation internet. Some of them are very radical.
dr10 How does the Network consensus algorithm Obelisk work and differ from widely known algorithms like Proof of Work and Proof of Stake?
mgaruccio So how much exists today? Could I build an app on the platform if I wanted to?
mike In terms of the rate of progress, what is currently your greatest limiting factor - like funding, manpower, currently available technology?
synth
Can you explain a bit about the mesh net? Is it just an mpls network between nodes or is there something deeper going on?
It is not actually a meshnet. It is software defined networking, it is much more powerful than just meshnet. Its a new type of networking and new completely new protocol and networking namespace, independent of the existing internet.
It supports source routing, while the existing internet does hot potato routing, so never achieves optimal latencies.
It supports multi-homing, which IPv6 does not (Which is critical for when we have gigabit or terabit networking and multi-redundant bandwidth paths)
It has default oppurunistic crypto, both link layer and end to end; so everything is encrypted by default, unlike the current internet.
It has store and forward networking and will operate in Africa or even under conditions where latencies are in the minutes or hours and packet loss is excessive. Where existing protocols cannot operate reliability. It is much more robust than IPv4/IPv6 or TCP/ip
It has improved privacy. If a packet takes a route that is 10 hops, each hop only knows the previous node in the route and the next node in the route. It is not like IPv4 where each packet gives the source and destination. The privacy level is something that does not exist on the current internet.
IP addresses are replaced by public key and no one can read traffic to a destination, without knowing the private key of the public key that identifies the destination. The system does not need 3rd parties or certificate authorities. The design is a revolution.
are those coins that are not in circulation in any cold wallets since only a portion is currently available according to CMC?
The coins are locked into 100 addresses, each with 1 million coins each. And they are released sequentially.
There is a complicated locking procedure and releasing new coins requires unamious consent and a shared secret among a group of developers. Anyone in the shared secret group can block distribution of more coins (to stop the problem that killed NXT). So by design the coins were supposed to be difficult to distribut, there had to be a good reason or justification before a distribution would be approved.
mike What are the hardware requirements to operate a wireless Skywire (the name for the protocol described above) Node?
arc-over-water nxt i think is doing ok..
synth
How does the Network consensus algorithm Obelisk work and differ from widely known algorithms like Proof of Work and Proof of Stake?
PoS and PoW use miners. Miners receive new coins every block as a block reward. So miners are making money and will fight to control the network. An everyone will suffer because the newly created coins represent inflation.
Skycoin was designed to eliminate mining and eliminate the inflation. No block rewards, no new coins. And we needed to develop a new consensus algorithm to do that and there are only a few methods that work, for these constraints. The consensus algorithm is based upon Ben-Or's randomization procedure for achieving consensus in a distributed system, with some improvements for detecting adversarial or malicious nodes who are trying to prevent the consensus process.
There are white papers on skycoin.net about the specifics. I would call it "network consensus" and it uses a sort of Web of Trust (WoT), where if the people creating blocks are doing a bad job or attacking the network, then the community can get rid of them. At the same time, the people who control the network, do not have any real power to attack the network except by slowing down transactions and being annoying, so even if they become malicious the only issue is how to get rid of them and select new people.
mike Any idea when Skywire will be released and ready to test on hardware nodes (testnet or mainnet)?
mgaruccio So if there is no block reward what is the incentive to run a node?
vega What will be the actual function of Skycoin (the coin itself)? Will the coin be used as currency, as transfer of value in and between all these various developing functionalities, semi-separate projects to tie them all together or it's function will be more limited?
michaelthecryptoguy Do you have an idea on the specs of a node that would be required? In the beginning? What about with 10,000 users? (edited)
synth
nxt i think is doing ok..
There were three people that each owned 30% of the coin. One decided he wanted out and began dumping. NXT was over 150 million I think. When he started dumping, it basicly killed NXT.
Skycoin's distribution was designed to stop dumping by the founders and early people.
After Skycoin gets to 30% of the total coins distributed, there will probably a hard time lock on the remaining coins, so that a maximum of 5% of the remaining coins can be released per year. So the distribution for the other 70% of the coins will take a minimum of 14 years (and could be longer).
We cannot even sell the rest of the coins, because if we sold 10% of the total now at $5 per coin, it would be 50 million or something and we cannot spend or even use that amount of money. Not at this stage.
Ethereum spent 30 million or 70 million in their first year or two after the ICO and then nearly went bankrupt. Silicon Valley wages and offices etc. We have been very conservative and have kept costs down and kept them responsible. Now we have coins like EOS and they want to raise a billion dollars and have not produced anything yet, do not hav a blockchain and I have no idea what they would spend that money on, but they are throwing $350,000 parties in time square for marketing/PR etc...
arc-over-water what prevents you from selling? anybody can spend that amount of money?
nxt is a newer platform than sky, market value is $220 million plus $166 million, I get what you are saying but the evidence is wrong. Community is huge and active in Nxt. But you say it is killed, i dont get it?
synth
What will be the actual function of Skycoin (the coin itself)? Will the coin be used as currency, as transfer of value in and between all these various developing functionalities, semi-separate projects to tie them all together or it's function will be more limited?
Yes. Bitcoin has no purpose. An altcoin does two things - check your balance - send money to other people
Two features - check balance - send
For a coin to have value, people need to be forced to buy it to consume specific services. There has to be stuff for people to spend the coin on, that there is demand for.
So Bitcoin is really just a purely speculative asset. It generates no cashflow and its value is determined by perception or social convention.
Ideally, Skycoin would start off as a "better Bitcoin" (faster, more secure, new algorithm, simplier, etc), then over time we would build up an ecosystem and have some type of backing and tie the coin's value into the network and usebase.
The mesh netork (skywire) is good, because it gives something for people to do to get coins and it allows people to consume the coins. You can run your internet traffic through a VPN that tunnels over Skywire and maybe it will be a nominal amount (actually absurdly small amount of money), but there would be real economic activity and a real userbase and community using the coin. Not just speculation.
Later on the scope is much wider.
arc-over-water So the skycoin wallet will be a VPN for our internet usage?
synth
nxt is a newer platform than sky, market value is $220 million plus $166 million, I get what you are saying but the evidence is wrong. Community is huge and active in Nxt. But you say it is killed, i dont get it?
What I am saying, is that NXT would be a lot further along than it is now and probably around where Ethereum is, except for that mistake in the distribution and keeping it too concentrated. It set them back by years. They did not consider what the impact on the price would be, over the long term, when one of the early whales started selling off or decided he wanted out.
arc-over-water But they did the same again with IOTA, same lead dev.. Its over a $Billion
they released and let the market price distribute
synth
So the skycoin wallet will be a VPN for our internet usage?
The VPN is just one application, that uses bandwidth over Skywire. There are several things in development.
This is a BBS like 4chan, that is completely distributed, with CXO. https://github.com/skycoin/bbs
It will run over Skywire also, This is like building a whole new internet from scratch. The apps that run on it are going to specialized and privacy focused, etc GitHub skycoin/bbs Contribute to bbs development by creating an account on GitHub.
mike So Skycoin is a Proof of Resource coin where its value is actually backed by provision of a useful service, in this case private and secure networking? Are there plans to add decentralized storage and even distributed processing to it?
arc-over-water so these 100 separate million coin accounts will be 100 ICOs or how is the distribution patterned? is it written into the code or up to the devs?
rockyj !calculate
slackbot Custom Response https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1FGo3FkC3uSWXGHatPQyny2brMWjAIJsHFCR-Lhkl_m0/edit#gid=0
synth
So if there is no block reward what is the incentive to run a node?
running a consensus node does not cost anything. You can run it on a raspberry pi.
The important thing is that if the people doing consensus are doing a bad job, that the community can get rid of them and replace them. The other important thing, is that they can be audited and determined automatically if they are obeying the protocol.
the miners in skycoin are not very powerful and cannot do anything except slow down transactions. They are unable to spend other people's money without their private keys, so the consensus/mining nodes are almost irrelevent. It is not like Bitcoin where the miners can hold the network hostage or act selfishly (driving up the transactions fees for their own personal benefit and delaying any innovations that would improve bitcoin for everyone, etc).
So Skycoin is a Proof of Resource coin where its value is actually backed by provision of a useful service, in this case private and secure networking? Are there plans to add decentralized storage and even distributed processing to it?
We have decentralized storage, which is called CXO. But only the bandwidth is monetized by Skywire. We do not nickle and dime and try to attach a coin cost to every API call. Everything that should be free is free. So its a different philosphy.
On top of CXO we also have distributed social media applications (simmilar to Steemit)
CXO is very similar to IFPS, but simplier and designed for our internal infrastructure and with our crypto standards, instead of being a mismash.
mike Is it possible for Skycoin to choose the best paths and route around bad or slow nodes as damage to the network, in effect reducing their impact on consensus?
looks like you answered the question above while I was typing...
tranzer How many tx/s can skycoin handle? What are block times?
thrice.pi 300 right? ^
arc-over-water on your website it says you will have a NON- Turing complete lisp language?
synth
so these 100 separate million coin accounts will be 100 ICOs or how is the distribution patterned? is it written into the code or up to the devs?
We will have a distribution page, up on the website soon. Its complicated.
Skywire, is designed to pull coins out of circuation, through a sort of tithe on network activity and it does automatic buy backs effectively. So the distribution will actually peak and then decline. But one distribution is from the locked coins, and the locked coins are freed, then circulate, then end up at the foundation (from the skywire tithe are pulled out of circulation), but still count towards the free float.
The coin holders also receive a coinhour dividend and there will be a market rate conversion between coin hours and Skycoins and coinhours are the actual currency for the Skywire network. If you do not have enough coin hours, then you sell Skycoin for CoinHour at the market rate, to purchase bandwidth; but if you have a lot of coins then you have enough coin hours for downloading movies or VPN or whatever you are doing and it is essentially free.
So there is a dual level economic structure. Both with coin buybacks to pull coins out of circulation and with a dividend or incentive to encourage users to hold the coin if they are using the network.
arc-over-water so there will be two currencies, holding one reserves the other
synth
Is it possible for Skycoin to choose the best paths and route around bad or slow nodes as damage to the network
Yes. This is very important.
The person dialing a connection, chooses the path of the connection!
You can choose the lowest latency path for video games or Skype, and choose highest throughput paths for video downloads etc. Or can choose paths through specific nodes or facilities or countries, for security concerns and to minimize the number of points that the traffic could be intercepted at.
mike Will Skycoin still have the node subsidy plan for setting up and registering the mesh nodes like originally planned?
dr10 When do you plan to be able to present your planned technology and services to the masses? When can they use what you try do accomplish?
synth
on your website it says you will have a NON- Turing complete lisp language?
That is probably an error. LOL. We will have a new website soon.
There is no scripting language on the skycoin blockchain. Each transaction is constant time (for efficiency and security and to achieve the highest transaction rate and to keep the coin simple).
However, we have a language called CX in development, which is a next generation language that is beyond "smart contracts" and the toy things on ethereum. It uses immutable datastructures and is something completely new. Most of the skycoin "smart contracts" will probably be off blockchain or in personal blockchains and we do not want to shove all the data onto the main chain, because forcing everyone to download everyone one elses contracts it the world is just spamming the blockchain to death. There are better ways to do it.
Will Skycoin still have the node subsidy plan for setting up and registering the mesh nodes like originally planned?
Yes. We are going to get from 20% to 30% distributno of the coins, through network incentives for people running Skywire nodes, consensus nodes and services.
I think this is going to be massive for marketing. And it is the best way to get the coins out to the users, instead of all the coins being held by whales
samuelvihollandia I read how you suggest Skycoin could be used for VPN connections, is this the largest use case you see?
arc-over-water Maidsafe has been working on the redesign of the net for about ten years, what are you doing the same and what different?
synth
I read how you suggest Skycoin could be used for VPN connections, is this the largest use case you see?
No. This is just something easy, that we have working. Its not the largest applicatoin at all.
80% of internet traffic right now is bitorrent and the bitorrent sites are being systematically shutdown and driven off the internet. They wont go away, but will jut go underground. What.cd (largest music tracker, with 800k people) was just shut down, bakabt (largest anime tracker) has gone closed registration, Nyantorrent etc...
User communities of millions of people will be migrating from the clearnet (the existing corporate shit-net) to the "new internet". We are going to see people migrating by the millions, whole user communities of millions of people.
arc-over-water Are you a corporation or foundation or charity? Registered? I am not sure i have seen anything about who you are? What is the dev team size? Background? - Maidsafe is open and clear so is IOTA and Stellar etc. Can you let us know who you and your team are? Especially you are talking about 15 year and up obligations..
techbytes Do we need to hold skycoin to run Skywire nodes or consensus nodes like masternodes from other coins?
synth
Maidsafe has been working on the redesign of the net for about ten years, what are you doing the same and what different?
Maidsafe is in version 2 or 3. Maidsafe will not have a real coin until version 9. Each version takes them about two or three years. Maidsafe will not be "done" or ready for atleast 18 years at this rate.
Skycoin has been in development for ~6 years and the meshnet for 4 years and it will be finished in a few months. To the poin that people can start using it.
Skycoin is similar to maidsafe in the objective, but has a different approach and architecture and primitives. We did not try to do everything, but focused on a smaller, tractable core and got that done.
There will be multiple projects in this space, but few teams are able to plan on the time horizon necisary for building a new internet or able to design each of the components of a system this large, or figure out how to do it so that it is useful at each stage of construction of a project that may take a decade. (edited)
mike Can you see a way for Ark and Skycoin to build on each other in a synergistic manner? I'm all for not reinventing the wheel, especially when it looks like it will be replaced with antigravity like Skycoin.
I see Skycoin as essentially replacing TCP/IP and providing mesh network type functionality at the hardware level, Ark would run on top of it as a top level application layer.
arc-over-water are you up to date on Maidsafe, they are nearly out of Alpha and its more like release early next year? But that being said, Maidsafe says once it is released it is like a virus or AI type, so does Tau Chain, and also Autonomic by HunterMinerCrafter, are we heading towards AI with Maid, Sky Tau and Autonomic?
dr10 smartbridge now! :kappa:
mike So Skycoin would act as a sort of global decentralized cloud server to build on top of.
To communicate, it is more like sharing encrypted files to selected recipients than it is sending messages or hosting sites on a specific server.
synth
Are you a corporation or foundation or charity? Registered? I am not sure i have seen anything about who you are? What is the dev team size? Background?
I think there are over ~60 people who have worked on Skycoin or have made major contributions. Its really a project from the darknet.
Many of the contributors are anonymous. Some of them have security clearances and were in the military industrial complex and one of them worked at the San Diego Naval Defence Research Lab and a lot of the idea for the networking protocols came out of public sector academic researched, funded from there.
We also have a lot of very very early Bitcoin people, hardcore crypto people that predate Bitcoin and an Ethereum core developer, etc..
On the Chinese side we have an early investor in Alibaba and telecom investor. And are doing pilot with china aviation group (owns four publicly traded airline companies) and apparently now Sinopec (which is 2nd largest publicly traded corporation in world).
Then we have people who are part of israeli and US intelligence and are probably doing some sort of money laundering or phychological operations background, who just showed up for some reason. This group seems very interested in the "applications" of these coins and how to improve tranaction privacy and the specifics of the CoinJoin protocol implementation. We got a lot of advice from people experienced in forensic accounting and what they wanted to see and where they felt Bitcoin was deficient and where it leaked metadata.
Then a bunch of PHD level people doing research into distributed database consensus algorithms and another group doing programming language research.
Then a lot of people from the deep darknet, anon, frog twitter and cipher punks and bitorrent communities. (really should be listed as two seperate groups). And people from the Russian darknet community. We have like eight Ivans. (edited)
I see Skycoin as essentially replacing TCP/IP and providing mesh network type functionality at the hardware level, Ark would run on top of it as a top level application layer.
Yes. The key functionality is two things - connecting to people by public key (networking) - distributing self validating, immutble data peer to peer (transactions, blocks etc... content addressible storage)
And you can build almost anything on those two building blocks. The whole internet will eventually be rewritten on top of those primitives and it will replace many of the existing protocols.
arc-over-water Who is the entity that is funding this? I think you have done 2 ICOs? How much did you receive? The first was 10c and the second was @ 50c per coin, released 6 million, is that correct?
samuelvihollandia Are you planning to enter a different exchange market soon?
arc-over-water Have you personally been in Sky from the start? What members have? Who allocates the ICO money etc... I hope you understand that decentralization with investment is a two edged sword, we invest in people but we cannot know these people.... So... we question.. (edited)
thrice.pi with all these outside parties that helped to build skycoin and bring it where it is today who are the main core team who will help to keep all these cool features running. Will these outside parties be recruited for the long haul?
synth
Who is the entity that is funding this? I think you have done 2 ICOs? How much did you receive? The first was 10c and the second was @ 50c per coin, released 6 million, is that correct?
The people who funded the project for the first four years, were early bitcoin and deep crypto people; who were unhappy with the fact that Bitcoin and the other alts did not seem concerned about the core issues at all. They gave us over 1200 bitcoin I think, over several years and did not ask for anything in return.
The early Skycoin devs were doing academic research, architecture and new algorithms. Prototyping and simulation. The later stage people were more project managers and doing implementation.
We did four ICOs for small amounts, to fund development and to allow developers working on the project to buy in. The first ICO I remember was at $0.10 per coin and the price now is about $4.00 per coin, so its up ~35x or 40x, but when you consider the Bitcoin price going from $100 to $3000, the increase has not been so much. lol (edited)
arc-over-water With the price up 35x in about 1 year, is it not now time to cool the run up and release another ICO? At what amount of coins released and what procedure?
mike Would Intel Edison or Joule, or Samsung Artik 10 work well as a Skywire wireless node? They have 2 Gb-8 Gb RAM, 8-64 Gg eMMC storage, 802.11n wireless, bluetooth, and some with Zigbee?
synth
Have you personally been in Sky from the start? What members have? Who allocates the ICO money etc... I hope you understand that decentralization with investment is a two edged sword, we invest in people but we cannot know these people.... So... we question.
I think there wer three different groups that merged together in first three years, that had similar objectives. Because the code was in different language. There was python, C code and then eventually golang and the golang code became the basis for the current codebase.
The way the coin allocations work, is that it requires unamimious consent for releasing coins and it has to be for a specific, ear marked purpose and can be blocked by any of the devs.
Then there is a pool of coins in bitcoin for various project managers to allocate. And that is an operational fund for paying developers, contractors, marketing etc. Then different people have different responsibilities.
Then we also have corporate funding and sponsorship and some companies paying our full time devs etc, which helps a lot.
arc-over-water Silicon Valley (TV SHOW) recently had their decentralized web running on a network or refrigerators? So i would guess, smart phones, smart gadgets? Home gadgets etc could add services and receive rewards from Sky?
mike best would be a totally open source and publicly audited manufactured system on a chip for the nodes to prevent any backdoors. Even chip designers now don't really know what they're putting into the chips since they just drag and drop black boxes known as IP cores into the ASIC designs.
synth
With the price up 35x in about 1 year, is it not now time to cool the run up and release another ICO? At what amount of coins released and what procedure?
I think the Skycoin price has been doubling every 40 days, for as long as I can remember. However, it will still be years before it is in the top 20, its still a long way to climb. It took bitcoin years to go from 0 to $1, even though it was growing at 1% per day the whole time for six years.
best would be a totally open source and publicly audited manufactured system on a chip for the nodes to prevent any backdoors.
we are going to use arm
arc-over-water IOTA is also working on their own hardware for nodes etc, Trinary asset is JINN
synth all intel and AMD systems have remote management engine backdoors. So they are not safe for storing large amounts of coins.
We also have alpine linux and special version of linux, that is 6 MB and has everything that is needed for running our toolchain. It will not have any binary blobs in the kernel or anything that we cant compile from source. It does not have systemd and does not have gli, but uses musl. And does not have openssl.
mike so looks like the Samsung Artik 5 and 10 can run it no problem, they're ARM based. 25x35x4mm package for the Artik 10, Artik 5 is smaller, less powerful but has 2 separate antenna ports, nice for mesh networking with an omni and a directional antenna.
earlyarkinvestor how does Ark compare to Lisk?
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earlyarkinvestor isn't Lisk trying to achieve interoperability between blockchains as well
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mike nice! looks like an ARM based server rack
let me know if you need any help with it, see you're on solidworks, which I run as well.
synth this is the skycoin cluster; it has 8 CPU boards; 4 cores per CPU, 2 GB of ram per CPU and 64 bit ARM processor. Only one program will run on each individual board, so there is compartmentalization and a physical gap so that compromising one process on a system does no allow all other processes on the system to be compromised
mike looks like 2 ethernet ports per board.
synth and the hardware does not have the qualcom backdoors and is actually chinese equipment; and the backdoors are normally at the kernel level because they are not at hardware backdoors yet
lol
mike do they have SATA ports, maybe M.2 for storage?
synth and we will hav an ARM openwrt router eventually too
this model does not have SATA, but we have a model with SATA; you could hook up 16 2 TB drives, lol and download half the piratebay to your cluster (edited)
the skycoin infrastructure is cluster based and designed for running across +300 computers, with one "node" deployed per computer. Eithe a CXO storage node, or a skywire SDN/meshnet node, or a VPN end point node or a consensus network, or skycoin node, etc. We have multiple node/application types.
so this is a "personal cloud' by itself
its not like StoreJ where you have other people storing your stuff; you are going to have ~5 clusters and 300 computers and can store your own files, on your own internet, on your own hardware. You do not need to go outside of your own network.
mike Have thought it'd be nice to have a board with an array of M.2 sockets to run SSD arrays without all the cables, have the busses shielded in circuit board.
synth yes, i think there will be m.2 eventually
these actually use a microSSD for storage, and its 48MB/s
mike any idea on the pricing on your ARM boards in quantity? We are looking at Intel for Bitseed V3, but ARM would be good to stay with, especially using your boards if there is SATA.
arc-over-water Do you have a general idea of usable functions to be released next in what order? The first release was the Coin and wallet, then the ICOs and can you give a general future with dates if you can
synth the boards are $30 each and the memory for solid state, is actually more than the the cost of the CPU/RAM/board now. Which is sort of insane.
mike so you have microSSD, what's maximum size? we shipping 1with Tb hard drives right now
synth Bitseed mike is going to help with this; so we can pool the boards and do a custom PCB
mike yes, that's where we see the price jumps, is in RAM and eMMC costs.
and it's hard to find low cost boards with SATA
synth try the orange pi
the price goes up 30% for SATA
mike yes, very nice specs.
synth eventually, we will make one that has custom PCB and is a pluggable blade server, I think.
mike I like the Samsung Artiks for the tiny form factor for drone routers, cubesat/picosat possibilities.
but like the fact that you are controlling much deeper down the supply chain with your boards.
synth we only need ram, CPU, then microSD slot; and that is it. so the wifi and all this other stuff is just crap and its junk. We only have communication, storage and computation. So should be minimialist.
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1,5 TH/s running Bitcoin Asic Miner at real-mining.com Bitfury 16nm ASIC Demo - Part 3 of 3 Another Satoshi candidate emerges ASIC Design for Mining - SBC '19 Soldering a Bitfury ASIC QFN / MLF chip to a 4 layer quikfury bitcoin mining PCB

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1,5 TH/s running Bitcoin Asic Miner at real-mining.com

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