Bitcoin - definition of bitcoin by The Free Dictionary

Investigation of (Dis-)Favor 1\3 questioning freedom of will (in Macro-society)

This item began as a simple idea to investigate "social construct" theory, a trendy theme in academia and identity politics. It turned into a staggeringly complex constellation of ideas, with surprises galore.
The idea occurs to me: validate (or not) 'social construction' of beauty. If not, then sense of beauty is innate (source is not one's society, but genetic or other episocial influences).
Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry 2016 | plos (technical study)
Reading in Contemporary Aesthetics "Why Beauty Still Cannot Be Measured", by Ossi Naukkarinen, because beauty is a personal determination, and a metaphor of favor, but how is it determined? Example: which of these women looks beautiful to you? note: only descriptor for the AI search is "beautiful woman", AI learns about beauty by sifting mega-data; how effective is it? (achieves given goal?) AI results are socially constructed in the most explicit way possible! Beauty may not be measurable, but it can be selected (parsed) from non-beauty. Measurement is a comparison of some phenomenon to an abstract dimension. Selection is a go, no-go choice.
What is Nudge theory? This item straddles the fence between Macro and Micro societies, paradigmatic Nudges come from Macro sources, but include an option to choose without pressure to conform. Micro sources are always more direct; which side of the fence are you on, friend?. (Greener side, of course.)
What about searching for "good", images? note how often the WORD good is pictured. Good is a language construct that must be interpreted from the individual's perspective.
Ok, now search for "favor" images note that AI mostly interprets favor as a small gift, not as a preference (which is difficult to represent by image)
Well then, search for "preference", images note that the word preference happens to be used by a line of hair care products from L'Oreal, which dominates the returns... commerce rules!
social construct (def, search result)
validate (or not) 'social construction' of beauty
Is Socialism a social construct? (LoL) Socialism Defined (EVERY Country is Socialist!) 2.2k views Sep 29, 2019 Rokn'MrE
To (social) Construct, or Not to (social) Construct, is there a choice? (note most results are about gender)
Parsing gender
Discussion of gender is not my direction of choice in this part 1 investigation. I want to seek how an actor (esp. me) makes a choice, in a quest for freedom of will. Perhaps come back to gender in a future item.
person makes a choice, in a quest for freedom of will (selections available)
Exemplar Hyp (Harry) Frankfurt’s compatibilist theory of free will 2009 5pg.pdf
I notice my choice of article was partly determined, partly free, but parsing out those factors would be too much divergence from the goal here. But Truth (a two side coin) is my story, and I'm stickin' to it.
(previous link, compatibilism):
3 It explains our intuition that human beings, but not lower animals, have free will. Lower animals lack free will because they lack the second-order volitions which are constitutive of free will. (This item is unnecessary and probably not true; how do we know animals have no "second-order volitions"? Having no other language than "body", we can only surmise (guess) what their volitions are. Volitions come before actions, we cannot see them or interpret them in any way. Brain conditions might be interpreted with MRI scanning, but to put a subject in a scanning device is to prevent any other actions. Such measuring ruins the connection between mental state and volition being measured, except we can safely assume that every measurement of animals must default to the volition to escape the measuring device.)
That's the first-order, highlighted deviation from compatibility theory. Clarification of "second-order volition": a path from choice to action has an intermediate "middle-way" tunneling mode, contracting (taking on) a desire to make a choice, prior to making the choice. In order to prove freedom, one must establish the mental preference for an imagined outcome in order to prove that preference did come from within the person and was not forced by other external deciding factors (genetic factors are pre-determined).
incompatibilism Note: the approach is wrong by the universal assumption, IOW that the intersection of determined and free is zero. It's a supremacy position, or superposition principle (LoL), the error is in over-simplification. The Logic Argument (p.5) is not representative of reality, which is more nuanced. Therefore, Frankfurt's thesis is good (denial of incompatibilism), but not due to the case presented (superposition).
Take Frankfurt's case (p.4) of Black vs Jones4 to be analogy for State vs Individual. Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars (other sources exist, search for yourself)
The (myusername) determinism/free-will duality hypothesis (denial of incompatibilism due to non-zero intersection):
Most choices, including the choice of desires, are determined by contingencies of which one is the natural desire of the actor to optimize his/her outcomes ("best wishes"). Is a person always compelled to have best wishes? What is best depends on a person's mental state, which is usually determined by external factors, but those can vary in cogency (impact on behavior). Consider the choice to commit suicide, certainly not a trivial choice. (The Chosen means of execution (puns intended) is somewhat more trivial, but again, partly determined by external conditions.)
Some choices, nearly all trivial, are free because no interfering contingencies are apparent during the choosing interlude. It may happen in hindsight, that a past choice is observed to be a mistake, usually because some contingency was overlooked or unknown during the choosing. This observation should be remembered so as to avoid repeating a future choice like that mistake. Choices always have risks, including the choice to do nothing.
Different day, slightly different approach... parsing choice. 1 important choices that have many deep effects later, for instances a marriage partner, a new job, a new residence; 2 trivial choices which have minor effects, risks or physical involvement, for instances a choice of toothpaste at the market, to like or not a web-link or museum exhibit.
According to (myusername)'s determined/free paradigm, type 1 choices are nearly all determined by pre-existing conditions (not free). Type 2 choice is the arena of freedom. I suppose a person's low risk-aversion parameter could expand the envelope of freedom, but that's a characteristic that develops during maturation, one's history of choices and ensuing responses. Successful responses lead to more freedom, failures to less. So even when freedom exists, it accumulates a history (habits) which become a determinant.
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder (it's contagious) Take 1:
How does an actor (person in question who comes to an internal state, or inner-construct) interact with a community or society? Must it be IRL, or can virtual interaction suffice to construct internal states? And more to my point, must the interaction be two-way (containing feedback), or simply via broadcast medium? (broadcast includes published books, articles, records, radio, TV or Internet A/V shows, etc.)
Interaction with broadcast media can be summarized by: a choice, a degree of attention and focus (time spent on and attention given to item), a like/dislike or more complex reaction to item, having future behavior influenced by item, to continue a stream of behaviors (especially sequential item choices) as consequence of influence of item, to develop a complex of attitudes built upon stream of items (eg. just mentioned 'risk aversion parameter and habit).
Before going on, I notice that broadcast media is like Sunshine, Rain, and Grace. It is made available by participation in a community, and falls without curse or blessing, it's all there for the choosing (or ignoring), depending on the contingencies.
Mind control theory? (because mind is the inner source of volition... behavior, control the mind (easy), hence control the behaviors (difficult otherwise))
Mind control courtesy Tavistock Inst.
Construction of Favor (or any knowledge) upon Familiarity
What is Social Construction? (cntrlZ)
"For instance, trees are only differentiated from other plants by virtue of the fact that we have all learned to see them as "trees."
But we don't all know about trees to an equal degree. I know rather much about trees from my interaction with them: living among them, planting them, sawing them, moving them, burning them, etc., not from reading or talking about them. No doubt, there are many persons all over the world who have very little experience of trees, and cannot 'construct' treeness as well as me. Direct experience is more realistic and developed than social constructs.
Favor and Familiarity are interwoven by choice
I chose to live alone with trees and not alone with sea, or desert (for examples), because it was easier to go with trees. Was the choice free? I could have chosen city or suburb with even more ease than forest, so ease of choice was not the deciding factor, it was my preference of lonely forest over crowded urb that decided me. So maybe it wasn't really about trees, it was about independence or something else like that. When we choose, we may not understand the contingencies, but our decision (choice) may be due to habits or patterns that have developed in the maturity process. Habits are strong determinants, and they develop, according to Ian Plowman, 4 ways.
The cntrlZ article makes the case for 'Strong Social Construction' based on that 'knowing' which is all about language, certainly a social construct.
Within the social construction of language is the game. Outside the social construction is reality, the real world. (a list of social constructs follows)
That makes it clear. Experiences (direct ones) without resort to language are NOT social constructs. That observation makes another distinction clear: gender may be a social construct, as it's a language issue, but sex is not a social construct, it is a direct experience issue that develops in the maturation process: birth, infant, child, puberty, sexy adolescent, sexy adult, old (unsexy) adult, death. Prior to puberty, sex is incipient in its development, but comes to life, (like a flower blooms) after a decade or so. Knowing about sex as a child is by observation from outside (thru the looking glass), after puberty, it's direct experience, and much later, it's a fading memory.
Regarding Looking-glass self theory the notion of socially constructed identity (defining the self by differences/ affinities to others),
... the outcome of "taking the role of the other", the premise for which the self is actualized. Through interaction with others, we begin to develop an identity of our own as well as developing a capacity to empathize with others... Therefore, the concept of self-identity may be considered an example of a social construction.
... makes a spurious expansion of identity formation to include everyone (a unity), or nearly so. According to Reisman's Lonely Crowd, there is a triality of social nature, expounded by parsing people into tradition, inner, and other directed personalities. This theme was a scholar's response to the US trend toward consumerism and conformity to "norms", (local traditions, eg. "keeping up with the Joneses") mid-20th century. The social construct crowd would be Reisman's Other directed personality, which may truly be the majority, in USA certainly. However, the tradition-following and inner-directed personalities are a significant minority. Let's not ignore them (I'm in there.)
What is “Mob Mentality?”
Herd mentality | wkpd
Are All Personality Descriptions Social Constructions? Sep.2019 | psytdy
... that objective reality does not directly reveal itself to us, is true beyond a doubt.
The preceding statement author, JA Johnson, is way off (and his article is full of falseness). Objective reality IS direct experience, no more revealing modality exists. Denial of this obvious fact (just lied about above) is a redefinition of the term (a social construct). Experience is beyond language, thus beyond 'description'. However the following is a true reveal about (((Yews))) (the like of whom Dr. Johnson seems):
It is true that when we describe someone with socially undesirable traits... we are constructing for them a social reputation that might decrease their chance of success in life. This is precisely one of the concerns of (((social constructivists, like Dr. Johnson))), that certain categorizations (eg. a separate race) reduce power and status.
Proof that Truth is not a social construct (relative to culture, like morality absolutely is)... What do you believe in? Cultural Relativism
Conformity is a social construct (should be obvious, it's a social source of choices). What causes conformity? Social interactions, which traditionally occurred (Macro-version) in newspapers, magazines, cinema and radio programs. As culture changed the popular media to radio, TV and then to Internet, and church attendance fell out of vogue, the advertising industry became more powerful in defining social constructs. That's why Internet censorship is so important.
Who are the 'influencers' in society? (They used to be parents, teachers, peers... now it seems to be YouTubers, like PewDiePie. But an intentionally underplayed contingent of influencers is the predominantly Left-Leaning academia, who collectively promote Marxist preferences and political activism toward Socialist positions. Academia is pushing social construction because it provides an intellectual framework that denies the old (social injustice), and says ok to their preferred ideology, Cultural Marxism (new social "just us"; socially constructed ideas can be anything you want, their cogency depends on efficacy of publication).
Micro-Social Constructs are most cogent (due to conformity being human nature), discussed in part 2.
Bottom Line (part 1)
If you like freedom, and are serious about it, you must distance yourself from society, because it tries to reconstruct you according to the norm... conform!
Before you go, think about what is a hermit?, which should not be confused with Hermetic, name derived from Greek god Hermes. 7 Great Hermetic Principles – The Teachings of Thoth (illustrated)... same topic 2016
Investigation of (Dis-)Favor 2\3, Micro-Societies
Social Circles; Mates, Kin, Friends
note on Mates: school-, (prison) in-, marriage-, ship-, etc. note on my link choices, page rank has a strong influence
Social group (aka circle)
Is Conformity Human Nature? Don't blow this list off, if you want to understand social constructs. At least look at first item.
What is Social Proof?
Are Micro-societies any less 'constructing' than Macros? Or do some constructs exist for all realms, macro and micro? I think they are more constructing, because micros carry feedback, whereas macro is all absorption, individuals have negligible effects on society at large. They act in a statistical sense, with a few exceptions.
Concept vs Percept (concepts are stable mental recordings, and physical manifestations of them; percepts are changing sensations and reflexes which depend strongly on the situation, memories of which are variable too)
Favor, Good, and Beauty are words that belong in the same 'conceptual basket' (ward), they are alike, all refer to action 'like', as an affective (and affirmative) perception. Conversely for the word's opposites.
Perceptions are non-language reactions to stimuli, therefore not social constructs. They may be evoked into a social arena via language (or other virtual records), but these are only shadows of the perception, so what is evoked is drawn up from the receiver's own memories of perceptions.
Division of Labor (and role models) are Social Constructs
Sex is the most basic divider of labor, for all societies, especially the most primitive. As societies develop towards more technical, sex falls away from the divider, as natural talent and innate interest gain influence, until the basic operations of reproduction remain, the core division. What about rankings in the division?
natural tendency for dominance?
Are males naturally dominant in nature? | qra
(arguments opposing) Male Dominance (theory) with (bogus) "Explanations", by 2 feminist authors using Marxist ideology 2017 | verso While this blog seems to have obvious (to me) flaws, it does raise interesting ideas and references.
what attributes help males gain social status? Basic: status is competitive. It takes talent and effort to win.
To Raise Male Status (18 Rules) | @rctvmn (not because age 18 is best)
Dominance vs Prestige 2010 | psytdy Note: blatant bias toward Prestige via argument parsing Pride. (author is Jewish, maligns DJ Trump (nationalist), lauds John Lennon (globalist))
modes of thought: socially-controlled vs spontaneous
Major Component of Social-Construction: Public Education 3 Modes of Thought Jan.2019
Kaufman again: How Renaissance People Think 2011 | psytdy Note: We discussed concept vs percept, here Kaufman refers to fellow-Jew Seymour Epstein's dual modish rational vs experiential theory, same idea set.
polymath (short for Renaissance Man)
Favor-Goodness-Beauty paradigm
Favor is not favored in prior art, Truth takes Favor's place in the Transcendental Spectrum: Transcendentals 5pg.pdf
We have already seen the idea in part 1 that Truth is a disputed transcendental in the social-constructionism academic universe. Academics use the "universal fallacy" that their favored item is part of an incompatible pair, which by logic excludes everything not in their favor. They want to ignore the nuances in order to push an ideology toward a supremacy of thinking, just like in a totalitarian state.
Whereas the (myusername) principle of Truth, it has a dual nature, 1 relative to a society (democratic consensus); and 2 absolute to reality (math/science/technology). So 'Favor' is a better term because objective proof (no contest) is not required (except the meaning of objective that says 'objection!', meaning 'contest'). 'Favor' implies bias which is the subjective reaction that matches Goodness and Beauty better than 'Truth'.
Apply Truth-Goodness-Beauty paradigm to social construction
it is unconcerned with ontological issues...
because the aim of constructionists is to justify a collective "truth" of their own construction. A social construct is not absolute, it's anything a society wants it to be ("social proof"). That's a good description of tyranny... The Empowered Female Parasite 2014 (that's a surprising result, here is one not-surprising.)
Social Proof: established by culture media (mind control, a monopoly 2012 (scroll down long graphic), of the Juice 2015), go back to part 1, macrosocial constructs.
Does Appreciation of Beauty have any innate sources? (otherwise it's all a social construct) Neuroscience of Beauty; How does the brain appreciate art? 2011 | sciam (in brain)
Onward (Dis)-Favor Readers...
Investigation of (Dis-)Favor 3\3, House of Not-Friends
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder Take 2
Living outside the 'Normitory" (away from Dreamland (everybody's asleep), to where Nessun Dorma (nobody sleeps))
It so happens that an ethnic group which originated in eastern Mediterranean Middle-East evolved to specialize in intelligence, commerce, morally corrupt enterprises, and crime. Essential to their success was eugenic traditions that applied artificial selection to just those same specialties, which makes this ethnic group a formidable enemy. They have developed a very strong sense of in-groupness, and a vested interest in social construct studies. A unified collective is a more effective competitor than an inchoate population of diverse individuals.
This group has as ethnic traits: global dispersion (aka Diaspora), preference for urban environments (aka Cosmopolitan, or Globalist), covert inter-group rivalry (aka InfoWar), and deception (aka MOSSAD). This cosmopolitan group must operate covertly and deceptively, because those are effective tactics, and they are a small minority (2% of USA), therefore weak in the democratic sense.
Immoral Social Constructs enforced by 5th column subversives
wethefifth (political audio series)
serendipity: freethink
Another construct search, without gender reference
Is morality a social construct? If so, how can concepts such as 'good' exist? (note especially the links in top comment, to reddit posts)
"Good" can be understood as a variation of "Favor" as a direct experience (perception) of "like", rather than some idealized notion of an obvious social construct such as "greater good" (a theoretical derivation by interventionist actors-with-agendas trying to impose their own preferences upon others, IOW ideology hegemony pushers, for instance viz da wiz)
Cultural hegemony is the Chosen's mitzvah, that we all must go to Emerald City, land of Oz, where YHWH (impostor) rules.
Cultural hegemony
Concepts of Ideology, Hegemony, and Organic Intellectuals in Gramsci’s Marxism 1982
There is no universal morality. Morality is much like Beauty, in the mind of beholder (actor who holds to a specific moral code). Morality is a social construct, and varies between societies. (I think a fair definition of morality is a code of ethics which is community-specific.) For a society to sustain, it needs to be isolate from conflicting societies. If different societies, with different moralities must coexist, the natural tendency for actors in the same niche toward dominance will destroy or remake the subordinate societies, which reduces the conflicts.
Status Hierarchies: Do We Need Them? blog 2012 | psytd
a need for 'virtue signaling'? It's natural, and likely unavoidable, evidence pride displays.
Status Assignments: by birth (heredity) or merit (talent)?
Let's assume your morality values social effectiveness. The best path to that is to have talented persons dominant (meritocracy). Next we happen to know that talent is hereditary, but not perfectly so. Therefore birth (kinship, aka kingship) is only an indicator of talent, which is infrequent among low status groups, much higher among high status kinship groups. Thus we must conclude that awarding status by pedigree and family privilege is not the best way to effectiveness, but it often does work. What works best then, must be? a competitive system of merit-proving, with special attention to high-status families. (Helps if the natural tendency for snobbish repression is circumvented, for examples Han-style Civil Service Exams, and the Roman military promotion avenue, which occasionally led to top gun.)
Sustainable Competitive Advantages (aka moats): Network Effects 2019 | sEknα
Our Brain's Negative Bias 2003 | psytdA
Fear: it's the greatest (motivator) 2009 Owen Benjamin made a video about Fear over TIME 16 min.
Dominance Hierarchy employs FEAR to dominate
Dominance hierarchy | wkpd Social dominance theory | wkpd
scaring children is not ok, Sydney Watson blog 11 min
tools for social mobility and dominance (list)
9 Important Factors That Influence Social Mobility Social dominance orientation | wkpd SDO should theoretically be highly important to Jews, as their ethos tends strongly to emulate it among themselves and denigrate it towards outgroups (Goyim). Thus we should expect to see this field of study monopolized by Jewish scholars. Studying the Gentile: Fanciful Pseudoscience in the Service of Pathologizing the Covington Boys | OO
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder Take 3
Different day from Take 2. Re-consider interactions with a community or society: traditionally occurred locally, on Sunday meetings at church, parties, having a beer after work, town hall or children's group meetings, (eg. PTA, scouts) etc.
Re-consider "contracting". Original idea was meant to acquire, like a disease, not by design (choice), but determined by contingency (unlucky chance). Today, "contracting" means getting smaller, shrinking, like a cooling branding iron, or melting ice. Iron has several crystalline phases, the cooler, the more compact (more atomic order). Ice is contrary to most materials, as its crystalline structure is larger than its liquid phase, so as it melts (entropy always increases, going to less ordered) its atoms become more fluid. In both cases, the natural mode of change is toward ambient temperature. This trend (recursion to the mean) is maybe the most unbroken law of all physics.
Re-considering "Disorder"; original idea was meant as a mental disease, like ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder), IOW anomalous condition, out-of-order, (order being assumed normal) in the human behavior dimension. Today it means individuals out-of-line, like discontinuities in a crystal. (Discontinuities are what make metal harder.)
When all the atoms of a metal are aligned (continuous), the state is called "annealed". This is the softest condition. When the metal has been "work hardened" by hammering, or forging, it acquires discontinuities (crystalline order becomes mucked up). This is a harder state. Hardness is measured by forcing a small ball into a test material and measuring the resulting depression (dent). Discontinuities resist dents and every other kind of deforming force (decreased plasticity (weakness) means increased elasticity and maximum yield (resilience, see Young's Modulus, Indentation hardness, Impact Toughness and Moh's Hardness)).
Now make analogy of metal with society. Non-conformist individuals (like followers of Marginotions) make society (if he-he-heeded) more resistant to outside forces (like George Soros, or seekers of Tikkun Olam) trying to make a dent in the established order (tradition, Protestant Ethic).
Contracting the Social Construct Disorder Take 4
Different day Re-consider "contracting" again. Today, it means make-a-deal, as in commercial contract. This kind of contract is in flux nowadays, as the advent of bitcoin has introduced a mathematical means of authorizing legal agreements (aka contracts) in a distributed ledger that makes such agreements social in a very direct sense. The social part of "social construct" is present in a world wide network of participating computer operators, while the construct part is present in a software package (app) that is now called "smart", meaning has built-in security and ongoing timely operations, like confirmation checking. In this contract-paradigm, the "disorder" part is due to it being outside of previous power-holding elites who are chagrined by the prospect of losing some of their powers to the Internetwork, which is out of their control. IOW disorder for elites, and made-to-order for independents. (note on that quote)
Social Contract per britannica (briefly) per wkpd
explicit vs implicit contracts Differences Between Implicit & Explicit Agreements (law) 2017 more specific, social contracts Social Contract Theory UT (includes videos, glossary)
to be continued: fairness is a social construct (contrast with deterministic fate)
study notes (all 3 parts, this series)
Gentrification, Displacement and the Role of Public Investment: A Literature Review 2015 pdf
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Owen+Benjamin+made+video+about+Fear&atb=v81-4__&ia=videos
why is 'social construct' a popular theme?
https://www.success.com/8-daily-habits-to-build-your-mental-strength/
Pareto principle implications for marital harmony, a very brief summary of research by J Cacioppo)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_culture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_and_society
https://thejewishwars.blogspot.com/2019/03/aipac-traitor-jews-having-successfully.html
https://theevilofzionismexposedbyjews.weebly.com/14-what-zionist-and-anti-zionist-jews-have-said-about-education.html
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Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

Is Crypto Currency truly at risk due to Quantum Computers, and what can you do about it?

There is no denying that the Quantum revolution is coming. Security protocols for the internet, banking, telecommunications, etc... are all at risk, and your Bitcoins (and alt-cryptos) are next!
This article is not really about quantum computers[i], but, rather, how they will affect the future of cryptocurrency, and what steps a smart investor will take. Since this is a complicated subject, my intention is to provide just enough relevant information without being too “techy.”

The Quantum Evolution

In 1982, Nobel winning physicist, Richard Feynman, hypothesized how quantum computers[ii] would be used in modern life.
Just one year later, Apple released the “Apple Lisa”[iii] – a home computer with a 7.89MHz processor and a whopping 5MB hard drive, and, if you enjoy nostalgia, it used 5.25in floppy disks.
Today, we walk around with portable devices that are thousands of times more powerful, and, yet, our modern day computers still work in a simple manner, with simple math, and simple operators[iv]. They now just do it so fast and efficient that we forget what’s happening behind the scenes.
No doubt, the human race is accelerating at a remarkable speed, and we’ve become obsessed with quantifying everything - from the everyday details of life to the entire universe[v]. Not only do we know how to precisely measure elementary particles, we also know how to control their actions!
Yet, even with all this advancement, modern computers cannot “crack” cryptocurrencies without the use of a great deal more computing power, and since it’s more than the planet can currently supply, it could take millions, if not billions, of years.
However, what current computers can’t do, quantum computers can!
So, how can something that was conceptualized in the 1980’s, and, as of yet, has no practical application, compromise cryptocurrencies and take over Bitcoin?
To best answer this question, let’s begin by looking at a bitcoin address.

What exactly is a Bitcoin address?

Well, in layman terms, a Bitcoin address is used to send and receive Bitcoins, and looking a bit closer (excuse the pun), it has two parts:[vi]
A public key that is openly shared with the world to accept payments. A public key that is derived from the private key. The private key is made up of 256 bits of information in a (hopefully) random order. This 256 bit code is 64 characters long (in the range of 0-9/a-f) and further compressed into a 52 character code (using RIPEMD-160).
NOTE: Although many people talk about Bitcoin encryption, Bitcoin does not use Encryption. Instead, Bitcoin uses a hashing algorithm (for more info, please see endnote below[vii]).
Now, back to understanding the private key:
The Bitcoin address “1EHNa6Q4Jz2uvNExL497mE43ikXhwF6kZm” translates to a private key of “5HpHagT65TZzG1PH3CSu63k8DbpvD8s5ip4nEB3kEsreAnchuDf” which further translates to a 256 bit private key of “0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001” (this should go without saying, but do not use this address/private key because it was compromised long ago.) Although there are a few more calculations that go behind the scenes, these are the most relevant details.
Now, to access a Bitcoin address, you first need the private key, and from this private key, the public key is derived. With current computers, it’s classically impractical to attempt to find a private key based on a public key. Simply put, you need the private key to know the public key.
However, it has already been theorized (and technically proven) that due to private key compression, multiple private keys can be used to access the same public key (aka address). This means that your Bitcoin address has multiple private keys associated with it, and, if someone accidentally discovers or “cracks” any one of those private keys, they have access to all the funds in that specific address.
There is even a pool of a few dedicated people hunting for these potential overlaps[viii], and they are, in fact, getting very efficient at it. The creator of the pool also has a website listing every possible Bitcoin private key/address in existence[ix], and, as of this writing, the pool averages 204 trillion keys per day!
But wait! Before you get scared and start panic selling, the probability of finding a Bitcoin address containing funds (or even being used) is highly unlikely – nevertheless, still possible!
However, the more Bitcoin users, the more likely a “collision” (finding overlapping private/public key pairs)! You see, the security of a Bitcoin address is simply based on large numbers! How large? Well, according to my math, 1.157920892373x1077 potential private keys exist (that number represents over 9,500 digits in length! For some perspective, this entire article contains just over 14,000 characters. Therefore, the total number of Bitcoin addresses is so great that the probability of finding an active address with funds is infinitesimal.

So, how do Quantum Computers present a threat?

At this point, you might be thinking, “How can a quantum computer defeat this overwhelming number of possibilities?” Well, to put it simple; Superposition and Entanglement[x].
Superposition allows a quantum bit (qbit) to be in multiple states at the same time. Entanglement allows an observer to know the measurement of a particle in any location in the universe. If you have ever heard Einstein’s quote, “Spooky Action at a Distance,” he was talking about Entanglement!
To give you an idea of how this works, imagine how efficient you would be if you could make your coffee, drive your car, and walk your dog all at the same time, while also knowing the temperature of your coffee before drinking, the current maintenance requirements for your car, and even what your dog is thinking! In a nutshell, quantum computers have the ability to process and analyze countless bits of information simultaneously – and so fast, and in such a different way, that no human mind can comprehend!
At this stage, it is estimated that the Bitcoin address hash algorithm will be defeated by quantum computers before 2028 (and quite possibly much sooner)! The NSA has even stated that the SHA256 hash algorithm (the same hash algorithm that Bitcoin uses) is no longer considered secure, and, as a result, the NSA has now moved to new hashing techniques, and that was in 2016! Prior to that, in 2014, the NSA also invested a large amount of money in a research program called “Penetrating Hard Targets project”[xi] which was used for further Quantum Computer study and how to break “strong encryption and hashing algorithms.” Does NSA know something they’re not saying or are they just preemptively preparing?
Nonetheless, before long, we will be in a post-quantum cryptography world where quantum computers can crack crypto addresses and take all the funds in any wallet.

What are Bitcoin core developers doing about this threat?

Well, as of now, absolutely nothing. Quantum computers are not considered a threat by Bitcoin developers nor by most of the crypto-community. I’m sure when the time comes, Bitcoin core developers will implement a new cryptographic algorithm that all future addresses/transactions will utilize. However, will this happen before post-quantum cryptography[xii]?
Moreover, even after new cryptographic implementation, what about all the old addresses? Well, if your address has been actively used on the network (sending funds), it will be in imminent danger of a quantum attack. Therefore, everyone who is holding funds in an old address will need to send their funds to a new address (using a quantum safe crypto-format). If you think network congestion is a problem now, just wait…
Additionally, there is the potential that the transition to a new hashing algorithm will require a hard fork (a soft fork may also suffice), and this could result in a serious problem because there should not be multiple copies of the same blockchain/ledger. If one fork gets attacked, the address on the other fork is also compromised. As a side-note, the blockchain Nebulas[xiii] will have the ability to modify the base blockchain software without any forks. This includes adding new and more secure hashing algorithms over time! Nebulas is due to be released in 2018.

Who would want to attack Bitcoin?

Bitcoin and cryptocurrency represent a threat to the controlling financial system of our modern economy. Entire countries have outright banned cryptocurrency[xiv] and even arrested people[xv], and while discrediting it, some countries are copying cryptocurrency to use (and control) in their economy[xvi]!
Furthermore, Visa[xvii], Mastercard[xviii], Discover[xix], and most banks act like they want nothing to do with cryptocurrency, all the while seeing the potential of blockchain technology and developing their own[xx]. Just like any disruptive technology, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies have their fair share of enemies!
As of now, quantum computers are being developed by some of the largest companies in the world, as well as private government agencies.
No doubt, we will see a post-quantum cryptography world sooner than most realize. By that point, who knows how long “3 letter agencies” will have been using quantum technology - and what they’ll be capable of!

What can we do to protect ourselves today?

Of course, the best option is to start looking at how Bitcoin can implement new cryptographic features immediately, but it will take time, and we have seen how slow the process can be just for scaling[xxi].
The other thing we can do is use a Bitcoin address only once for outgoing transactions. When quantum computers attack Bitcoin (and other crypto currencies), their first target will be addresses that have outgoing transactions on the blockchain that contain funds.
This is due to the fact that when computers first attempt to crack a Bitcoin address, the starting point is when a transaction becomes public. In other words, when the transaction is first signed – a signed transaction is a digital signature derived from the private key, and it validates the transaction on the network. Compared to classical computers, quantum computers can exponentially extrapolate this information.
Initially, Bitcoin Core Software might provide some level of protection because it only uses an address once, and then sends the remaining balance (if any) to another address in your keypool. However, third party Bitcoin wallets can and do use an address multiple times for outgoing transactions. For instance, this could be a big problem for users that accept donations (if they don’t update their donation address every time they remove funds). The biggest downside to Bitcoin Core Software is the amount of hard-drive space required, as well as diligently retaining an up-to-date copy of the entire blockchain ledger.
Nonetheless, as quantum computers evolve, they will inevitably render SHA256 vulnerable, and although this will be one of the first hash algorithms cracked by quantum computers, it won’t be the last!

Are any cryptocurrencies planning for the post-quantum cryptography world?

Yes, indeed, there are! Here is a short list of ones you may want to know more about:

Full disclosure:

Although I am in no way associated with any project listed above, I do hold coins in all as well as Bitcoin, Litecoin and many others.
The thoughts above are based on my personal research, but I make no claims to being a quantum scientist or cryptographer. So, don’t take my word for anything. Instead, do your own research and draw your own conclusions. I’ve included many references below, but there are many more to explore.
In conclusion, the intention of this article is not to create fear or panic, nor any other negative effects. It is simply to educate. If you see an error in any of my statements, please, politely, let me know, and I will do my best to update the error.
Thanks for reading!

References

[i] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhHMJCUmq28 – A great video explaining quantum computers.
[ii] https://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_97/journal/vol4/spb3/ - A brief history of quantum computing.
[iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Lisa - More than you would ever want to know about the Apple Lisa.
[iv] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpIctyqH29Q&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtNlUrzyH5r6jN9ulIgZBpdo - Want to learn more about computer science? Here is a great crash course for it!
[v] https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/quantify - What does quantify mean?
[vi] https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Private_key - More info about Bitcoin private keys.
[vii] https://www.securityinnovationeurope.com/blog/page/whats-the-difference-between-hashing-and-encrypting - A good example of the deference between Hash and Encryption
[viii] https://lbc.cryptoguru.org/stats - The Large Bitcoin Collider.
[ix] http://directory.io/ - A list of every possible Bitcoin private key. This website is a clever way of converting the 64 character uncompressed key to the private key 128 at a time. Since it is impossible to save all this data in a database and search, it is not considered a threat! It’s equated with looking for a single needle on the entire planet.
[x] https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/quantum-computing-101#Superposition-and-entanglement – Brief overview of Superposition and Entanglement.
[xi] https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/nsa-seeks-to-build-quantum-computer-that-could-crack-most-types-of-encryption/2014/01/02/8fff297e-7195-11e3-8def-a33011492df2_story.html?utm_term=.e05a9dfb6333 – A review of the Penetrating Hard Targets project.
[xii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography - Explains post-quantum cryptography.
[xiii] https://www.nebulas.io/ - The nebulas project has some amazing technology planned in their roadmap. They are currently in testnet stage with initial launch expected taking place in a few weeks. If you don’t know about Nebulas, you should check them out. [xiv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legality_of_bitcoin_by_country_or_territory - Country’s stance on crypto currencies.
[xv] https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/30/venezuela-is-one-of-the-worlds-most-dangerous-places-to-mine-bitcoin.html - Don’t be a miner in Venezuela!
[xvi] http://www.newsweek.com/russia-bitcoin-avoid-us-sanctions-cryptocurrency-768742 - Russia’s plan for their own crypto currency.
[xvii] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2018/01/05/visa-locks-bitcoin-payment-cards-crackdown-card-issue - Recent attack from visa against crypto currency.
[xviii] https://www.ccn.com/non-government-digital-currency-junk-says-mastercard-ceo-rejecting-bitcoin/ - Mastercards position about Bitcoin.
[xix] http://www.livebitcoinnews.com/discover-joins-visa-mastercard-barring-bitcoin-support/ - Discovers position about Bitcoin.
[xx] http://fortune.com/2017/10/20/mastercard-blockchain-bitcoin/ - Mastercard is making their own blockchain.
[xxi] https://bitcoincore.org/en/2015/12/21/capacity-increase/ - News about Bitcoin capacity. Not a lot of news…
[xxii] https://learn.iota.org/faq/what-makes-iota-quantum-secure - IOTA and quantum encryption.
[xxiii] https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/191.pdf - The whitepaper of Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme
[xxiv] https://cardanoroadmap.com/ - The Cardano project roadmap.
[xxv] https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/490 - More about the BLISS hash system.
[xxvi] https://www.ethereum.org/ - Home of the Ethereum project.
[xxvii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-3#Security_against_quantum_attacks – SHA3 hash algorithm vs quantum computers.
[xxviii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamport_signature - Lamport signature information.
[xxix] https://theqrl.org/ - Home of the Quantum Resistant Ledger project.
submitted by satoshibytes to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Jihan Wu's messages after the announcement seem to imply he controls the majority of hashing

http://i.imgur.com/sYzHBxG.png
Source: https://twitter.com/007LongShao/status/842796442250952705 ( http://m.weibo.cn2083258595 )
"All the exchanges who signed are not world class level. They think they're clever, but didn't figure out the most basic logic. The situation is more complex but the result is clear. The big poolsblocks will win and the rest can't survive". [see below for a correction of this - I believe this bit makes the most difference]
"These stupid cunts are going to be caught unprepared for the complex circumstances in which the fork is going to occur."
[EDIT: oakpacific provides this corrected translation of that last sentence: "These stupid cunts create such a complex arrangement (implying that it's created by the exchanges), they will be caught by surprise by the complex situations during a fork."]
Other than that, expletives and edgy teenager talk.
Obviously, we're already used to his childish bluster, but it wouldn't be completely out of the question that there is a coalition of miners with 50%+ of the hashing.
IMO, regardless of SegWit, the PoW change option needs to be considered because the underlying problem of total mining centralisation remains there. At least the plan needs to be in place just in case. Even with the support of the exchanges, the situation could be quite precarious.
EDIT: This translation seems good and covers some inaccuracies (translating Chinese is not easy) However I have to question changing the meaning of 傻逼 from "stupid cunts" into "stupid idiots". That seems just like a meaningful change of tone that is not accurate IMO.
See this dictionary reference for verification: https://www.mdbg.net/chinese/dictionary?page=worddict&wdrst=0&wdqb=%E5%82%BB%E9%80%BC
Other changes on the sentence provided by oakpacific for instance, seem like potato-potahto corrections to me (not meaningful) but the bit about blocks vs pools was an important mistake so I correct that above and put it in bold.

snruxxns translation follows:

The translation provided is inaccurate. I see nothing mentioned (or implied) about hash power. 区块 translates as block not pool.
果然,签署了这封信的都是些二流交易所。自以为聪明,其实连一些基本的逻辑问题都没有理清楚。分叉时的情况比他们想得复杂的多,但是结果却简单的多:大区块必胜,小区块链死。
Indeed, the exchanges that have signed this letter are all second rate. They think they're clever, but have not even understood some basic logical problems. The situation during a fork is more complicated than they think, but the outcome is much simpler: Big blocks will definitely win, small blocks chain die.
这帮傻逼的这种安排,在分叉时将要发生的复杂情况,将打得他们措手不及。
The arrangement of this group of idiots, the complex situations that will arise during a fork will catch them by surprise.
The arrangement by this group of idiots will leave them unprepared for the complex situations that arise during a fork.
过一些时间,等到他们想明白之后,这张协议就将和比特币交易所之间签订的很多协议一样,随风而逝。聪明的交易所都没有签字
After some time, when they have thought it over, this piece of agreement will have the same outcome as the previous agreements signed by between bitcoin exchanges, gone with the wind. The smart exchanges have not signed (the agreement).
submitted by muyuu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The ultimate mini-dictionary of Crypto environment (Feel free to use/modify)

Hello investers. These last days I have been seeing a bit of confusion in the whole cryptocurrency environment with people asking what "X" meant. Today I come to bring a post in which I will try to add all the possible definitions of some words related to this concept.
 
I want you to be free to use this mini-dictionary to post it where yo want (in another subreddit, in a forum ...) and edit it as you want (adding terms or explaining them better). I would also ask that, please, if you see that I have left a concept or you want to know what another word means, comment it so I can add it. Let's start so:
 
Crypto-dictionary V1.1 (added ERC-20, PoW and PoS)
 
Cryptocurrency: A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography for security. A cryptocurrency is difficult to counterfeit because of this security feature. A defining feature of a cryptocurrency, and arguably its most endearing allure, is its organic nature; it is not issued by any central authority, rendering it theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation. The regular cryptocurrency is called "coin".
 
Blockchain: A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. Constantly growing as ‘completed’ blocks (the most recent transactions) are recorded and added to it in chronological order, it allows market participants to keep track of digital currency transactions without central recordkeeping. Each node (a computer connected to the network) gets a copy of the blockchain, which is downloaded automatically.
 
ERC-20: the ERC-20 defines a common list of rules for all Ethereum tokens to follow, meaning that this particular token empowers developers of all types to accurately predict how new tokens will function within the larger Ethereum system. ERC-20 defines six different functions for the benefit of other tokens within the Ethereum system. These are generally basic functionality issues, including how tokens are transferred and how users can access data about a token. ERC-20 also prescribes two different signals that each token takes on and which other tokens are attuned to.
 
Token: Tokens are a representation of a particular asset or utility, that usually resides on top of another blockchain. Tokens can represent basically any assets that are fungible and tradeable, from commodities to loyalty points to even other cryptocurrencies.
 
Altcoin: Alternative cryptocurrency coins are also called altcoins or simply “coins”. They’re often used interchangeably. Altcoins simply refers to coins that are an alternative to Bitcoin. The majority of altcoins are a variant (fork) of Bitcoin, built using Bitcoin’s open-sourced, original protocol with changes to its underlying codes, therefore conceiving an entirely new coin with a different set of features. Ethereum and Litecoin are great examples of altcoins.
 
ICO (Initial Coin Offering): An initial coin offering (ICO) is an unregulated means by which funds are raised for a new cryptocurrency venture. An ICO is used by startups to bypass rigorous and regulated capital-raising processes required by venture capitalists or banks. In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, often Bitcoin or Ethereum.
 
Short Term Trader or Exchanger: A Short term trader or a exchanger are people who buy and exchange cryptocurrencies to sell them in a short period of time hoping to obtain a profit. It must be said that, just as you can double, triple ... your investment with this method in less than a day, you can also lose a lot of money, so you have to do this carefully and knowing what you do (reading graphics and know how to anticipate the market). It is a high risk investment.
 
Long Term Trader or HODLer: A Long term trader or HODLer are people who buy and exchange cryptocurrencies to sell them over a very long period of time. Unlike the exchangers that spend most of the day looking at the prices of their cryptocurrencies, these users usually buy the cryptocurrencies and forget about them, in order to consult them again in the future (either after 1 month, 1 year ... ). This style of buying and selling is considered to be somewhat safer than that of the exchanger, although it takes longer to win (or lose) what the exchanger wins (or loses) in a few days.
 
"To the moon", "lambos"...: These are phrases that the community that has acquired cryptocurrencies usually state that the price of that cryptocurrency will rise a lot in a matter of a few days. They are usually creators of HYPE and try to get more people to join their investment with the promise that they will get very far in the near future.
 
FUD: Fear, uncertainty, doubt. FUD is a strategy that tries to scare investors of a cryptocurrency to get a large number of sales of that particular currency and thus achieve lower prices exponentially. Normally this is done in order to get a specific cryptocurrency at a value well below normal.
 
Beggars: Beggars are people who share their wallets to obtain donations. They are similar to leechers.
 
Panic Selling: These people are usually newbies in this world who buy a cryptocurrency in green and see that the value the next day has fallen and they think that they will not recover and the value of that currency will only go down, so they sell in red.
 
PoW (Proof of Work): A proof of work is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. As a sumary, we can say that PoW requires proof that work of some kind occurred. In the case of Bitcoin miners are required to do this work before any of their blocks is accepted by others.
 
PoS (Proof of Stake): A PoS requires users that have a high stake at the currency (i.e. hold a lot of coins) to determine the next block. This has a high risk of some party achieving monopoly of the currency but there are several methods to prevent that (by allocating random stakeholders to agree on a new block, and others).
 
I will continue updating this mini-dictionary. If you have any suggestions leave it in the comments. Thanks, Mr. IMAP
 
(Dictionary image for thumbanil, ignore: https://imgur.com/8bXf7Bf)
submitted by POP3ye_IMAP to Dentacoin [link] [comments]

Slack chat with James Lovejoy (VTC Lead Dev)

Thought I would share this chat I had with James Lovejoy last night. Super generous of him to provide this much access and time answering questions. I was already a HODL'er, but this solidified it.
beerfinger [1:28 AM] Just read through the entire rebranding thread in the Vertcoin subreddit. Earlier today I also watched some of Crypto Hedge's interview of James Lovejoy from last August on YouTube. I understand both sides of the rebranding argument and have tried to play devil's advocate. Right now I do believe that the argument against rebranding is stronger. Full disclosure: I've worked in marketing/advertising my whole career and just recently got into cryptos. With that said, there are two questions that keeps nagging on me:
[1:28] 1. this coin has been around since 2014, so nearly 4 years. James seems like an incredibly smart and capable chap, but I'm just going to go ahead and assume the he hasn't always been the Lead Dev while he was in high school. Presumably there was someone before him and, after he graduates and moves on to whatever it is he's going to do with his life, there will be someone after him. Yes? So, with all due respect to James, as an investor in VTC, what assurances are there that this isn't merely an interesting side-project for a brilliant MIT student with little interest/incentive in its value as an investment portfolio? If the value of this coin to James is that of a college project, that is something I as an investor would like to know.
jamesl22 [1:32 AM] Hey!
[1:33] I've been the lead dev since Nov 2014
[1:33] (while I was in high school)
[1:33] And I've kept at it through college, I certainly don't intend to go anywhere
[1:33] Plus, there are more who work on this project that just me
beerfinger [1:33 AM] 2. I've read complaints about Vertcoin from people who poopoo its usefulness. Decrying it as "just another coin trying to be Bitcoin with not much differentiating it." People don't seem to view the ASIC thing as a big enough differentiator to make VTC stand out. There seems to be a kernel of truth to that as part of the argument against rebranding seems to be a tacit acknowledgement that it should not occur until a major change in the development is launched. So my question again stems back to James' motivations and incentives here. Is this a convenient use case for some college thesis? Or is the team really working on coming up with a major change in development?
[1:34] hey James! wow, thanks so much for your quick response
[1:34] great to actually communicate with you. and I stand corrected. very impressive that you started on this so young. I can see why MIT accepted you :slightly_smiling_face:
[1:36] my questions still stand though: I'm not trying to insult you so I hope you don't take it that way, but as someone who considers VTC part of my investment portfolio, I am very curious to hear about your incentives. You clearly have noble intentions. But what is your ultimate goal? What's the end game? Is it the same as Satoshi's was? (assuming he was really one person who existed)
[1:37] Or is there something else?
jamesl22 [1:37 AM] I think it's the same as Satoshi's
[1:37] To recreate the financial system in a fairer, more distributed way
[1:37] My research at MIT is totally separate to my work on VTC, though the two are complimentary (both are in cryptocurrency)
[1:38] In my ideal world everyone runs a VTC miner and full node in their home, banks become narrow banks and clearing houses/stock exchanges are a thing of the past
[1:39] The rewards of the financial system (in the form of transaction fees) will be distributed to the people, rather than siphoned off by banks or ASIC manufacturers as happens now (edited)
goodminer [1:40 AM] :thumbsup:
beerfinger [1:40 AM] I see. That is compelling. So, being that's the case, that sounds to me like something worthy of a brand, no?
[1:41] Unless you think there are other coins on the market with the same goals. In which case, what will differentiate VTC?
jamesl22 [1:42 AM] I don't think there are any on the market with as strong of an ideology as us
[1:42] Or any that can demonstrate that it follows through on its commitments
[1:42] The way I see it, VTC went from being worth $0.01 last year to 100x that now
[1:43] I don't see how a rebrand can possible accelerate already parabolic growth
[1:43] Bear in mind, that until a few months ago we had 0 marketing, that is where our focus should be now
beerfinger [1:44 AM] Fair. I'm curious, what do you think it SHOULD be worth?
[1:44] I mean right now, at this moment.
jamesl22 [1:44 AM] I don't think I should say, the SEC might be watching us
beerfinger [1:44 AM] Not in the future.
[1:44] haha
[1:44] ok
[1:44] Can you say if you feel it is undervalued?
[1:44] or overvalued
jamesl22 [1:45 AM] I will say with confidence that 95% of the top 100 is severely overvalued
beerfinger [1:45 AM] coins you mean
jamesl22 [1:45 AM] Yes
[1:45] On coinmarketcap
[1:45] If you visit most of their websites, there is no code at all
[1:45] Yet it's worth many times what VTC is worth
[1:46] Where VTC has been established for nearly 4 years, bug free and features well demonstrated
[1:46] VTC also had LN and SegWit on main net before LTC or BTC (edited)
beerfinger [1:46 AM] Yes I mean your statement doesn't surprise me. It's a nacent market. Lots of snake oil, clearly.
[1:47] I guess to steer this back towards the branding/marketing of your coin though, you clearly feel strongly about it and have a clear vision. Do you feel that as it stands the branding conveys that sentiment?
jamesl22 [1:47 AM] When you say branding, I assume you mean "vertcoin" and the logo?
beerfinger [1:48 AM] yes. logo, color scheme, etc...
[1:48] name even
[1:49] also to clarify one point, when I say that you clearly feel strongly about it, the "it" refers to your coin (not the marketing of it)
jamesl22 [1:49 AM] I think it's largely arbitrary
beerfinger [1:49 AM] why is that
jamesl22 [1:49 AM] Most coin names have no meaning whatsoever
[1:49] Google, the largest tech company in the world has a silly name
[1:50] Litecoin (whose name ought to imply it has fewer features) is #4
beerfinger [1:51 AM] I wouldn't underestimate the amount of strategy that went into branding Google (and continues to this day)
jamesl22 [1:51 AM] What's most important is the pitch, how can you convince someone who knows nothing about the technicals behind cryptocurrency, that ASIC resistance and decentralisation is important?
[1:51] Yes, but the original branding was arbitrary and haphazard
[1:52] Yet the technology spoke for itself
[1:52] Now it's in the dictionary
[1:53] Spending lots of time and money on a new name/logo, trying to get community consensus on that and then redesigning the website/subreddit/wallets/other services to reflect the changes is not where I think we should focus our small resources
[1:54] My goal over the next year or two is to take VTC from speculative value to real-world value
[1:54] So point of sale, ease of use, that's the focus now
[1:55] I aim to over time provide complete solutions for merchants to implement VTC at point of sale, for laymen to set up nodes and miners in their homes
[1:55] As well as potentially enterprise support if we get big enough
beerfinger [1:55 AM] It sounds like this is your intended career path then, yes?
jamesl22 [1:55 AM] In some shape or form, yes
beerfinger [1:55 AM] Wonderful
[1:55] When do you graduate, James?
[1:55] If you don't mind me asking
slackbot Custom Response [1:55 AM] I AM talking to you aren't I !
jamesl22 [1:56 AM] Charlie Lee worked at Coinbase for several years before returning to LTC a month or two ago
[1:56] 2019
beerfinger [1:56 AM] So you're a Sophomore? Or are you in graduate school?
jamesl22 [1:57 AM] Junior
chuymgzz [1:58 AM] @beerfinger can you imagine when people first heard the word "dollar" like WTF is a dollar where did it actually came from. It actually comes from Czech joachimsthaler, which became shortened in common usage to thaler or taler. Don't pay much attention to the name Vertcoin, just take a look at the tech. If you buy into this coin's ideology, you will actually start to like the name.
jin [1:58 AM] Hey guys :slightly_smiling_face:
[1:59] @chuymgzz but not everyone looks purely at the tech, if we look at the top 100 coins, you would know whats going on :stuck_out_tongue:
beerfinger [1:59 AM] Cool well thanks for indulging me, James. I really appreciate it. Hopefully this conversation continues in the future. While your probably right that right now is probably not the right time, that doesn't mean at some point in the future it won't be. In the meantime, I'll take comfort in the knowledge that I've invested in a worthy cause.
chuymgzz [1:59 AM] Longer term only the functional ones and the ones that deliver will survive and a whole ecosystem will be built around it
jin [1:59 AM] buzz and hype is unfortunately a large part of it
beerfinger [2:00 AM] *you're
jin [2:00 AM] that is true, but without marketing to draw in attention (which leads to usage and so on etc) it will be difficult for a functional one to survive even
beerfinger [2:07 AM] @james122 One more thing: how do you feel about regulation? Pro or con? Do you feel that the idea of nation states like the US and China (ergo the ICO ban) taking it upon themselves to place restrictions on the market to try and make them safer is anathema to the idea of decentralization? Are you a full on libertarian in that respect? Or do you welcome regulation because it'll separate the wheat from the chaff?
jamesl22 [2:07 AM] I think we need a sane amount of regulation
[2:08] ICOs are clearly illegal imo
[2:08] Unless they are performed under the same rules as an IPO
[2:09] Plus I don't want to create a safe harbour for child pornographers, people traffickers and terrorists to store their money
[2:09] However I do think the state has no right to spy on you without a warrant (edited)
beerfinger [2:09 AM] You mean you don't want to be Monero? :slightly_smiling_face:
jamesl22 [2:09 AM] No
[2:10] I will pursue privacy features that make the pseudoanonymity provided by the blockchain easier for people to use effectively
[2:11] That way, it is not obvious to anyone your holdings or transactions publicly (edited)
[2:11] But things like sting operations would still be theoretically possible
beerfinger [2:13 AM] Love it. I still feel the branding thing will need to be revisited at some point. I don't know what that means, exactly. Whether its as small as a font change to something bigger like a new color scheme, logo or even name, I'm not sure of. The ideology is strong, but as it stands Vertcoin doesn't have a clear differentiator in the market. I'm not sure that matters so much yet at this time, but it will.
[2:15] You clearly have a strong vision, I'm just not sure it's being communicated effectively yet. Hence, haters who say Vertcoin is just trying to be another Bitcoin.
workstation [2:15 AM] beerfinger might be a huge whale sniffing out Vertcoin before a huge loadup. Not that, that's a bad thing :stuck_out_tongue:
beerfinger [2:15 AM] haha... I wish
jamesl22 [2:16 AM] Vertcoin is trying to be another Bitcoin lol
[2:16] It's picking up where Bitcoin left off
[2:16] If people want a decentralised cryptocurrency, they should use Vertcoin
[2:17] Bitcoin just isn't one anymore
[2:17] Neither is Litecoin (edited)
beerfinger [2:20 AM] Semantics really, but if that's the case then that means Vertcoin isn't trying to be another Bitcoin. Bitcoin is already Bitcoin, which is a coin that did not fulfill it's promises. Vertcoin, on the other hand, like you said picks up where Bitcoin left off. I'm not sure that's being communicated by the brand (yet). Doing so may have nothing to do with rebranding (unless rebranding generates a bigger social following who then helps you communicate that).
workstation [2:20 AM] You've continued on a great coin James and no doubt Vertcoin has great features vs other coins, however without widespread use and adoption, Vertcoin might just become another coin without much use. The marketing side is sometimes even more important than the development side. Just need to look at history for that. E.g. Early version of Windows was buggy, bluescreen of death plagued it. But with heaps of $$ and marketing, Windows is pretty rock solid these days.
atetnowski [2:21 AM] joined #marketing.
jamesl22 [2:22 AM] Yes, agreed to both statements
[2:22] We're working on it, but it takes time and money
[2:23] But really, adoption is pointless until point of sale works properly
[2:23] When you can get it into people's physical wallets, or phone and they can spend it in a store, that's when it takes off (edited)
[2:23] Walmart, Target, all the big retailers hate Visa and Mastercard
workstation [2:24 AM] Thats a long way off... Even Apple and Samsung are struggling in that area
jamesl22 [2:24 AM] They would love a solution that opted them out of having to pay their fees
beerfinger [2:25 AM] @workstation To play devil's advocate for one sec, most successful people in the world don't achieve success because they tried to achieve success. Success is merely a byproduct of their passion. I do believe that James' commitment to the ideology can be sufficient. But it is true that the branding should communicate his vision. That is a constant conversation, too.
workstation [2:25 AM] yes, true
jamesl22 [2:26 AM] What we really need is talented content creators to make compelling media that explains the vision in a layman friendly way
[2:26] Thus far the message has been far too technical
[2:26] But in the past, the space was mostly populated by technical people so that is understandable
[2:26] It is only in the last 6 months that the general public has started to get involved
[2:27] Sadly "ASIC resistance" doesn't speak to them
beerfinger [2:27 AM] @james122 While it's true that universal adoption is key, you can say that about ANY coin. Even dogecoin would suddenly become a real coin if everyone up and decided to start using it one day. What's your strategy for making VTC that coin?
jamesl22 [2:27 AM] Whereas I think taking power from banks, chinese miners and giving it back to the people can be far more compelling
workstation [2:27 AM] We take Visa and Mastercard at our stores. We only do it because it boosts sales. People these days are all borrowing on credit because they don't have enough.... Paying on their CC# lets them buy things now (instant gratification) and slowly pay later. They managed to get banks on board because they make so much money on the interest. There is a clear reason why those cards satisfy a demand. We get charged about 1.5% by VISA/MC. To be honest, it's not a real deal breaker.
beerfinger [2:27 AM] haha, well, james you're talking to the right guy :slightly_smiling_face:
[2:28] My career is content creation
[2:28] I have nearly 20 years producing commercials and (lately) social content for global brands
mikevert [2:29 AM] joined #marketing.
beerfinger [2:29 AM] I would be happy to consult and provide any assistance I can
[2:29] "taking power from banks, chinese miners and giving it back to the people can be far more compelling" - that's your modus operandi
[2:29] you can definitely tell that story in a compelling way
[2:30] Question: have any crypto's ever created any sort of ad before? Even just for social content? (sorry, I'm new to this space)
jamesl22 [2:30 AM] Well we'd obviously be grateful for your assistance
[2:31] I'd imagine so, though I don't follow many other coins' social media very much
goodminer [2:31 AM] @beerfinger lets chat :smile: We've been working on a lot of initiatives over the last few weeks
jamesl22 [2:31 AM] @workstation 1.5% to a huge retailer is a large sum of money though
workstation [2:35 AM] I don't see any coin being widely used to be honest. They fluctuate way too much. Say a typical consumer whose after tax salary is $1000/week.. He buys groceries at the store for $1/Liter. This is simple maths for him, he knows it's going to cost $1 each week, inflation may make it rise to $1.10 next year, but he understands that. With coins, the price of his milk is too hard to calculate.
[2:37] Why would Bob switch to using coins, when Visa/MC give him so much more? He doesnt pay the processing fee (1.5%), he gets free credit (these days, banks will easily approve 10k credits). Why would he switch to Vertcoin?
jamesl22 [2:37 AM] @workstation, volatility is high because market volume is low
[2:38] I think it will take another financial crisis or two though before people start to abandon fractional reserve banking (edited)
workstation [2:42 AM] As long as bob gets his paycheck, he's not going to care what happens at the fed
jamesl22 [2:43 AM] Bob ain't gunna get his paycheck one day though
[2:44] Because the credit ponzi scheme economy will have collapsed
workstation [2:48 AM] yes, the fed can print whatever it wants out of thin air... But its backed by US tax payers to the tune of 2+ trillion/year with most banks adhering to loan capital requirements. E.g. they need a certain amount of money deposited before they can loan more money out. What is Bitcoin/alt coins backed by? Seems like its somewhat of a ponzi scheme now, with everyone piling in thinking it will go up forever. I get that BTC is backed by real energy usage/capital requirements to mine it (asic equipment, datacenters, etc), so its more "real" than $1 USD, but they both service a purpose.
axelfoley75 [2:49 AM] joined #marketing.
workstation [2:51 AM] but whats the end goal because it seems they all become ponzi schemes. The only true coin will be one that will not allow any fiats be converted to to coin.
[2:51] the only way to earn a coin, would be to mine it, wouldn't you think that that would be the truest coin?
[2:52] right now people are just moving wads of fiat money into coins/alt coins, thereby skewing everything.
beerfinger [2:54 AM] just jumping in here with one last comment before I go to sleep: money, whether we're talking salt, precious metals, fiat currency, or cryptos, is just something that we all agree to prescribe a value to. That being the case, how are you going to stop someone from trading that value for something they want? If someone wants to trade their cryptos for chickens, a latte, USD or anything else, they're going to do it. No point in trying to regulate what people spend their money on or how they do it. Seems the antithesis of the whole decentralization thing anyway
workstation [2:57 AM] true
aegisker [3:02 AM] I belive when crypto matures, has fast and easy payments solutions, volume will rise and price will be more stable. Current price is speculation due to news and new development. I dont belive that after 10 years we will be seeing such swings.
beerfinger [3:04 AM] sorry keep thinking of new stuff... @jamesl22 your point about POS is salient. What's your perspective on coins like TenX that try to address that with payment platforms and cards?
[3:05] is that what you mean? nuts & bolts, how would Vertcoin become a POS option?
aegisker [3:06 AM] How is usdt keeping its price around usd?
beerfinger [3:07 AM] don't they just keep up with USD inflation by making sure there's an equal amount of tokens to USD in the market at any given point?
jamesl22 [3:07 AM] Integration of LN and AS is key
[3:07] Then providing some hardware or software solution to integrate with payment processors
[3:07] I haven't looked at tenx
beerfinger [3:07 AM] so Vertcoin IS actively pursuing this then
[3:08] interesting
[3:09] perhaps there's some way to leverage things like ApplePay
jamesl22 [3:09 AM] I doubt it
[3:09] ApplePay's design is fundamentally different
beerfinger [3:09 AM] I mean it doesn't have to be ApplePay itself. Can be a separate app
lucky [3:09 AM] Having bitcoin or altcoins tied to your debit card isn't unbelievable
jamesl22 [3:10 AM] Of course not
[3:10] But it is suboptimal
beerfinger [3:10 AM] yeah sort of kills the whole decentralization thing
lucky [3:10 AM] in fact if we are going the whole hog and saying fiat collapsed. You'd be silly to think the banks would standby and let crypto take over without them
beerfinger [3:10 AM] now we're relying on banks again
lucky [3:11 AM] At the first sign of crypto succeeding fiat. Banks will take over
[3:11] Because they can trade their fiat to coin
[3:11] Government too
aegisker [3:12 AM] Well, banks issues debt, whole market is built around debt. Crypto would take that away
[3:12] This will be hardest transition
jamesl22 [3:12 AM] If the crypto market ever gets to say $1tril, the banks will use their lobbyist army to squash it as best they can
lucky [3:13 AM] Is it not possible crypto gets immediately regulated into the banking system as soon as it passed fiat in some way
jamesl22 [3:13 AM] They don't care right now because the space is tiny compared to their own equity
lucky [3:13 AM] Yes exactly James
beerfinger [3:13 AM] i like the idea of leveraging NFC tech as a way to introduce crypto to POS purchases... everyone already has a smart phone so no need to reinvent the wheel... it's basically just an app
lucky [3:13 AM] If finance is going to change politics needs to too
[3:14] Nfc seems like the way. Yeag
[3:14] Lots of the android wallets leverage it
aegisker [3:14 AM] No need for nfc, nfc was kinda overhyped. Qr codes can work equally good
jamesl22 [3:14 AM] @beerfinger I think LN will allow us to achieve that
lucky [3:14 AM] Lol qr
[3:14] Who has ever scanned a qr....
jamesl22 [3:14 AM] We just need a hardware implementation for the reader
beerfinger [3:14 AM] sorry james, what's LN?
lucky [3:14 AM] Apple made sure qr never worked
jamesl22 [3:14 AM] Lightning Network
beerfinger [3:14 AM] ah
aegisker [3:15 AM] If u use your phone, why complicate with nfc, is there a security benefit?
beerfinger [3:15 AM] the infrastructure is there... most readers i come across these days are already NFC compliant
jamesl22 [3:15 AM] QR can work, but requires a high res display in the POS device
[3:15] Which would increase costs
[3:15] NFC is cheap af
lucky [3:16 AM] Yep. Qr is extremely requirement heavy
aegisker [3:16 AM] For example, pub: you get check with qr. U pay with your phone. Waiter sees on his computer that its payed.
lucky [3:16 AM] Look at Asia and south America
[3:16] Nobody can read qr
aegisker [3:17 AM] I europe all checks already have qrs for tax checking
lucky [3:17 AM] I work in global marketing. Qr is completely unadopted in the real world
[3:17] Yes in no public scenario qr is used
aegisker [3:17 AM] Where you from?
lucky [3:17 AM] Uk
[3:19] A decade in marketing I can tell you for sure Joe public doesn't scan qr codes
[3:19] James is right. We need an alternative hardware solution
[3:19] And I think I unique piece of tech in public would drive massive interest
aegisker [3:20 AM] In slovenia, croatia, austria(i tjink) there is law that all transactions in coffeeshops or shops(everything with fiat transaction) is sent to tax authority as soon as check is printed. U get qr code on your check, so you can check if tax s paid for your service. This is to prevent black markets and unauthorized sellers. Works pretty well. If you frequently scan qrs you can get some bonuses..
[3:21] Public got used to this pretty fast.
lucky [3:21 AM] So there's an incentive
aegisker [3:21 AM] So also you could print qr shop wallet addr.
lucky [3:21 AM] Kind of skews the ease of adoption stat we are looking for
aegisker [3:22 AM] Costz nothing
lucky [3:22 AM] Costs a smartphone with a quick camera
[3:22] How about in a dark club
beerfinger [3:23 AM] I came tonight with many questions about Vertcoin. Namely the incentives of the Devs and how it differentiated itself in the marketplace. All of those questions have been answered as best as I could have hoped. The only thing left is figuring out a way to tell that story. @jamesl22, all of the things you've said tonight are reassuring and exciting. They provide great promise for the future of this coin and even more - your goals, if realized, are truly category shifting. This is such a compelling story. TELL IT!
lucky [3:23 AM] Asking every transaction to require an in focus photo capability is insane, imo
aegisker [3:23 AM] uploaded and commented on this image: IMG_20170908_092307.jpg 1 Comment Thats how it looks
lucky [3:23 AM] We need something similar to a contactless debit card
[3:24] Good luck scanning that in the dark with a £100 smartphone. Though.
aegisker [3:24 AM] For starters this is easiest solution for early adoption (edited)
workstation [3:25 AM] why not something short like vCoin. Then u could make it go off V=Vendetta, sort of has a nice mystery, anti establishment
aegisker [3:25 AM] You just need plugin for your pos software that checks your crypto wallet for received funds
[3:26] Imo this is easiest way to implement first public purchases of beer or coffee
beerfinger [3:26 AM] by the way, less is more when it comes to branding
[3:26] look at apple
[3:26] i love this example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EUXnJraKM3k YouTube Brant Walsh Microsoft Re-Designs the iPod Packaging
[3:31] and there's always something to be said for ad wars... apple's david vs goliath attack ads vs microsoft is what put them back on the map
[3:31] that could be a great angle for Vertcoin... go after Bitcoin
[3:31] make fun of it the way Jobs poked at Gates
[3:32] that's just my 2 Vertcoins
submitted by beerfinger to vertcoin [link] [comments]

The ultimate mini-dictionary of the Cryptocurrency enviroment

Hello investers. These last days I have been seeing a bit of confusion in the whole cryptocurrency environment with people asking what "X" meant. Today I come to bring a post in which I will try to add all the possible definitions of some words related to this concept.
 
I want you to be free to use this mini-dictionary to post it where yo want (in another subreddit, in a forum ...) and edit it as you want (adding terms or explaining them better). I would also ask that, please, if you see that I have left a concept or you want to know what another word means, comment it so I can add it. Let's start so:
 
Crypto-dictionary V1.1 (added ERC-20, PoW and PoS)
 
Cryptocurrency: A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography for security. A cryptocurrency is difficult to counterfeit because of this security feature. A defining feature of a cryptocurrency, and arguably its most endearing allure, is its organic nature; it is not issued by any central authority, rendering it theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation. The regular cryptocurrency is called "coin".
 
Blockchain: A blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. Constantly growing as ‘completed’ blocks (the most recent transactions) are recorded and added to it in chronological order, it allows market participants to keep track of digital currency transactions without central recordkeeping. Each node (a computer connected to the network) gets a copy of the blockchain, which is downloaded automatically.
 
ERC-20: the ERC-20 defines a common list of rules for all Ethereum tokens to follow, meaning that this particular token empowers developers of all types to accurately predict how new tokens will function within the larger Ethereum system. ERC-20 defines six different functions for the benefit of other tokens within the Ethereum system. These are generally basic functionality issues, including how tokens are transferred and how users can access data about a token. ERC-20 also prescribes two different signals that each token takes on and which other tokens are attuned to.
 
Token: Tokens are a representation of a particular asset or utility, that usually resides on top of another blockchain. Tokens can represent basically any assets that are fungible and tradeable, from commodities to loyalty points to even other cryptocurrencies.
 
Altcoin: Alternative cryptocurrency coins are also called altcoins or simply “coins”. They’re often used interchangeably. Altcoins simply refers to coins that are an alternative to Bitcoin. The majority of altcoins are a variant (fork) of Bitcoin, built using Bitcoin’s open-sourced, original protocol with changes to its underlying codes, therefore conceiving an entirely new coin with a different set of features. Ethereum and Litecoin are great examples of altcoins.
 
ICO (Initial Coin Offering): An initial coin offering (ICO) is an unregulated means by which funds are raised for a new cryptocurrency venture. An ICO is used by startups to bypass rigorous and regulated capital-raising processes required by venture capitalists or banks. In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, often Bitcoin or Ethereum.
 
Short Term Trader or Exchanger: A Short term trader or a exchanger are people who buy and exchange cryptocurrencies to sell them in a short period of time hoping to obtain a profit. It must be said that, just as you can double, triple ... your investment with this method in less than a day, you can also lose a lot of money, so you have to do this carefully and knowing what you do (reading graphics and know how to anticipate the market). It is a high risk investment.
 
Long Term Trader or HODLer: A Long term trader or HODLer are people who buy and exchange cryptocurrencies to sell them over a very long period of time. Unlike the exchangers that spend most of the day looking at the prices of their cryptocurrencies, these users usually buy the cryptocurrencies and forget about them, in order to consult them again in the future (either after 1 month, 1 year ... ). This style of buying and selling is considered to be somewhat safer than that of the exchanger, although it takes longer to win (or lose) what the exchanger wins (or loses) in a few days.
 
"To the moon", "lambos"...: These are phrases that the community that has acquired cryptocurrencies usually state that the price of that cryptocurrency will rise a lot in a matter of a few days. They are usually creators of HYPE and try to get more people to join their investment with the promise that they will get very far in the near future.
 
FUD: Fear, uncertainty, doubt. FUD is a strategy that tries to scare investors of a cryptocurrency to get a large number of sales of that particular currency and thus achieve lower prices exponentially. Normally this is done in order to get a specific cryptocurrency at a value well below normal.
 
Beggars: Beggars are people who share their wallets to obtain donations. They are similar to leechers.
 
Panic Selling: These people are usually newbies in this world who buy a cryptocurrency in green and see that the value the next day has fallen and they think that they will not recover and the value of that currency will only go down, so they sell in red.
 
PoW (Proof of Work): A proof of work is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. As a sumary, we can say that PoW requires proof that work of some kind occurred. In the case of Bitcoin miners are required to do this work before any of their blocks is accepted by others.
 
PoS (Proof of Stake): A PoS requires users that have a high stake at the currency (i.e. hold a lot of coins) to determine the next block. This has a high risk of some party achieving monopoly of the currency but there are several methods to prevent that (by allocating random stakeholders to agree on a new block, and others).
 
I will continue updating this mini-dictionary. If you have any suggestions leave it in the comments. Thanks, Mr. IMAP
 
(Dictionary image for thumbanil, ignore: https://imgur.com/8bXf7Bf)
submitted by POP3ye_IMAP to paccoin [link] [comments]

Some Questions and Answers

Some Questions and Answers
Since the questions have come in different platforms (discord, bitcointalk, mail, etc.,) and from different members, Emeraldtony, Otclegend, Hondajazz, ponomarevolegmsk and others, I have chosen bitcointalk as the common platform to answer these questions. Will post the link in other platforms.
Question: What's the difference between blockchain and cryptonote?
Answer: Blockchain is the generic term used for the concept on which every crypto currency is built upon. Dictionary meaning - "a digital ledger in which transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly." Wikipedia - "A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that the record cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and the collusion of the network." Hence the safety for participants offered by a block chain is unrivaled in nature due to its decentralized and distributed framework. Compare it with a bank or a regular financial institution where in the transactions are registered and stored very securely but are stored privately! In such cases, data distortion, selective release and manipulation are all a definite possibility by means of collusion!
A blockchain can be created using different algorithms and CryptoNote is one such algorithm. More about the advantages of CryptoNote can be read in our white paper.
Question: Will the devices support the GSM standard for Russia?
Answer: Yes. Our choice of OEM suppliers will not just ensure this but also ensure that the necessary compliance, clearances and approvals for specific countries we plan to launch are also in place.
Question: Is there a particular cell service that is being provided by us or can the device use any service?
Answer: Pocket Miner can use a sim card of any service provider. In future with the help of country specific community members we will attempt to provide top ups and recharges for mobile and data services using a payment gateway inside our own wallet similar to doing a mobile recharge through a bank account. This has a potential for huge revenue generation in the future.
Question: Any additional info on value added content such as ebooks, text books, etc., planned to be offered through our Pocket Miners?
Answer: Offering value added digital content through our Pocket Miners is part our original concept behind the idea of creating Pocket Miners. Just imagine a four year engineering course and the possibility of delivering all text books, study material, Power Point presentations, practice tests, research database access through pre-purchased logins, lecture videos, case studies, the list that can be delivered is endless, through our pocket miners and the business of doing that is much bigger than the actual sales of our Pocket Miners. And most importantly it will be our contribution to preserving and protecting our environment by reducing the usage of paper.
Answering my own question about the Howey Test, in order to keep our coin as a crypto currency and not be classified as a security which comes under the purview of the SEC in the US we need to separate out and isolate the business section of our coin from the coin itself. We have also mentioned this in our white paper. All these business operations related to Pocket Miners will be done by Pocket Miner Corp. And Pocket Miner corp will invest in our coin and fund the research and development of our coin. This is like Jack Ma of Online Giant Alibaba and Jihan Whu of Bitmain the manufacturer of ASIC Bitocin miners Antminer funding Tron (TRX).
I guess this gives all of you a clear picture of the scale of operations that we are talking about in the future! The more decentralized a coin is, the less problem we will have with the Howey Test or any other similar regulation. So I expect all our community members to give up whatever they are doing right now and jump in as full timers to take this dream project of ours forward within the next one year!
Cheers Everyone!
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=3308625.msg36965138#msg36965138
submitted by SWTCoin to u/SWTCoin [link] [comments]

Community Based Approach To AI?

I don't know very much about AI but have been interested for a bit. I had a number of long commutes to work a while ago and started to think about the idea of starting not with a single AI, but with a community of IA which is interacted with as a whole to act as the AI. Perhaps this is already how things are done by some projects and is nothing novel, I haven't done a lot of reading on AI specifically so I'm not sure the exact approaches being used. This could make absolutely no sense which is why I thought I'd toss it here and see what the feedback is. I apologize for the length, its tricky to describe in any way that makes sense and I struggle with brevity. I added a TL;DR near the top to save you the wall of text.
My thought process is that the earliest humans could only identify incredibly simple patterns. We would have had to learn what makes a plant different than an animal, what was a predator and what was prey, etc. The complex patterns we identify now, we're only able to do so because the community has retained these patterns and passed them onto us so we don't have to go through the trouble of re-determining them. If I were isolated at birth and presented with various objects, teaching myself with no feedback from peers what patterns can be derived from them would be a horribly arduous, if not impossible, task. By brute forcing a single complex AI, we're locking the AI in a room by itself rather than providing it access to peers and a searchable history of patterns.
This made me think about how I would model a community of IA that made sharing information for the purpose of bettering the global knowledge core to their existence. I wrote the majority of the model's description for an AMA with Ben Goertzel. Since then I've found an intelligent agent that's modelled similar to how I imagined this agent being modelled so I added the proposed implementation section with a likely completely unhelpful potential implementation of it. If nothing else it may help better describe the way it works for some people.
TL;DR Since we developed our intelligence through community, and we know that it worked for us, I think we should approach developing AI through a community based IA model rather than a single AI model. The AI would then be interacted with as the collection of interconnected communities of IA.
The Model: A Plain Language Description
Instead of creating a single complex intelligent agent, you spawn a community of simple agents, and a special kind of agent I'm calling the zeitgeist agent, that acts as an intercessor for certain requests (more on that in a bit).
Agents each contain their own neural networks which data is mapped to, and a reference to each piece of information is stored as meta data to which "trust" values can be assigned which would relate to how "sure" the agent is of something. I'm not entirely sold on the need for neural networks, I've learned of a self learning IA that may be worth looking into instead (see the proposed implementation below).
Agents contain references to other agents they have interacted with, along with meta data about that agent including a rating for how much they trust them as a whole based on previous interactions, and how much they trust them for specific information domain based on previous interactions. Domain trust will also slowly allow agents to become "experts" within certain domains as they become go-tos for other agents making requests within that domain. This allows agents to learn broadly, but have proficiencies emerge as a byproduct of more attention being given to one subject over another and this will vary from agent to agent depending on what they're exposed to and how their personal networks have evolved over time.
As an agent receives information, a number of things take place: it takes into account who gave it the information, how much they trust that agent, how much they trust that agent in that domain, how much trust the sending agent has placed on that information, whether conflicting information exists within its own knowledge-base, and probably other factors. The receiving agent then determines whether to blindly trust the information, blindly distrust the information, or whether to verify it with its peers.
Requests for verification are performed by finding peers who also know about this information which is why a "language" will need to be used to allow for this interaction. I'm envisioning the language simply being a unique hash that can be translated to the inputs received, and whenever a new piece of information is received the zeitgeist provisions a new "word" for it and updates a dictionary it maintains that is common to all agents within the community. When a word is passed between agents, if the receiving agent doesn't know the word, it requests the definition from the zeitgeist agent and then moves on to judging the information associated with the word (though if they don't know the word, they're likely being taught it rather than queried on it).
When a verification request is made to peers, the same evaluation of trust/distrust/verify is performed on the aggregate of responses and if there is still doubt that isn't enough doubt to dismiss it entirely, the receiving agent can make a request to the zeitgeist. This is where I think the model gets interesting, but again it may be commonplace.
As agents age and die, rather than lose all the information they've collected, their state gets committed to the zeitgeist agent. Normal agents and the zeitgeist agent could be modelled relatively similarly, with these dead agents just acting as a different type peers in an array.
When requests are made to the zeitgeist agent, it can inspect the states of all past agents to determine if there was a trustworthy answer to return. If after going through the trust/distrust/verify process its still in doubt, I'm imagining a network of these communities (because the model is meant to be distributed in nature) that can have the same request passed onto the zeitgeist agent from another community in order to pull "knowledge" from other, perhaps more powerful, communities. The zeitgeist agent will retain its own knowledge base containing data from its community and the larger community to form its best estimate of correct patterns. I have no idea what data would be worth keeping or how the data should be modelled internally.
Once the agent finally has its answer about how much trust to assign that information, if it conflicts with information received from other peers during this process, it can notify those peers that it has a different value for that information and inform them of the value, the trust they've assigned, and some way of mapping where this trust was derived from in order for the agent being corrected to perform its own trust/distrust/verify process on the corrected information. This correction process is meant to have a system that's generally self correcting, though bias can still present itself by allowing agents the ability to refuse to correct information depending on undetermined conditions.
I'm picturing a cycle the agent goes through that includes phases of learning, teaching, reflecting, and procreating. Their lifespan and reproductive rates would be determined by certain values including the amount of information they've acquired and verified, the amount of trust other agents have placed on them, and (this part I'm entirely unsure of how to implement) how much information they've determined through some type of self reflection. They will identify patterns within their neural network, posit a "truth" from those patterns, and pass it into the community to be verified by other agents. There would also exist the ability to reflect on inconsistencies within their knowledge base, or put differently to evaluate the trust values and make corrections as needed by making requests against the community to correct their data set with more up to date information. This would likely best be done as new information is received to keep it dependant on changed information.
Agents would require a single mate to replicate. Agent replication habits are based on status within the community (as determined by the ability to reason and the aggregate trust of the community in that agent), peer-to-peer trust, relationships, meaning the array of peers determines who the agent can approach for replicating with, and hereditary factors that reward or punish agents who are performing above/sub par. The number of offspring the agent is able to create will be determined at birth, perhaps having a degree of flexibility depending on events within its life, and would be known to the agent so the agent can plan to have the most optimized offspring by selecting or accepting from the best partners.
There would likely also be a reward for sharing true information to allow for some branches to become just conduits of information moving it through the community. Because replication relies on trust and ability to collect validated knowledge, as well as being dependent on finding the most optimal partner, lines of agents who are consistently wrong or unable to reflect and produce anything meaningful for the community will slowly die off as their pool of partners and peers will shrink over time. This paired with the ability for bias to be introduced into the system I think will allow microcommunities to form around potentially false frameworks of information. This means they'll explore patterns based on that information, but as more of a divide forms around the information, it would become more of an importance to the community to come to a consensus so it will become a greater factor in mating decisions and will slowly kill off false information. Or perhaps cement it. I don't know, I'm mostly just guessing at things with all of this.
The patterns that emerge at first would be incredibly simple, but by sharing information between peers, as well as between extended networks of peers, they could become more and more complex over time with patterns being passed down from one generation of agent to the next via the zeitgeist agents so the entire community would be learning from itself, much like how we have developed as a species. The more information and existing list of patterns the communities have available, the more accurate the agent's decisions would get I think.
The Model: A Proposed Implementation
Since I wrote the majority of that description, I've learned of this agent via this article. It seems to be modelled similar to how I imagined this agent being modelled, though I have absolutely no understanding of the underlying mechanics of it.
I've also been thinking about how the interacting zeitgeist agents functions similarly to how Bitcoin works. Replace the blockchain with the community knowledge ledger and replace wallets with the zeitgeist agents, each with their own address, holding bits of community knowledge rather than coin.
Clients could be ran similar to bitcoin miners, verifying and confirming determined patterns into the public knowledge ledger. Since you're in effect running you're own little community I thought it might be interesting to make a bit of a game out of the client and allow ways to interact with the community in some way. I imagined the full community of communities being the real AI so perhaps allow clients to interact with the AI similar to something like Cleverbot as another type of data input. Clients could have stats about how much they've contributed to the overall knowledge pool and stats about the development of their own community.
My thoughts on potentially how this could be implemented, or at least a more concrete description of how it functions using examples, is as follows:
I look forward to any feedback and corrections of misunderstood things. I'm hoping to spend more time learning about AI soon so hopefully this will give me some direction.
submitted by proggR to artificial [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/CryptoCurrency] I got fired from my job 3 week ago and it made me depressed. One of my best friends is a crypto t...

The following post by leftycatchersmit is being replicated because the post has been silently removed and some comments within it have been openly removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ CryptoCurrency/comments/7zplc7
The original post's content was as follows:
i’m sharing it here because i’m sure that there are other people in my situation too and it will be great if i can help you exactly like how my friend helped me.
Here is what I wrote on my notebook while he was pitching the basics of crypto trading, I summarized it into few lists so it will be easier for you to follow:
General tips: 1. If your mom send you a message asking “how to buy bitcoin”? it means you need to sell yours (not to her of course :P)
  1. Don’t put all your money on the exchange (he lost in the past some money on mt.gox).
  2. If you’re too lazy to print a paper wallet or so cheap you can’t buy Trezor, so don’t cry if you make some stupid mistakes and lose your login details/ get hacked.
  3. Don’t be afraid from charts, After you will get into trading you will find technical analysis like a children’s game, you just need to look for shapes and mark a line to understand where the risk is and than use your instincts, your brain(he claimed i don’t have any) and some useful new resources (i share them later on).
  4. there is too much information, if you will try to focus everything it will kill you and you will spend most of your profits on Advil. arrange yourself a useful resources and a comfortable working environment.
  5. Listen to Lofi while you trade/make decisions.
  6. don’t join random telegram groups or pump and dump groups. no-one open a traders group and invite you just because you have a beautiful smile. 97% of them have hidden interest. Try to attend for a local bitcoin meet up in your hometown or near by and than meet REAL people and REAL traders. Ask them if they have a friends traders group and ask to join, If they don’t agree say the
Trading tips:
  1. Altcoins - Vs. Bitcoin and Vs. USD: it's important to analyse the price against Bitcoin and against USD as well. Most major altcoins have huge USD trading
  2. What goes down – does not necessarily go up again: “I’ve seen Altcoins like Aurora which came down 99.99% of its record”
  3. Day trading is a job. Consider the time spending on it when calculating your gains and losees.
  4. Don’t put all of your eggs in one basket: Diversify your crypto portfolio, and it's not shame to hedge to cash sometimes
  5. don’t risk something you can’t afford to lose.
resources: “Give a man a good signal and he made profit for day, Teach him how to trade and will make a profit for a day “ (I made it now… And I wonder why I got fired) :P He shared with me many of his resources and said that I need to check them to understand which one are useful for me and which isn’t.
News & Educational Websites:
  • CryptFlix - This site is a great way to learn about blockchain and the crypto market while watching videos. They have a cool UX that reminds Netflix and you will find it easy to spend few hours watching super cool and educating videos.
  • Crypto Dictionary - In the crypto world there is a lot of terms https://www.mycryptopedia.com/encyclopedia/
  • CryptoPotato - Great educational website for beginners and advanced. What I like the most about this guys is that they are doing market update each week, live technical analysis sessions (also answering questions) and it seems like they are super legit.
  • Investopidea - I love this website. The are professional, keep it simple and clean. https://www.investopedia.com/
  • CoinsCalendar - watch all upcoming coins events and updates. https://www.coinscalendar.com/
  • Tradingview - Beautiful easy to use charts. You can also follow pro traders and learn from their analyzes. https://www.tradingview.com
  • BitcoinWiki - It’s like wikipedia, but for bitcoins… https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Main_Page
  • BadBitcoin - This website will help you to avoid fraud (My friend said the word fraud like 20 times in the last 1 hour, I think this market have many problems!). http://www.badbitcoin.org/
  • The Age of Cryptocurrency: Recommended book. How Bitcoin and the Blockchain Are Challenging the Global Economic Order. I’m not sharing here a link so it won’t consider self promotion so just google the book name, it’s on amazon (the price is around 16$ but don’t be cheap on your education)
  • CryptoPanic - This website will save you a lot of time by summarizing news from all over the internet and let you know the sentiment of each article/post/tweet
  • Andreas M. Antonopoulos - This guy deserve a high five from satoshi nakomoto. He wrote the book “ Mastering Bitcoin” and dedicating his life to make the world understand bitcoin & blockchain.
  • BitcoinWisdom - https://bitcoinwisdom.com/
  • Coin360 - a beautiful unique way to have a overlook on the crypto market and find new opportunities every day. https://coin360.io/
  • CryptoCoinChart - a cool alternative to coinmarketcap https://cryptocoincharts.info/
ICO’s - Before investing in ICO you need to check few things:
  • Team (Who are they? do they have experience in the field of the ICO? They have linkedin, github, personal websites?)
  • Technology (Are they here to stay? Do you see a real usage in their tokens? They solve any problem?)
  • Social Media - do they have community of people that support them? Are they active on Facebook, Twitter, Medium, Telegram, Reddit?
  • Whitepapaer- Before you buy electronic product on Amazon do you read about it? do you do the research? Do the same when you invest in ICO. Read the Whitepaper to fully understand the idea and the potential
I checked few ICO’s since my friend told me how to recognize a high potential ICO and found it kinda easy to determine if an ICO is legit or not. I also saw that 90% of all the ICO’s I checked are completely scam. I’m not investing in any ICO yet but I will follow few companies to check if I was right with my judgment.
Few companies I found interesting: - PolySwarm : They have an ambitious idea. Instead of bitcoin miners they want to have a community of cyber security expert that compete who best protect against threats. I listened to their CEO on youtube and this guys seems like he know the drill, Their team have an experience in the cyber security field so i think these guys know what they are doing. It’s too early to say if I will get involved or not but I will definitely keep them on my radar.
  • Effect Ai - i love their technology. and they are challenging one of the biggest companies in the world, Amazon.
Amazon have a service called “Amazon Mechanical Turk” Which is basically a big market place where people can get paid for micro tasks. I didn’t knew but there are millions of people doing thousand of micro tasks at Amazon Mturk every day and getting paid few cents per task. Effect Ai want to decentralize it which is a brave thing to do. They compete with one of the biggest companies in the world and they don’t afraid to show it on their website. Besides that the team looks good and they are super active on telegram and twitter.
Summarize:
If I will see that the community find my post useful i will update in few weeks about my progress. Next week i need to have another crypto lesson, I hope to make some progress until than:) !
Wish you all a great weekend
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

What is Bitcoin Mining? mining works the nonce - how mining works the nonce  how bitcoin mining work - nonces, computing #4 Bitcoin and cryptocurrency mining explained What is Bitcoin Mining? (In Plain English) Bitcoin Meaning

Bitcoin "miners" are computers that maintain the integrity of the network by adding past transactions to the "blockchain," a shared and continuously growing distributed database of transactions. In so doing, their accounts receive transaction fees, and after an extraordinary amount of computation are rewarded new Bitcoins. Bitcoin miner synonyms, Bitcoin miner pronunciation, Bitcoin miner translation, English dictionary definition of Bitcoin miner. n 1. a system of open source peer-to-peer software for the creation and exchange of a certain type of cryptocurrency; the first such system to be fully... ‘The issuance regime of Bitcoin allocates new coins to the miners.’ ‘The high power envelopes combined with the high efficiency numbers should make the power supplies ideal for coin miners.’ ‘Miners pool their computing power to spread the financial risk of their operations.’ Bitcoin is a digital or virtual currency created in 2009 that uses peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. It follows the ideas set out in a whitepaper by the mysterious Satoshi For instance, Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency blockchain, allows anyone to participate in the network in the capacity of a full node, or a contributing miner. Anyone can take a read-only

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What is Bitcoin Mining?

What is Bitcoin Mining? Have you ever wondered how Bitcoin is generated? This short video is an animated introduction to Bitcoin Mining. Credits: Voice - Chris Rice (www.ricevoice.com) Bitcoin at a very critical level at the moment. This next Btc price move could define everything!!! 🐦 FOLLOW on Twitter: https://twitter.com/CPodtrade Join o... బిట్ కాయిన్ గురించి పూర్తివివరాలు ఈ వీడియో చూసి తెలుసుకోండి ... Time and time again, bitcoin and/or cryptocurrency analysts refer to block reward halvings when analyzing crypto prices... why are they so important? This quick video explanation will help you ... Video shows what Bitcoin means. Bitcoin meaning and definition in our video dictionary. Learn how to say Bitcoin with free pronunciation English Dictionary. Is there a word you'd like us to help ...

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