Micropayments - Coin Center - Coin Center | Coin Center

"JoyStream is a BitTorrent client which has the capacity to automatically negotiate and execute Bitcoin micropayments in exchange for seeding." -Why We Need the AirBnB of BitTorrent

submitted by bitcoinik to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

"JoyStream is a BitTorrent client which has the capacity to automatically negotiate and execute Bitcoin micropayments in exchange for seeding." -Why We Need the AirBnB of BitTorrent

submitted by coincrazyy to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin micropayments in exchange for seeding.

Bitcoin micropayments in exchange for seeding. submitted by coincrazyy to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Jukebox Exchanges Micropayments For Songs

Bitcoin Jukebox Exchanges Micropayments For Songs submitted by alanX to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Output value, or rather lack of...

How come output value( The total value of all transaction outputs per day ) of bitcoin has stayed basically the same ( https://www.blockchain.com/charts/output-volume?timespan=all&daysAverageString=7 ) for so long and not actually grow as more bitcoins are mined?
I did some googling and it doesnt seem to be talked about and to me it seems like it should weird bitcoin-holders out, it would for me atleast if I had bought into the scheme....
Just looked through stats and it looked odd, maybe I'am just retarded, let me know.
submitted by Divad5000 to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

^bitcoin^support^number^#833&&5400&&910## New York

^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Fundamentally, an advanced cash that is worthy worldwide with computerized installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the simplicity you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.
^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York
At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the computerized cash, which is the most well known cryptographic money around the world. It manages the primary advanced installment framework which permits decentralized computerized money that is starting without focal single director.

^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York

For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such digital currency Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have a glorious official help. The administrators are profoundly prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins.
^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York
In spite of the fact that everyone nowadays know about Bitcoins, yet at the same time there are not many people which are new to the use and usefulness of Bitcoins. In this manner, to part with the most ideal help to shoppers, here are the Bitcoin Customer Care Number.

What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?

Bitcoins are fundamentally an advanced digital money that is used for making colossal exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the standard open. It is used by huge endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth. There are hardly any points of interest, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:

1. Quick

Sending cash or getting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or getting reserves, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.

2. Modest

Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy assignment however with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.

4. Worldwide Acceptance

Bitcoins are among such digital forms of money which are adequate all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1-800-297-9984. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.

5. Decentralized Emission

That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It excludes the control of the legislature as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.

6. Self Authority

The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or substance.

Mistakes and Support Offered By BITCOIN Support Phone Number

On the off chance that you are left with dealing with the bitcoins or its selling or buying, at that point client assistance administrations are required. Regardless of whether it is moving of Bitcoins, Selling of it, Withdrawing of it, at that point Customer Care Executive will be a definitive guide.

At these numbers, proficient and qualified experts are working 24*7 to assist their customer with Errors in Cryptocurrency Transfer, Withdrawing Issues, and so on. You can likewise get help on Bitcoin BlockChain tech disappointment which is the most well-known situation nowadays.

^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York

What Are the Popular Issues Encountered Using Bitcoins?
Bitcoin mistake opening square database
Bitcoin Error 26
Bitcoin Error couldn't associate with serve
rBitcoin Error perusing from database
Bitcoin Error 30974
Bitcoin Error no reaction from server
Bitcoin Configure Error

These are a portion of the mainstream issues looked by the digital money clients. Likewise, the specialized group at the help habitats gives insights concerning different digital currency wallets. You can ask any data whenever with the Bitcoin Customer Care Team.

^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York

The computerized monetary forms [BITCOINS] are a portion of the inclining methods of making tremendous installments, selling of wares, and so forth it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.

It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs. You can call at #833''5400''910# to have prompt client care for Bitcoin related issues.
^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York
Another incredible help the client care channels are giving is Email support, live visit support, and so on. You should simply approach the above given no., an official will get alloted to support you. From that point, in the event that you ask they will help you with their expert E-Mail IDs (mail help) or through Live Chat Supports. The best part about the help is, it tends to be profited whenever and at wherever. You need not to trouble for the assistance. Simply dial the Bitcoin Support Phone Numbers and any official will be there on the opposite side to get you out.

^bitcoin^support^number^#833''5400''910## New York
Bitcoin toll free number
Bitcoin helpline number
Bitcoin customer care number'
Bitcoin technical support number
submitted by Expensive_Tea_1311 to u/Expensive_Tea_1311 [link] [comments]

~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number

~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Fundamentally, an advanced cash that is worthy worldwide with computerized installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the simplicity you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.
~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number
At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the computerized cash, which is the most well known cryptographic money around the world. It manages the primary advanced installment framework which permits decentralized computerized money that is starting without focal single director.

~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number

For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such digital currency Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have a glorious official help. The administrators are profoundly prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins.
~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number
In spite of the fact that everyone nowadays know about Bitcoins, yet at the same time there are not many people which are new to the use and usefulness of Bitcoins. In this manner, to part with the most ideal help to shoppers, here are the Bitcoin Customer Care Number.

What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?

Bitcoins are fundamentally an advanced digital money that is used for making colossal exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the standard open. It is used by huge endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth. There are hardly any points of interest, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:

1. Quick

Sending cash or getting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or getting reserves, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.

2. Modest

Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy assignment however with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.

4. Worldwide Acceptance

Bitcoins are among such digital forms of money which are adequate all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1-800-297-9984. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.

5. Decentralized Emission

That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It excludes the control of the legislature as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.

6. Self Authority

The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or substance.

Mistakes and Support Offered By BITCOIN Support Phone Number

On the off chance that you are left with dealing with the bitcoins or its selling or buying, at that point client assistance administrations are required. Regardless of whether it is moving of Bitcoins, Selling of it, Withdrawing of it, at that point Customer Care Executive will be a definitive guide.
~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number
At these numbers, proficient and qualified experts are working 24*7 to assist their customer with Errors in Cryptocurrency Transfer, Withdrawing Issues, and so on. You can likewise get help on Bitcoin BlockChain tech disappointment which is the most well-known situation nowadays.

~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number

What Are the Popular Issues Encountered Using Bitcoins?
Bitcoin mistake opening square database
Bitcoin Error 26
Bitcoin Error couldn't associate with server
Bitcoin Error perusing from database
Bitcoin Error 30974
Bitcoin Error no reaction from server
Bitcoin Configure Error

These are a portion of the mainstream issues looked by the digital money clients. Likewise, the specialized group at the help habitats gives insights concerning different digital currency wallets. You can ask any data whenever with the Bitcoin Customer Care Team.

~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number

The computerized monetary forms [BITCOINS] are a portion of the inclining methods of making tremendous installments, selling of wares, and so forth it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.

It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs. You can call at +1-800-297-9984 to have prompt client care for Bitcoin related issues.
~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number
Another incredible help the client care channels are giving is Email support, live visit support, and so on. You should simply approach the above given no., an official will get alloted to support you. From that point, in the event that you ask they will help you with their expert E-Mail IDs (mail help) or through Live Chat Supports. The best part about the help is, it tends to be profited whenever and at wherever. You need not to trouble for the assistance. Simply dial the Bitcoin Support Phone Numbers and any official will be there on the opposite side to get you out.

~toll_free Number of bitcoin; 833_5400_910_Bitcoin toll free number
Bitcoin toll free number
Bitcoin helpline number
Bitcoin customer care number'
Bitcoin technical support number
submitted by Ok_Ranger_4679 to u/Ok_Ranger_4679 [link] [comments]

bItCoiN sUpPorT nUmbEr=(833..5400..910)Support Number_Austin USA

bItCoiN sUpPorT nUmbEr=(833..5400..910)Support Number_Austin USA
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Fundamentally, an advanced cash that is worthy worldwide with computerized installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the simplicity you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.

At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the computerized cash, which is the most well known cryptographic money around the world. It manages the primary advanced installment framework which permits decentralized computerized money that is starting without focal single director.
bItCoiN sUpPorT nUmbEr=(833..5400..910)Support Number_Austin USA
For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such digital currency Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have a glorious official help. The administrators are profoundly prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins.

In spite of the fact that everyone nowadays know about Bitcoins, yet at the same time there are not many people which are new to the use and usefulness of Bitcoins. In this manner, to part with the most ideal help to shoppers, here are the Bitcoin Customer Care Number.

What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?

Bitcoins are fundamentally an advanced digital money that is used for making colossal exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the standard open. It is used by huge endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth. There are hardly any points of interest, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:

1. Quick

Sending cash or getting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or getting reserves, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.

2. Modest

Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy assignment however with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.

4. Worldwide Acceptance

Bitcoins are among such digital forms of money which are adequate all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1-800-297-9984. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.

5. Decentralized Emission

That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It excludes the control of the legislature as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.

6. Self Authority

The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or substance.

Mistakes and Support Offered By BITCOIN Support Phone Number

On the off chance that you are left with dealing with the bitcoins or its selling or buying, at that point client assistance administrations are required. Regardless of whether it is moving of Bitcoins, Selling of it, Withdrawing of it, at that point Customer Care Executive will be a definitive guide.

At these numbers, proficient and qualified experts are working 24*7 to assist their customer with Errors in Cryptocurrency Transfer, Withdrawing Issues, and so on. You can likewise get help on Bitcoin BlockChain tech disappointment which is the most well-known situation nowadays.
bItCoiN sUpPorT nUmbEr=(833..5400..910)Support Number_Austin USA
What Are the Popular Issues Encountered Using Bitcoins?
Bitcoin mistake opening square database
Bitcoin Error 26
Bitcoin Error couldn't associate with server
Bitcoin Error perusing from database
Bitcoin Error 30974
Bitcoin Error no reaction from server
Bitcoin Configure Error
These are a portion of the mainstream issues looked by the digital money clients. Likewise, the specialized group at the help habitats gives insights concerning different digital currency wallets. You can ask any data whenever with the Bitcoin Customer Care Team.
bItCoiN sUpPorT nUmbEr=(833..5400..910)Support Number_Austin USA
The computerized monetary forms [BITCOINS] are a portion of the inclining methods of making tremendous installments, selling of wares, and so forth it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.
It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs. You can call at +1-800-297-9984 to have prompt client care for Bitcoin related issues.
Another incredible help the client care channels are giving is Email support, live visit support, and so on. You should simply approach the above given no., an official will get alloted to support you. From that point, in the event that you ask they will help you with their expert E-Mail IDs (mail help) or through Live Chat Supports. The best part about the help is, it tends to be profited whenever and at wherever. You need not to trouble for the assistance. Simply dial the Bitcoin Support Phone Numbers and any official will be there on the opposite side to get you out.
bItCoiN sUpPorT nUmbEr=(833..5400..910)Support Number_Austin USA
Bitcoin toll free number
Bitcoin helpline number
Bitcoin customer care number'
Bitcoin technical support number
submitted by RiceFluid to u/RiceFluid [link] [comments]

bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa

bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Fundamentally, an advanced cash that is worthy worldwide with computerized installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the simplicity you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.

At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the computerized cash, which is the most well known cryptographic money around the world. It manages the primary advanced installment framework which permits decentralized computerized money that is starting without focal single director.

bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa

For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such digital currency Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have a glorious official help. The administrators are profoundly prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins.
bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa
In spite of the fact that everyone nowadays know about Bitcoins, yet at the same time there are not many people which are new to the use and usefulness of Bitcoins. In this manner, to part with the most ideal help to shoppers, here are the Bitcoin Customer Care Number.

What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?

Bitcoins are fundamentally an advanced digital money that is used for making colossal exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the standard open. It is used by huge endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth. There are hardly any points of interest, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:

1. Quick

Sending cash or getting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or getting reserves, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.

2. Modest

Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy assignment however with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.

4. Worldwide Acceptance

Bitcoins are among such digital forms of money which are adequate all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1-800-297-9984. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.

5. Decentralized Emission

That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It excludes the control of the legislature as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.

6. Self Authority

The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or substance.

Mistakes and Support Offered By BITCOIN Support Phone Number

On the off chance that you are left with dealing with the bitcoins or its selling or buying, at that point client assistance administrations are required. Regardless of whether it is moving of Bitcoins, Selling of it, Withdrawing of it, at that point Customer Care Executive will be a definitive guide.
bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa
At these numbers, proficient and qualified experts are working 24*7 to assist their customer with Errors in Cryptocurrency Transfer, Withdrawing Issues, and so on. You can likewise get help on Bitcoin BlockChain tech disappointment which is the most well-known situation nowadays.

bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa

What Are the Popular Issues Encountered Using Bitcoins?
Bitcoin mistake opening square database
Bitcoin Error 26
Bitcoin Error couldn't associate with server
Bitcoin Error perusing from database
Bitcoin Error 30974
Bitcoin Error no reaction from server
Bitcoin Configure Error

These are a portion of the mainstream issues looked by the digital money clients. Likewise, the specialized group at the help habitats gives insights concerning different digital currency wallets. You can ask any data whenever with the Bitcoin Customer Care Team.

bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa
The computerized monetary forms [BITCOINS] are a portion of the inclining methods of making tremendous installments, selling of wares, and so forth it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.

It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs. You can call at +1~833~540~0910~ to have prompt client care for Bitcoin related issues.
bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa
Another incredible help the client care channels are giving is Email support, live visit support, and so on. You should simply approach the above given no., an official will get alloted to support you. From that point, in the event that you ask they will help you with their expert E-Mail IDs (mail help) or through Live Chat Supports. The best part about the help is, it tends to be profited whenever and at wherever. You need not to trouble for the assistance. Simply dial the Bitcoin Support Phone Numbers and any official will be there on the opposite side to get you out.

bitcoin~customer~care~number~833~540~0910~san diego~usa
Bitcoin toll free number
Bitcoin helpline number
Bitcoin customer care number'
Bitcoin technical support number
submitted by MarketLimp to u/MarketLimp [link] [comments]

Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA

Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Fundamentally, an advanced cash that is worthy worldwide with computerized installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the simplicity you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.
Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA
At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the computerized cash, which is the most well known cryptographic money around the world. It manages the primary advanced installment framework which permits decentralized computerized money that is starting without focal single director.

Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA

For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such digital currency Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have a glorious official help. The administrators are profoundly prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins.

In spite of the fact that everyone nowadays know about Bitcoins, yet at the same time there are not many people which are new to the use and usefulness of Bitcoins. In this manner, to part with the most ideal help to shoppers, here are the Bitcoin Customer Care Number.

What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?

Bitcoins are fundamentally an advanced digital money that is used for making colossal exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the standard open. It is used by huge endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth. There are hardly any points of interest, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:

1. Quick

Sending cash or getting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or getting reserves, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.

2. Modest

Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy assignment however with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.

4. Worldwide Acceptance

Bitcoins are among such digital forms of money which are adequate all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1-800-297-9984. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.

5. Decentralized Emission

That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It excludes the control of the legislature as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.

6. Self Authority

The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or substance.

Mistakes and Support Offered By BITCOIN Helpline Number

On the off chance that you are left with dealing with the bitcoins or its selling or buying, at that point client assistance administrations are required. Regardless of whether it is moving of Bitcoins, Selling of it, Withdrawing of it, at that point Customer Care Executive will be a definitive guide.

At these numbers, proficient and qualified experts are working 24*7 to assist their customer with Errors in Cryptocurrency Transfer, Withdrawing Issues, and so on. You can likewise get help on Bitcoin BlockChain tech disappointment which is the most well-known situation nowadays.
Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA

What Are the Popular Issues Encountered Using Bitcoins?
Bitcoin mistake opening square database
Bitcoin Error 26
Bitcoin Error couldn't associate with server
Bitcoin Error perusing from database
Bitcoin Error 30974
Bitcoin Error no reaction from server
Bitcoin Configure Error

These are a portion of the mainstream issues looked by the digital money clients. Likewise, the specialized group at the help habitats gives insights concerning different digital currency wallets. You can ask any data whenever with the Bitcoin Customer Care Team.

Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA
The computerized monetary forms [BITCOINS] are a portion of the inclining methods of making tremendous installments, selling of wares, and so forth it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.

It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs. You can call at +1-800-297-9984 to have prompt client care for Bitcoin related issues.
Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA
Another incredible help the client care channels are giving is Email support, live visit support, and so on. You should simply approach the above given no., an official will get alloted to support you. From that point, in the event that you ask they will help you with their expert E-Mail IDs (mail help) or through Live Chat Supports. The best part about the help is, it tends to be profited whenever and at wherever. You need not to trouble for the assistance. Simply dial the Bitcoin Support Phone Numbers and any official will be there on the opposite side to get you out.
Help+care= Bitcoin Helpline number: #833-5400-910|| San Francisco USA
Bitcoin toll free number
Bitcoin helpline number
Bitcoin customer care number'
Bitcoin technical support number
submitted by Test_Long to u/Test_Long [link] [comments]

👨‍💻 Bitcoin Customer Care Number||8️⃣3️⃣3️⃣~9️⃣0️⃣2️⃣~2️⃣4️⃣0️⃣0️⃣~San Fransico||

👨‍💻 Bitcoin Customer Care Number||8️⃣3️⃣3️⃣~9️⃣0️⃣2️⃣~2️⃣4️⃣0️⃣0️⃣~San Fransico||
What is Bitcoin? How to Reach Customer Care of Bitcoin?
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Essentially, a computerized cash that is adequate worldwide with advanced installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the straightforwardness you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Customer Care Number For Instant Help
At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the advanced money, which is the most famous digital currency around the world. It manages the principal computerized installment framework which permits decentralized advanced cash that is starting without focal single chairman.
For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such cryptographic money Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have an eminent official help. The officials are exceptionally prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins.
Bitcoin, for the most part alluded to as a digital currency, a virtual money, or possibly an electronic coin - is a sort of money that is virtual.
It's like an online variation of money. You can utilize it to buy administrations and items, however not many stores acknowledge Bitcoin yet, and a few nations have prohibited it totally.
After you own bitcoins, they have exchange and worth simply like they were pieces of yellow in your pocket. You can use the bitcoins of yours to purchase items and administrations on the web, or possibly you can fold them out and trust that their worth will increment throughout the years. Bitcoins are exchanged from a solitary individual' wallet' to one more.
A wallet is a little private database you save money on your PC drive, on your cell phone, on the tablet of yours, or anyplace inside the cloud.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Customer Care Number For Instant Help
What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?
Bitcoins are fundamentally a computerized cryptographic money that is used for making enormous exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the conventional open. It is used by enormous endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth.
There are not many preferences, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:
1. Quick Sending cash or accepting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or accepting assets, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.
2. Modest Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy undertaking yet with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.
4. Worldwide Acceptance Bitcoins are among such cryptographic forms of money which are worthy all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1-800-297-9984. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.
5. Decentralized Emission That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It overlooks the control of the administration as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.
6. Self Authority The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or element.
Mistakes and Support Offered By Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Customer care Number For Instant Help
The computerized monetary standards [BITCOINS] are a portion of the drifting methods of making colossal installments, selling of products, and so on it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Customer Care Number For Instant Help
It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs.
You can call at +1- 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 to have prompt client service for Bitcoin related issues.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Customer Care Number For Instant Help
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submitted by Ok_Huckleberry_3717 to u/Ok_Huckleberry_3717 [link] [comments]

😎Bitcoin Helpline Number😎$(833)$$(902)*2(400)$$ || New York||

😎Bitcoin Helpline Number😎$(833)*(902)*2(400)$$ || New York|| What is Bitcoin? How to Reach Helpline of Bitcoin?
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Essentially, a computerized cash that is adequate worldwide with advanced installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the straightforwardness you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Helpline Number For Instant Help
At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the advanced money, which is the most famous digital currency around the world. It manages the principal computerized installment framework which permits decentralized advanced cash that is starting without focal single chairman.
For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such cryptographic money Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have an eminent official help. The officials are exceptionally prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins. Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Helpline Number For Instant Help
Bitcoin, for the most part alluded to as a digital currency, a virtual money, or possibly an electronic coin - is a sort of money that is virtual.
It's like an online variation of money. You can utilize it to buy administrations and items, however not many stores acknowledge Bitcoin yet, and a few nations have prohibited it totally.
After you own bitcoins, they have exchange and worth simply like they were pieces of yellow in your pocket. You can use the bitcoins of yours to purchase items and administrations on the web, or possibly you can fold them out and trust that their worth will increment throughout the years. Bitcoins are exchanged from a solitary individual' wallet' to one more.
A wallet is a little private database you save money on your PC drive, on your cell phone, on the tablet of yours, or anyplace inside the cloud.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Helpline Number For Instant Help
What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?
Bitcoins are fundamentally a computerized cryptographic money that is used for making enormous exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the conventional open. It is used by enormous endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth. Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Helpline Number For Instant Help
There are not many preferences, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:
1. Quick Sending cash or accepting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or accepting assets, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.
2. Modest Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy undertaking yet with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.
4. Worldwide Acceptance Bitcoins are among such cryptographic forms of money which are worthy all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1-800-297-9984. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.
5. Decentralized Emission That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It overlooks the control of the administration as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.
6. Self Authority The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or element.
Mistakes and Support Offered By Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Helpline Number For Instant Help
The computerized monetary standards [BITCOINS] are a portion of the drifting methods of making colossal installments, selling of products, and so on it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.
It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs.
You can call at +1- 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 to have prompt client service for Bitcoin related issues.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Helpline Number For Instant Help
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submitted by Repulsive_Chest333 to u/Repulsive_Chest333 [link] [comments]

⏺Bitcoin Technical Support Number//8️⃣3️⃣3️⃣~9️⃣0️⃣2️⃣~2️⃣4️⃣0️⃣0️⃣~

⏺Bitcoin Technical Support Numbe/8️⃣3️⃣3️⃣~9️⃣0️⃣2️⃣~2️⃣4️⃣0️⃣0️⃣~Los Angeles
What is Bitcoin? How to Reach Technical Support of Bitcoin?
These are a portion of the unmistakable questions an individual experiences when requested BITCOINS. Essentially, a computerized cash that is adequate worldwide with advanced installment frameworks or wallets is named as BITCOIN. Overseeing such digital forms of money isn't simple and for the straightforwardness you may bring down the Bitcoin Customer Care telephone Numbers.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Technical Support Number For Instant Help
At the end of the day, Bitcoins are the advanced money, which is the most famous digital currency around the world. It manages the principal computerized installment framework which permits decentralized advanced cash that is starting without focal single chairman.
For permitting help to an individual managing in selling or acquisition of such cryptographic money Bitcoin Support Phone Number was made. It is working 24*7 and have an eminent official help. The officials are exceptionally prepared and experts which are inclined to every single question got some information about Bitcoins.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Technical Support Number For Instant Help
Bitcoin, for the most part alluded to as a digital currency, a virtual money, or possibly an electronic coin - is a sort of money that is virtual.
It's like an online variation of money. You can utilize it to buy administrations and items, however not many stores acknowledge Bitcoin yet, and a few nations have prohibited it totally.
After you own bitcoins, they have exchange and worth simply like they were pieces of yellow in your pocket. You can use the bitcoins of yours to purchase items and administrations on the web, or possibly you can fold them out and trust that their worth will increment throughout the years. Bitcoins are exchanged from a solitary individual' wallet' to one more.
A wallet is a little private database you save money on your PC drive, on your cell phone, on the tablet of yours, or anyplace inside the cloud.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Technical Support Number For Instant Help
What Benefits One Can Have Accepting or Giving Bitcoins?
Bitcoins are fundamentally a computerized cryptographic money that is used for making enormous exchanges. For the most part, the money isn't intended for the conventional open. It is used by enormous endeavors, business gatherings, huge elements, and so forth.
There are not many preferences, why business firms use or acknowledges installments in BITCOINS:
1. Quick Sending cash or accepting it takes a couple of moments paying little mind to the goal or time regions. You need not go anyplace or to utilize any procedure for sending or accepting assets, rather use Bitcoins to complete it.
2. Modest Moving sum starting with one spot then onto the next, requires computerized sources just as some bank charges as well. Be that as it may, with Bitcons, It may complete Free or in hardly any penny. Micropayment with the banks to such an extent that paying 0.30 euros for any occasion can be a fluffy undertaking yet with Bitcoins you are a great idea to go.
4. Worldwide Acceptance Bitcoins are among such cryptographic forms of money which are worthy all inclusive. You can gather more insight concerning the Global Transaction by calling at Bitcoin Support Phone Number +1- 833-9(0)2-2(4)00. Or on the other hand you can drop an Email or get live visit help for a similar reason.
5. Decentralized Emission That is to say, no legislature or national bank can control or deal with the valuation of Bitcoins. Neither in the creation nor in the appropriation. It overlooks the control of the administration as it is made by an individual and it is depoliticized.
6. Self Authority The cash gathering as Bitcoin to a proprietor will remain his/her own cash. That cash will be penny rate yours and it can't be mediated by any administrative body or element.
Mistakes and Support Offered By Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Customer care Number For Instant Help
The computerized monetary standards [BITCOINS] are a portion of the drifting methods of making colossal installments, selling of products, and so on it is important to have Support Phone Numbers with you for 24*7 moment help.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Technical Support Number For Instant Help
It is fundamental to know the BITCOIN Technical Support Phone Numbers, in order to determine the issues quickly as it occurs.
You can call at +1- 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 to have prompt client service for Bitcoin related issues.
Call @ 833-9(0)2-2(4)00 Bitcoin Technical Support Number For Instant Help
Bitcoin Support Number
Bitcoin Helpline number
Bitcoin Customer Care number
Bitcoin Toll free number
submitted by SnooChipmunks7563 to u/SnooChipmunks7563 [link] [comments]

READ: TERN - Massive upside potential - Ternio Cryptocurrency On BlockCard

TERN: Ternio’s own cryptocurrency that is based on the Stellar blockchain. It is a perfect value exchange for instant peer to peer micropayments and often confirms transactions in under 5 seconds for fractions of a penny. TERN can be exchanged peer to peer with any wallet that supports Stellar based assets, but is given even utility as the payment token used on all Ternio products including Lexicon and BlockCard.
Use Case: TERN is Ternio’s own digital currency and is the payment token used on all Ternio products. Every BlockCard uses TERN as the default spendable asset. All non-TERN deposits such as Bitcoin are converted to TERN when deposited in the BlockCard dashboard. The value of TERN is tied to usage of the BlockCard ecosystem. As users deposit on BlockCard, the value of TERN increases. As people spend, the value decreases. We have worked hard to build utility of TERN into the functionality of BlockCard. Live VISA Debit card with 6.38% crypto back on all spend.
BlockCard TERN link: https://getblockcard.com/supported-currencies/ternio/
CMC LINK: https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/ternio/
Recent Video (Crypto Crow): https://youtu.be/tustQqYH7nM?t=409 Calling for 140,000% gain
submitted by TraderWal to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

Bitcoin To Reach $397,000 By 2030 According To A Crypto Research Report

Bitcoin To Reach $397,000 By 2030 According To A Crypto Research Report

Researchers Also Predicted Ethereum To Reach Prices Of Over $3,600 By 2030
The latest report by CryptoReseach made a shocking price prediction that Bitcoin, the world’s largest cryptocurrency by market cap, would be over $397,000 by 2030. The researchers also noted that the price movement of the altcoin sector would closely follow Bitcoin.
Interestingly, researchers noted that the biggest price surge would be in the following five years, with another five years of steady price increases. Researchers believe that Bitcoin “is still in its early phase of mass adoption”, as the crypto leader is only working with 0,44% of its potential addressable market.
“If Bitcoin manages to penetrate and reach 10% of its potential market, we are seeing non-discounted prices of $400,000 per Bitcoin”, the report stated.
The CryptoResearch team also took one of the best-performing cryptocurrencies into account. It turns out that Ethereum (ETH) is anticipated to grow ten-fold over the course of the next five years, Litecoin (LTC) would surge from its present $83 price point to $2,252 by 2030. The report also includes Bitcoin Cash (BCH) and Stellar (XLM).
The price increases mean that Bitcoin would up its price by 4,000% by 2030, while Ethereum, Litecoin, and Bitcoin Cash would see a price increase of 1,600%, 5,000%, and 5,400%, respectively. Stellar, however, is set to gain the most, with an 11,000% total price increase by 2030.
Source: Crypto Research
The research company used the Target Addressable Market (TAM) metric, which is used to “determine the implied future price of crypto assets.” The researchers explained that they use numerous metrics to derive their predictions, such as tax evasion, remittance, store of value, micropayments, online transactions, online loans and gambling, crypto trading, and others.
CryptoResearch also noted that the off-chain velocity of the researched crypto assets is increasing, as opposed to their on-chain velocity numbers. Off-chain velocity is referred to as trading on crypto exchanges, while the on-chain velocity is a measure of the amount of transaction on a given blockchain. For instance, Bitcoin’s off-chain velocity and the price moved almost simultaneously.
https://preview.redd.it/i0vo86uulu751.jpg?width=1300&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cba4cd3dde364869d747a88b3229e6c4e39e5833
“If cryptos see mass adoption in the long run, as well as short-run speculative or retail usage, their prices will definitely go up. However, the increase in off-chain velocity means cryptocurrencies are primarily used as speculation assets, rather than a store of value.” The researchers concluded.
submitted by Crypto_Browser to CryptoBrowser_EN [link] [comments]

The Tangle badly needs a Stablecoin

The IOTA/Tangle community seems to be the least focused on tokenization. Here's why that's wrong:
IOTA may be feeless, but it's not free to use. Users are paying in:
  1. IOTA Volatility (regularly >1% daily)
  2. Exchange fees - moving in/out of IOTA to avoid volatility (0.25 - 1%)
Transaction fees, volatility or exchange fees. Value is lost, it doesn't matter how.
"but IOTA will stabilize as it grows"
Yes it will, but too slowly for it to matter.
Bitcoin isn't stable now at $100 billion, nor was it stable at $300 billion. IOTA won't be either. (IOTA would grow 250-750x in value to reach those market caps. Of course there will be enormous volatility on the way up)
Maybe they will be stable enough to use as a medium of exchange (MoE) if they ever reach $trillions.
What the Tangle needs most is a stablecoin. Picture this combination:
Ethereum DAI is supposed to be divisible to 18 decimal places - but gas fees stop you at 2 ($0.01)
Tangle DAI (TAI) could be truly divisible, with each unit created from 1i:
$1 to $0.01 = 100i ($1 million = 100Mi)
$1 to $0.0001 = 10Ki ($1 million = 10Gi)
etc
This allows for stable micropayments, 100 - 10,000x smaller than what is currently possible.
Important points:
This has a couple of effects:
  1. Short/medium term, it removes most of the need for IOTA as an MoE.
  2. IOTA supply will need to be carefully considered/eventually increased. (At $0.10Mi - 1i costs $0.0000001. At $100Mi - 1i costs $0.0001)
  3. Long term, if IOTA grows from billions to trillions, it could become THE medium of exchange.
Thoughts?
submitted by da-future-is-bright to IOTAmarkets [link] [comments]

FLETA Collaborates With Other Projects

FLETA Collaborates With Other Projects
https://preview.redd.it/o1586ny7eo351.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=e5afa3e84fe962b1ecabdd4600e824daca1c9651
Decentralized blockchain projects are gaining more and more popularity each day as the world realizes the potential of this blockchain technology. FLETA has decided to cooperate with other projects to drive the adoption of blockchain technology, facilitate technological innovations, and expand its network. In this article, we will introduce FLETA and other blockchain projects collaborating with us.

FLETA

FLETA is a blockchain platform for decentralized applications aimed at solving some of the blockchain’s biggest hurdles. They have made advances to solve the scalability issues, but still keeping the blockchain fast and decentralized through a unique consensus algorithm known as Proof-of-Formulation.
Formulators are the key to FLETA’s technology. They are the block generators who mine and create new blocks. The mining process is configured in such a fair way that every formulator will get a chance to generate a block. This prevents conflicts and abuse because every miner is equal.
Generated blocks are confirmed and signed in real-time by Observer Nodes. They are responsible for securing the network, preventing DDOS attacks, and making forks impossible. Forks cannot happen on FLETA because 3 out of 5 Observers are required to sign and confirm the block. The first block with 3 signatures is the only valid one.
Proof-of-Formulation has been tested and verified in real-life scenarios. It is capable of achieving 14,000 transactions but remains highly secure due to the exclusive connection between Formulators and node Observers.

Matic Network

The Matic Network hopes to improve the scalability of Ethereum, by using PoS side chains, but without losing the critical elements of decentralization.
Matic’s multiple side chains possibly scale to millions of transactions each second in the future. The transaction fees are inexpensive, and its Plasma framework results in new blocks being generated in less than 2 seconds. It makes Matic a well-suited platform for micropayments.
FLETA is using Matic’s Plasma framework solutions on its Mainnet. FLETA has an auto-swap feature between the FLETA ERC-20 token and its native FLETA coin. The two projects have cooperated to improve the Deposit & Withdrawal options on FLETA and making them more decentralized.

TomoChain

TomoChain is a blockchain platform that uses a Proof-of-Stake Voting Consensus to combat scalability. It is based on a network of 150 Masternodes. This technology allows a network throughput of 2,000 transactions per second and a 2 seconds blocktime.
TomoChain can be used by developers to build their own DApps. Also, by taking advantage of the TomoX Protocol, they can launch a decentralized exchange. The TomoP Protocol is a privacy feature allowing anonymous transactions. When enabled, it conceals information about the transacting parties, used addresses, and transaction amounts.
FLETA and TomoChain have signed a technical agreement that foresees the use of the TomoZ Protocol that allows fees to be paid with different tokens. FLETA will be creating a FLETA Token that can provide broader use cases within the TomoChain ecosystem.

Neo

Neo is an open-source blockchain platform that uses smart contracts to digitize assets. The ownership of physical items from the real world can be registered, traded, and transferred via the Neo blockchain. Neo is a strong development platform that supports multiple coding languages and has an experienced development community.
FLETA and Neo have signed a strategic partnership, which entails the use of NeoVM on FLETA’s Mainnet. NeoVM is a lightweight and scalable virtual machine for smart-contract development. With its cross-platform compatibility, FLETA will significantly benefit from it.
Once deployed, FLETA and Neo will cooperate on several projects. The first planned one is a blockchain-based Real World Data-based Clinical Research Data Registry Platform for the medical industry. The project aims to activate medical data research and help researchers efficiently use the data.

Wanchain

Wanchain is a cross-chain compatible infrastructure that seeks to connect the world of decentralized finance into one interoperable ecosystem. Different blockchain systems are incompatible with each other, and they operate on their own. The answer to this is creating wrapped tokens of the original assets and incorporating them on the Wanchain platform.
It allows the coins to be used in ways that weren’t possible before. For example, a wrapped Bitcoin token can be used in an Ethereum smart contract to take advantage of the Ethereum blockchain. The token can be easily exchanged back to real Bitcoin by using Wanchain technology.
Wanchain is based on the codebase of Ethereum, but it uses a PoS consensus algorithm. The project has established a partnership with FLETA. With this understanding, both companies expect further to improve interoperability and the performance of their systems.

WINk

WINk is a gaming platform offering Live Casino Games, virtual sports, Slots, and E-gaming. WINk was previously known as TronBet, and it is located on the TRON Mainnet.
The platform supports several different tokens: TRX, Dice, USDT, BTT, and of course, WIN token. Besides being a gaming community, WINk also features a staking option. By staking WIN tokens, users get the chance to earn daily staking rewards from the platform’s profits.
WINk plans to integrate with Wallet Street, the social data platform of FLETA. Wallet Street allows stakeholders to communicate and create online communities. The two platforms will start a joint marketing campaign. Wallet Street allows its users to build their own buildings based on the number of coins they own. These structures become visible on a virtual map on Wallet Street. A WINk building will be constructed on Wallet Street’s map to advertise WINk project and its token.

Conclusion

Cooperation is essential for the crypto industry as it opens new possibilities. The sharing of information and knowledge is beneficial to success. Entering new markets allows companies to expand their user base. A broader reach increases use cases for blockchain technology and achieve the ultimate goal: massive adoption. FLETA has realized the importance of strong partnerships, and during 2020, their services will be taken to a whole new stage.
submitted by fleta-official to fletachain [link] [comments]

How long with the Stellar consolidation last? A forecast from the XLMwallet

How long with the Stellar consolidation last? A forecast from the XLMwallet
It’s been three weeks since the Bitcoin halving, but the rally so many were waiting for didn’t happen, at least for now. Stellar is consolidating and seems to be going up. When can you expect significant gains? As always XLMwallet analytics offer a forecast.
Stellar is still trying to recover from the big hit it took on May 10, together with Bitcoin and the rest. It went from $0.072 to $0.064 — a 12% fall. It scrapped a lot of the gains made in the previous month.

https://xlmwallet.co/
What happened? Why did XLM fall so much? Don’t panic — and definitely don’t sell. If you hold lumens in your XLMwallet, continue to do so. (We hope you do, because XLMwallet is awesome.)
What happened was a banal Bitcoin liquidation. Just before the halving, there was lots of volatility in the market, with people getting excited. The price started rising and even tried to go beyond $10,000. For Bitcoin, it’s been a very strong level or resistance since last summer.
When the price couldn’t cross the $10k mark, it became clear that the ceiling is reached for now. And people started to sell. The price began to fall. Then, a massive liquidation of short positions followed. Those are the futures positions on exchanges like BitMex: a lot of people were shorting BTC. Once some of the positions automatically closed, the price fell a bit further, more positions were liquidated, the price fell again, and so on. It was a chain reaction. Nothing happened to Bitcoin, nothing happened to Stellar. It was all just a technical process.
Stellar, Ethereum and the others simply followed. That’s the unfortunate reality of crypto: all the altcoins follow BTC, like sheep follow a dog. Bitcoin has been struggling to grow back ever since, and so is Stellar. In addition, there are a lot of Bitcoin miners selling the BTC they accumulated in the past few months, creating additional downward pressure.
What should you do? As we’ve said, definitely not sell. It will take Bitcoin a couple of months to get out of its consolidation stage, and then it can start growing properly, tagging the rest of the coins along. We expect very good gains for Stellar starting from July — definitely higher than where it was in early May.
Moreover, the Stellar Foundation has just made another investment. It gave $550,000 to a startup called SatoshiPay. It’s a micropayments product that is now eyeing an expansion into the B2B territory, mostly to let creators of online content get paid across borders.
As we all know, Stellar is the perfect cryptocurrency for cross-border payments: it’s extremely fast and cheap. As we always say, if you can HODL your lumens in the XLMwallet, do so. But if you have to pay with crypto somewhere, do it with Stellar rather than in BTC. Especially now, after the halving, when the BTC transaction fee has risen above $3 — many thousands of times more than with XLM!
In a few words: our advice for XLM owners is hold. A rally is coming, though we’ll have to wait a couple of months for it. We’re pretty sure that the worst for Stellar is over this year, and the only way to go is up.
Website — https://xlmwallet.co/
Medium — https://medium.com/@XLMwalletCo
Teletype — https://teletype.in/@XLMwalletCo
Twitter — https://twitter.com/XLMwalletCo
Reddit — https://www.reddit.com/XLM_wallet/
submitted by Stellar__wallet to XLM_wallet [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

https://preview.redd.it/s2gmpmeze3151.png?width=256&format=png&auto=webp&s=9759910dd3c4a15b83f55b827d1899fb2fdd3de1

1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
https://preview.redd.it/t1j6anf8f3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=33bd141d8f2136a6f32739c8cdc7aae2e04cbc47

Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

https://preview.redd.it/m6texxicf3151.png?width=1591&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4253304912ed8370948b9c524e08fef28f1c78d

Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
https://preview.redd.it/depya70mf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6499aa2131fbf347f8ffd812930b2f7d66be48e
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
https://preview.redd.it/cy56icarf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=b239a63c6a87ec6cc1b18ce2cbd0355f8831c3a8
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/hjeqe4l7g3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=8014fb08fe62ac4d91645499bc0c7e1c04c5d7c4
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

Nano vs. Dogecoin - a tale of two cryptocurrency for microtransactions (& more)

So, I wanted to write here, because I think Nano community is open-minded, and can think it through - I really like it, and tho I don't have it (only tested it a few times from faucets).

As I see both of those CCs are focusing mainly on low-cost payments and microtransaction/micropayments, and "fun to use".
Even tho Dogecoin can be though as "meme" and "silly", it's actually used and adopted in many places - far more then Nano (ofc, it's also older and have easier codebase to implement - sharing it with bitcoin), but as I will outline, I think that there are a few things that Nano/Nano community can learn from them.

Dogecoin:

Now Nano:

Liquidity comparison:
Nano: https://coinpaprika.com/coin/nano-nano/#!liquidity
Doge: https://coinpaprika.com/coin/doge-dogecoin/#!liquidity
The trend is evident, if you switch to 1y or max on market depth history - Dogecoin have almost +100% growth in this period (from June 2019) and Nano 50% decline.
Looking at the data from vcdepth it's even more apparent:
https://vcdepth.io/coins/doge-doge
https://vcdepth.io/coins/nano-nano

As I say, I think Nano can learn from Doge's some, especially regarding exchange's liquidity - that's preventing a lot from happening right now. Binance is the only source, and market maker for Nano, but there should be more - through the ecosystem.
What Nano team should do in my opinion is: take part of their funds from dev premine, and use it for liquidity purposes. Cryptocurrencies can't be "run" like startups, and Nano holding shouldn't be treated as equity or cash equivalent, dumping it straight on the books. Binance is making a lot to provide all of their coins with liquid markets (their MMs are one of the best on the market), but I think team can increase liquidity easily by a factor of 2-3x, just by hiring specialistic company, that will manage it. I know coins, that have done it - and it's the main thing that helped them stay relevant. Developing protocol is important, but without liquid market - it doesn't achieve anything (because it won't be used by more people). Especially I would try to improve USDT markets - they are basically USD pairs.

PS. I'm not a developer, but I research CCs on daily basis, because it's actually my work. I think my comparison is right, because Doge have achieve much more then being only "meme" currency, and Banano did not (it's only meme currency without liquidity, acceptance, or being really used anywhere).
submitted by muf18 to nanocurrency [link] [comments]

Technical: More channel mechanisms!

This is a followup of my older post about the history of payment channel mechanisms.
The "modern" payment channel system is Lightning Network, which uses bidirectional indefinite-lifetime channels, using HTLCs to trustlessly route through the network.
However, at least one other payment channel mechanism was developed at roughly the same time as Lightning, and there are also further proposals that are intended to replace the core payment channel mechanism in use by Lightning.
Now, in principle, the "magic" of Lightning lies in combining two ingredients:
  1. Offchain updateable systems.
  2. HTLCs to implement atomic cross-system swaps.
We can replace the exact mechanism implementing an offchain updateable system. Secondly we can replace the use of HTLCs with another atomic cross-system swap, which is what we would do when we eventually switch to payment points and scalars from payment hashes and preimages.
So let's clarify what I'll be discussing here:
Now I might use "we" here to refer to what "we" did to the design of Bitcoin, but it is only because "we" are all Satoshi, except for Craig Steven Wright.
So, let's present the other payment channel mechanisms. But first, a digression.

Digression: the new nSequence and OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY

The new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence.
Last time we used nSequence, we had the unfortunate problem that it would be easy to rip off people by offering a higher miner fee for older state where we own more funds, then convince the other side of the channel to give us goods in exchange for a new state with tiny miner fees, then publish both the old state and the new state, then taunt the miners with "so which state is gonna earn you more fees huh huh huh?".
This problem, originally failed by Satoshi, was such a massive facepalm that, in honor of miners doing the economically-rational thing in the face of developer and user demands when given a non-final nSequence, we decided to use nSequence as a flag for the opt-in replace-by-fee.
Basically, under opt-in replace-by-fee, if a transaction had an nSequence that was not 0xFFFFFFFF or 0xFFFFFFFE, then it was opt-in RBF (BIP125). Because you'd totally abuse nSequence to bribe miners in order to steal money from your bartender, especially if your bartender is not a werebear.
Of course, using a 4-byte field for a one-bit flag (to opt-in to RBF or not) was a massive waste of space, so when people started proposing relative locktimes, the nSequence field was repurposed.
Basically, in Bitcoin as of the time of this writing (early 2020) if nSequence is less than 0x80000000 it can be interpreted as a relative timelock. I'll spare you the details here, BIP68 has them, but basically nSequence can indicate (much like nLockTime) either a "real world" relative lock time (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for X seconds before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence) or the actual real world, which is measured in blocks (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for N blocks before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence). Of course, this is the Bitcoin universe and "seconds" is a merely human delusion, so we will use blocks exclusively.
And similarly to OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY, we also added OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY in BIP112. This ensures that the nSequence field is a relative-locktime (i.e. less than 0x80000000) and that it is the specified type (block-based or seconds-based) and that it is equal or higher to the specified minimum relative locktime.
It is important to mention the new, modern meaning of nSequence, because it is central to many of the modern payment channel mechanisms, including Lightning Poon-Dryja.
Lessons learned?

Decker-Wattenhofer "Duplex Micropayment Channels"

Mechanisms-within-mechanisms for a punishment-free bidirectional indefinite-lifetime payment channel.
The Decker-Wattenhofer paper was published in 2015, but the Poon-Dryja "Lightning Network" paper was published in 2016. However, the Decker-Wattenhofer paper mentions the Lightning mechanism, specifically mentioning the need to store every old revocation key (i.e. the problem I mentioned last time that was solved using RustyReddit shachains). Maybe Poon-Dryja presented the Lightning Network before making a final published paper in 2016, or something. Either that or cdecker is the Bitcoin time traveler.
It's a little hard to get an online copy now, but as of late 2019 this seems to work: copy
Now the interesting bit is that Decker-Wattenhofer achieves its goals by combining multiple mechanisms that are, by themselves, workable payment channel mechanisms already, except each has some massive drawbacks. By combining them, we can minimize the drawbacks.
So let's go through the individual pieces.

Indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels

As mentioned before, Spilman channels have the drawback that they have a limited lifetime: the lock time indicated in the backoff transaction or backoff branch of the script. However, instead of an absolute lock time, we can use a relative locktime.
In order to do so, we use a "kickoff" transaction, between the backoff transaction and the funding transaction. Our opening ritual goes this way, between you and our gender-neutral bartender-bancho werebear:
  1. First, you compute the txid for the funding transaction and the kickoff transaction. The funding transaction takes some of your funds and puts it into a 2-of-2 between you and the bartender, and the kickoff is a 1-input 1-output transaction that spends the funding transaction and outputs to another 2-of-2 between you and the bartender.
  2. Then, you generate the backoff transaction, which spends the kickoff transaction and returns all the funds to you. The backoff has a non-zero nSequence, indicating a delay of a number of blocks agreed between you, which is a security/convenience tradeoff parameter
  3. You sign the backoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
  4. The bartender signs the backoff, and gives back the fully-signed transaction to you.
  5. You sign the kickoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
  6. The bartender signs the kickoff, and gives it back to you fully signed.
  7. You sign and broadcast the funding transaction, and both of you wait for the funding transaction to be deeply confirmed.
The above setup assumes you're using SegWit, because transaction malleability fix.
At any time, either you or the bartender can broadcast the kickoff transaction, and once that is done, this indicates closure of the channel. You do this if you have drunk enough alcoholic beverages, or the bartender could do this when he or she is closing the bar.
Now, to get your drinks, you do:
  1. Sign a transaction spending the kickoff, and adding more funds to the bartender, to buy a drink. This transaction is not encumbered with an nSequence.
  2. Hand the signed transaction to the bartender, who provides you with your next drink.
The channel is closed by publishing the kickoff transaction. Both of you have a fully-signed copy of the kickoff, so either of you can initiate the close.
On closure (publication and confirmation of the kickoff transaction), there are two cases:
  1. You fail to pick up any chicks at the bar (I prefer female humans of optimum reproductive age myself rather than nestling birds, but hey, you do you) so you didn't actually spend for drinks at all. In this case, the bartender is not holding any transactions that can spend the kickoff transaction. You wait for the agreed-upon delay after the kickoff is confirmed, and then publish the backoff transaction and get back all the funds that you didn't spend.
  2. You spend all your money on chicks and end up having to be kicked into a cab to get back to your domicile, because even juvenile birds can out-drink you, you pushover. The bartender then uses the latest transaction you gave (the one that gives the most money to him or her --- it would be foolish of him or her to use an earlier version with less money!), signs it, and broadcasts it to get his or her share of the money from the kickoff transaction.

Decrementing nSequence channels

Enforcing order by reducing relative locktimes.
I believe this to be novel to the Decker-Wattenhofer mechanism, though I might be missing some predecessor.
This again uses the new relative-locktime meaning of nSequence. As such, it also uses a kickoff transaction like the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel. Set up is very similar to the setup of the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel, except that because this is bidirectional, we can actually have both sides put money into the initial starting backoff transaction.
We also rename the "backoff" transaction to "state" transaction. Basically, the state transaction indicates how the money in the channel is divided up between the two participants. The "backoff" we sign during the funding ritual is now the first state transaction. Both sides keep track of the current state transaction (which is initialized to the first state transaction on channel establishment).
Finally, the starting nSequence of the first state transaction is very large (usually in the dozens or low hundreds of blocks).
Suppose one participant wants to pay the other. The ritual done is then:
  1. A new version of the current state transaction is created with more money in the payee side.
  2. This new version has nSequence that is one block lower than the current state transaction (in practice it should be a few blocks lower, not just one, because sometimes miners find blocks in quick succession).
  3. Both sides exchange signatures for the new state transaction.
  4. Both sides set the new state transaction as the current state transaction that will be the basis for the next payment.
When the channel is closed by publication of the kickoff transaction, then the transaction with the lowest nSequence becomes valid earlier than the other state transactions. This is enough to enforce that the most recent state transaction (the one with the lowest nSequence, and thus the first to become valid) is published.

Mechanism-within-mechanism

Combining the ingredients of the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels concoction.
Of note is that we can "chain" these mechanisms together in such a way that we strengthen their strengths while covering their weaknesses.
A note is that both the indefinite-lifetime nSequence Spilman variant, and the above decrementing nSequence mechanism, both have "kickoff" transactions.
However, when we chain the two mechanisms together, it turns out that the final transaction of one mechanism also serves as the kickoff of the next mechanism in the chain.
So for example, let's chain two of those decrementing nSequence channels together. Let's make them 144 blocks maximum delay each, and decrement in units of 4 blocks, so each of the chained mechanisms can do 37 updates each.
We start up a new channel with the following transactions:
  1. A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
  2. A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
  3. A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
  4. A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 144, paying to the initial state of the channel.
When we update this channel, we first update the "stage 2" state transaction, replacing it with an nSequence lower by 4 blocks. So after one update our transactions are:
  1. A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
  2. A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
  3. A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
  4. A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 140, paying to the second state of the channel.
The first 3 transactions are the same, only the last one is replaced with a state transaction with lower `nSequence.
Things become interesting when we reach the "stage 2" having nSequence 0. On the next update, we create a new "stage 1", with an nSequence that is 4 lower, and "reset" the "stage 2" back to an nSequence of 144.
This is safe because even though we have a "stage 2" with shorter nSequence, that stage 2 spends a stage 1 with an nSequence of 144, and the stage 1 with nSequence of 140 would beat it to the blockchain first.
This results in us having, not 36 + 36 updates, but instead 36 * 36 updates (1296 updates). 1296 updates is still kinda piddling, but that's much better than just a single-stage decrementing nSequence channel.
The number of stages can be extended indefinitely, and your only drawback would be the amount of blockchain space you'd spend for a unilateral close. Mutual cooperative closes can always shortcut the entire stack of staged transactions and cut it to a single mutual cooperative close transaction.
But that's not all! You might be wondering about the term "duplex" in the name "Duplex Micropayment Channels".
That's because the last decrementing nSequence stage does not hold the money of the participants directly. Instead, the last stage holds two indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels. As you might remember, Spilman channels are unidirectional, so the two Spilman channels represent both directions of the channel. Thus, duplex.
Let's go back to you and your favorite werebear bartender. If you were using a Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channel, you'd have several stages of decrementing nSequence, terminated in two Spilman channels, a you-to-bartender channel and a bartender-to-you channel.
Suppose that, while drinking, the bartender offers you a rebate on each drink if you do some particular service for him or her. Let us not discuss what service this is and leave it to your imagination. So you pay for a drink, decide you want to get the rebate, and perform a service that the bartender finds enjoyable. So you transfer some funds on the you-to-bartender direction, and then later the bartender transfers some funds in the bartender-to-you channel after greatly enjoying your service.
Suppose you now exhaust the you-to-bartender direction. However, you note that the rebates you've earned are enough to buy a few more drinks. What you do instead is to update the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms, and recreate the two Spilman directions such that the you-to-bartender direction contains all your current funds and the bartender-to-you direction contains all the bartender's funds. With this, you are now able to spend even the money you earned from rebates. At the same time, even if the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms only have a few hundred thousand updates, you can still extend the practical number of updates as long as you don't have to reset the Spilman channels too often.

Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories

Because you like channels so much, you put channels inside channels so you could pay while you pay. I N C E P T I O N
The Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels introduced the possibility of nesting a channel mechanism inside another channel mechanism. For example, it suggests nesting a decrementing-nSequence mechanism inside another decrementing-nSequence mechanism, and having as well an unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel at the end. In the Decker-Wattenhofer case, it is used to support the weakness of one mechanism with the strength of another mechanism.
One thing to note is that while the unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel variant used is inherently two-participant (there is one payer and one payee), the decrementing-nSequence channel mechanism can be multiparticipant.
Another thing of note is that nothing prevents one mechanism from hosting just one inner mechanism, just as it is perfectly fine for a Lightning Network channel to have multiple HTLCs in-flight, plus the money in your side, plus the money in the counterparty's side. As these are "just" Bitcoin-enforceable contracts, there is no fundamental difference between an HTLC, and a payment channel mechanism.
Thus the most basic idea of the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories paper is simply that we can have a multiparticipant update mechanism host multiple two-party update mechanisms. The outer multiparticipant update mechanism is called a "channel factory" while the inner two-party update mechanisms are called "channels".
The exact mechanism used in the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer paper uses several decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory, and Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels to implement the channel layer.
However, as noted before, there is no fundamental difference between a Poon-Dryja channel and an HTLC. So it is in fact possible to have chained Decker-Wattenhofer decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory level, while the channels are simply Poon-Dryja channels.

Conclusion

So this concludes for now an alternative mechanism to the classic Poon-Dryja that Lightning uses. The tradeoffs are significantly different between Decker-Wattenhofer vs Poon-Dryja:

Copyright

Copyright 2020 Alan Manuel K. Gloria. Released under CC-BY.
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

It is hoped that Earthcoin will bring new opportunities to the global village economy under the influence of the new crown virus, and the Earthcoin EAC blockchain will build a new global village.

It is hoped that Earthcoin Earthcoin will bring new opportunities to the global village economy under the influence of the new crown virus, and the Earthcoin EAC blockchain will build a new global village.
Everyone becomes a member of the global village via the Internet, but the real world is divided into many countries and regions. National and regional laws, currencies are inconsistent. The advent of blockchain can build a global village.
1: Global Village, EarthCoin
A word that the Global Village heard a long time ago seems to be a bit old now. The rapid development of modern science and technology has reduced the space-time distance on the earth, and international communication has become increasingly frequent and convenient, so the entire earth is like a small village in a vast universe. The global village in the Internet era is imperfect, because only the rapid transmission of information, and other aspects are deeply affected by the real world.
Earth's development of the digital economy is inseparable from Earth Coin EAC! EAC can help users to pay instantly to anyone on the planet. Earthcoin is a global decentralized payment network and digital currency that calculates the value of labor and quantifies the resources of the earth. Inspired by Bitcoin. Earthcoin can perform fast transactions with little or no fees. No login, registration or hidden fees are required. Users receive Earthcoin or send Earthcoin from any Earthcoin address in the world within seconds. Earthcoin uses P2P technology, and there is no central management agency; the network collectively manages transactions and issues Earthcoin. Earthcoin is also open source. Its design is public participation. No one can own or control Earthcoin. It is committed to sustainable and fair development. It calculates labor value and quantifies earth resources. Every earth person can participate.
2: The current global village
In reality, everyone's connection is broken. You have to use your own currency, you have to abide by your country's laws and regulations, and you have to follow a local law to use the local currency when you go to an area. Many things are inefficient because of this split. For example, bank cards: everyone has a lot of bank cards. There is nothing necessary. How many cards are wasteful. If you want to transfer money, the bank is different. If you want to transfer money from two different countries, you have to go through A complex network is very inefficient. Earthcoin is a global decentralized payment network and digital currency that calculates the value of labor and quantifies the resources of the earth. Can completely solve these problems.
3: If the blockchain changes the global village
The above problem is the reason why there is no strong center. If there is only one country and a bank is so big, things can be very efficient. But it is impossible. The United Nations and the World Bank can be political centers and financial centers by name, but the actual situation is not. The actual power is poor. And it may not be a good thing to create such a strong center, Earth Empire? The emergence of the blockchain has created a new possibility without a center! A lot of things need to be done by the strong center, but they are done just as well by going to the center. 1. In the past you needed the government to prove who you are, your mother is your mother, now the blockchain can. 2. In the past, you needed to use different currencies in different countries, and now Bitcoin Geocoin is accepted in any country, regardless of exchange rates.
The short confirmation time of the Earthcoin EAC block gives it infinite potential to extend to payment applications.
Everyone knows that Bitcoin BTC is the most robust and secure currency in the block. Even a few years ago, many investors around the world have used it as a tool for their own wealth transfer and storage. In the field of value storage, its credit is unmatched, which is the fundamental reason for its market value of 1.4 trillion. However, in the global micropayment application, Bitcoin BTC requires 10 minutes for each block confirmation, and 6 blocks can ensure accurate transactions. If you are shopping in the supermarket or participating in remittances, fundraising, etc., you only pay a sum of money. Wait for 10-60 minutes, it will definitely make people restless, don't even think about doing anything.
Earth Coin EAC has a block time of 60 seconds, and 5 blocks can confirm the transaction. Although there is no Alipay and WeChat Express supported by a centralized database, you have realized a point-to-point seamless link payment globally. , Waiting for confirmation within a few minutes is completely acceptable!
At present, the United States and Europe have begun to encircle China's Alipay and WeChat in terms of financial payment, because it is quickly eating away the cake of the cross-border payment of US dollars and euros in the circulation between Southeast Asia and Europe. Zuckerberg, knowing that his Lbria is equivalent to QQ currency ten years ago, but the US government has almost allowed it [to resist the pressure brought by Chinese payments, but if it is to be issued, it will become the Federal Reserve. And the US dollar's grave diggers were ultimately rejected by Congress], they are all centralized in nature, just like Huawei, no matter how good the product quality is, and where the service is in place, but as long as Huawei is found as a centralized organization, it is because of geopolitics between countries. And under economic coercion, bans are banned. But with a payment system developed using pure POW digital currency with a short confirmation time, no government can start, and people in Asia, Europe, Africa and the United States will long to use them to complete transnational payments in the context of globalization.
Four: Summary
This article triggered my thinking on the blockchain. What is the purpose of decentralization and why do many things go to the center! !! !! In a small area, a strong center is enough to accomplish many things efficiently, but when there is no strong center and it is difficult to exist globally, many simple things are very complicated. 1. Online transfer, if there is Alipay, then it will be a few seconds, but if a Chinese person uses Alipay to transfer to an overseas PayPal account, it is a massive project. After a bunch of banks, exchange rates fluctuated and various fees were charged. Blockchain can transfer money in a few minutes like Alipay. The short confirmation time of the Earthcoin EAC block makes it have endless potential to extend to payment applications. 2. Self-certification, you have to prove who you are, you need proof of where you are registered, you ca n’t prove who you are, you ca n’t prove it, but the district Blockchaining your private key can prove who you are. 3. More secure, Alipay transfer is a strong center, which is theoretically very safe, but it is a black box for you. If something goes wrong, if something goes wrong, how do you prove that you transferred, everything depends on the credit of Alipay, but the blockchain depends on It is code, and everyone can view the public code, which is more credible. Blockchain has many limitations. Without a strong center, there is no strong center, but in many cases, there is no strong center, and then a blockchain is necessary. I hope Earthcoin brings new opportunities to the global village economy under the influence of the new crown virus! (Source network)
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