Bitcoin Whitepaper: a beginner's guide | Get Started
Bitcoin Whitepaper: a beginner's guide | Get Started
How to Invest in Bitcoin: Complete Beginner's Guide 2020
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AT2: Asynchronous Trustworthy Transfers
AT2, a fairly new unknown tech to create a decentralized asset transfer system without blockchain. This week there was an article @ www.computing.co.uk. See below. link: https://www.computing.co.uk/feature/4017118/at2-answer-cryptocurrency-energy-performance AT2 paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.10844.pdf Could AT2 be the answer to cryptocurrency's energy and performance problems? Blockchains are slow, wasteful and ill-suited for digital currencies, say researchers who believe they've found a better way Blockchains solve a hard problem: how to ensure consensus across a distributed, decentralised network, where messages arrive out of order if at all, where individual nodes may fail, and where a certain proportion may be actively malicious. The original blockchain, bitcoin, was designed to support a novel digital currency, and the issue its consensus algorithm solved was preventing double-spend. It also successfully introduced game theory for security: adversaries would have to spend more money on an attack than they could expect to gain financially. All this and the original protocol was just a few hundred lines of code. But this achievement came at a high cost in terms of energy use and performance. With bitcoin, a new leader is required to verify each block of transactions, that leader being the first device to complete a computationally heavy challenge (Proof of Work, PoW). As a result, the blockchain's throughput is painfully slow at around seven transactions per second (Visa claims it can do 56,000) and the whole process is massively wasteful of energy. These drawbacks have been surmounted, to some degree, in newer blockchain designs using overlay networks, sharding and different types of "proofs of" and by non-blockchain directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), but each requires tradeoffs in terms of centralisation, complexity or security. A group of researchers led by computer scientist Professor Rachid Guerraoui of Swiss University Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) decided to look afresh at the problem. Is this gargantuan security apparatus, in which every node in a network of thousands or millions must come to a consensus about the ordering of events, really necessary everytime someone makes a purchase? Could a leaderless mechanism be applied to the problem instead? If so, could it be guaranteed to be reliably consistent, even when a certain number of nodes are malicious or faulty (Byzantine)? The headline answer, published in an initial paper last year, is that network-wide consensus is overkill for simple asset transfers. If cryptocurrencies could be rebooted, all the fossil fuels burned by miners of bitcoin and its clones could be left in the ground and Visa-level transaction speeds could be achieved without any loss of security or reliance on centralised control. As compact as Satoshi's original bitcoin protocol itself, the few hundred lines of code that make up their Asynchronous Trusted Transfers (AT2) algorithm could solve some of the tricky problems that have plagued decentralised token-based networks from the off. AT2 can be used to validate transactions within two different decentralised networking scenarios: (1) permissioned or small unpermissioned networks, and (2) global scale unpermissioned networks. In the first case, the algorithm uses quorum for validating actions, whereby a certain proportion of the network's nodes must agree an action is correct before it can take place. The second scenario, networks made up of very large number of machines (nodes), uses probabilistic sampling. Instead of asking all nodes it checks a number of randomly selected nodes for their viewpoint. This is much more efficient and scalable than the deterministic quorum but carries a tiny (ca. 10-15) possibility of failure. Doing away with network-wide consensus means AT2 sidesteps the bane of decentralised networks, the FLP Impossibility - the theory that in a fully asynchronous system, a deterministic consensus algorithm cannot be safe, live and fault-tolerant. Computing caught up with Matteo Monti, who worked on the statistical aspects of AT2, and by email with Guerraoui to find out more. We also spoke to David Irvine of networking firm MaidSafe, which has adopted AT2 to simplify its consensus process. Incentivising improvements We asked Monti (pictured) to summarise the innovation that AT2 brings to the table. "What we noticed is that there's a specific subclass of problems that can be solved on a decentralised, distributed network without requiring consensus," he said. "The main use for consensus at the moment, cryptocurrency transactions, is part of that class. We can solve this using a weaker abstraction and in doing so you gain the ability to work in a completely asynchronous environment." Bitcoin doesn't even solve consensus well. It solves eventual consensus which an even weaker abstraction, he added, whereas AT2 can guarantee strong eventual consistency. Another issue it tackles is PoW's incentivization model which means that improvements in technology do not translate into a better performing network. "With bitcoin, the bottleneck is always electricity. If everyone doubles their computational speed it's not going to change the efficiency of the network. Everyone's competing not to compute but to waste energy." In place of PoW, AT2 uses ‘Proof of Bandwidth', i.e. evidence of recent interaction, to verify that a node is real. Since it doesn't rely on consensus, the performance of AT2 should allow messaging speeds across the network that approach the theoretical maximum, and improvements in hardware will translate into better overall performance. Security measures Blockchains like bitcoin are extremely resilient against Sybil attacks; bitcoin is still running after all, in the face of unwavering opposition from powerful nation states and bankers. Sybil attacks are a major vulnerability in permissionless decentralised networks where anyone can join anonymously, but there are others too. Monti said the most challenging aspect of designing the AT2 algorithm was distilling all the potential types of dangerous Byzantine behaviour into a manageable set so they could be treated using probability theory. As a result of studying many possible failure scenarios, including Sybil, the algorithm is able to quickly react to deviations from the norm. Other security features flow from the fact that each network node needs to know only a limited amount about its counterparts for the system to function. For example, the randomness used in sampling operations is generated locally on the calling device rather than on the network, making this vector hard to utilise by an attacker looking to influence events. Signals are passed across the network via a messaging system called Byzantine Reliable Broadcasting (BRB) a gossip-based method by which nodes can quickly and reliably come to an agreement about a message even if some are Byzantine. As a result of these features, AT2 does not rely on economic game theory for security, said Monti. "I'd go as far as saying that the moment you need to implement an economic disadvantage to attacking the system, it means that you failed to make it impossible to attack the system. We don't care about your interests in attacking the system. What we want to achieve is a proof that no matter what you do, the system will not be compromised." ‘Crypto-Twitter' AT2 starts with the simple idea that rather than requiring the whole network to maintain a time-ordered record of my transactions (as with a blockchain or DAG), the only person who needs to keep that tally is me. If I decide to spend some money, I merely announce that fact to the network over BRB and this request will be held in a memory snapshot escrow. Depending on the network type, a representative sample or a quorum of other nodes then check my balance and inspect my ordered transaction history to ensure that the funds haven't already been spent (each transaction has a unique sequential ID) and provided all is correct the transaction is guaranteed to go through, even if up to a third of those validators are malicious. If I try to cheat, the transaction will be blocked. Monti likens a wallet on an AT2 network to a social media timeline. "What we've proved, essentially, is that you can have a cryptocurrency on Twitter," he explained. "A payment works in two steps. First, there's a withdrawal from my account via a tweet, then the second step is a deposit, or a retweet. I tweet a message saying I want to pay Bob. Bob then retweets this message on his own timeline, and in the act of retweeting he's depositing money in his account. "So everyone has their own independent timeline and while the messages - my tweets - are strictly ordered, that's only in my own timeline; I don't care about ordering relative to other timelines. If I try to pay someone else, it will be obvious by the sequence of tweets in my account, and my account only, whether I can perform that payment. "In contrast, consensus effectively squeezes all of the messages into a unique timeline on which everybody agrees. But this is overkill, you don't need it. We can prove that it still works even if the ordering is partial and not total, and this enables us to switch from consensus to reliable broadcast." But of course, nothing comes for free. AT2 can verify exchanges of tokenised assets, but aside from arrangements between a small number of opted-in parties, it does not have the ability to support smart contracts of the type that are viable on ethereum and other blockchains, because this does require network-wide consensus. Guerraoui said his team is working on "refinements and extensions" to support such functionality in the future. Early adopters AT2 is still pretty ‘cutting edge'. Three papers have been accepted for peer review the latest published in February, but it provides the sort of efficiencies and simplifications that could bring real progress. Guerraoui said AT2 has "received interest from many groups including companies ‘selling' blockchain approaches, as well as companies and organisations using such approaches". One organisation that has already picked up on the potential of AT2 is Scotland's MaidSafe, creator of the SAFE Network. MaidSafe is already using AT2 to replace its Parsec consensus algorithm, which testing showed was indeed overkill for many network operations. CEO David Irvine said he and his colleagues came across AT2 while working on another way of propagating changes to data without consensus, conflict-free data replicated types (CRDTs), promptly forked the code and started to apply it. SAFE, currently in Alpha, is a sharded network, meaning it's subdivided into small semi-autonomous sections. On a network level, the way it works is that trusted 'elder' nodes vote on a requested action then pass instructions to other sections to carry it out. AT2 allows the initial task of accumulating the votes for an action, which had been done by the elders using a consensus algorithm, to be moved off the network and onto the requesting client which is much more lightweight and efficient. Once a quorum of votes has been gathered, the client simply resubmits the request and the elders will ensure it's carried out. The system is much simpler and should be more secure too. "It's 200 lines of logic compared to 15,000 for a start," Irvine said. AT2 is not just used to validate token transfers. By the same mechanism, it can also be used to authorise requests to store or change data. Together with CRDTs, which guarantee that such changes cannot fail, this makes for a very tight and efficient ship, said Irvine. "AT2 is for us a missing link. The difficulty of several nodes agreeing is simplified by the initiator taking on the effort of accumulating quorum votes. It seems so simple but in fact, it's an amazing innovation. It certainly falls into the category of 'why didn't I think of that?'."
Deep fundamental reasons behind all conflicts with Tezos Foundation
Let's first take a look at two core ideas behind Tezos protocol:
In Bitcoin protocol, there are those who create blocks (miners) and users. Those are two fundamentally different groups. As a result of that they do have fundamentally different interests. When those interests are aligned, it's all work very well. However, sometimes those interests might get misaligned. Miners might want one set of changes in the protocol while users might want another set of changes. Tezos procotol solves this problem via proof of stake's baking mechanism by allowing users of XTZ to become block creators (like miners in Bitcoin protocol). Users/holders of XTZ and block creators are now fundamentally the same group and therefore there is no interest misalignment. Moreover, as a consequence of choosing proof of stake over proof of work, almost anyone can become a baker at low cost. Of course, there is a minimum requirement but it can be easily reduced through voting if price XTZ goes too high;
Although per (1) problem of misalignment between users and miners solved, Tezos protocol make one step further. Namely, there is self-amending mechanisms in protocol. Through of the set of voting rounds, attached bounties (via dillution), there is a deterministic path to resolve disputes in upgrading Tezos protocol. Nobody knows the future, nobody knows how protocol should look like after 5-10-20 years. That's why it's very important to have self-amending procedure. Without deterministic path to protocol upgrade, you will have fork-wars like in Bitcoin. As a result of these fork-wars, you now have Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin SV. Also, with built-in bounties via dillution, Tezos protocol guarantees funding for its further development;
There is third core idea behind Tezos protocol. Namely, formal verification friendly, low-level and explicit smart contract language - Michelson. While it's very important feature, it's not relevant for this discussion. Now imagine you are going back in time when Tezos protocol isn't implemented yet, only draft whitepaper. How would you bring it to life if you were original author? If there were no crypto-currencies, then all you have to do is to take time and implement minimum viable product (MVP) on your own. May be you might do it with co-founder but it's not really necessary for releasing the first version of protocol in absence of any competition. However, the field was already crowded and time works against you. It would be necessary for project's survival to be as fast as possible in such dynamic field. You need to raise funds to hire dozen of strong programmers to implement Tezos protocol and on top of that to fund development of ecosystem in Tezos network. Namely, wallets, higher-level languages on top of low-level Michelson, education materials for future smart contract writers, new projects similar to 0x, Maker, Compound, Cryptokitties etc. Now, I would like you to make a pause and think what is Tezos protocol. It tries to align incentives of parties using game-theoretic constructs! And now, I would like you to make second pause and think what crypto-currencies are all about in broader sense. Crypto-currencies are about eliminating centralization and unnecessary middle-mans. One of the biggest middle-mans is governments and their legal system. People who are in the space for long time should know how much crypto-currencies influenced by Austrian School of Economics (read Hayek's book "Denationalization Of Money" (1976) and early Satoshi Nakamoto's posts). With that in mind (spirit behind Tezos and crypto-currencies in general), how would you fund development of Tezos protocol and later its initial ecosystem? The correct answer is to setup decentralized autonomus organization (DAO). Initial DAO on Ethereum protocol since you don't have any Tezos protocol implementations (remember, we are still back in time!). This DAO will be used to develop Tezos protocol itself and leverage power of smart contracts to correctly align incentives for development of Tezos protocol. Namely, backers of this DAO would get ERC20 token representing voting and governance power. For example, let's say founders raised 250M USD worth in ETH and all of these money will be locked in smart contract. Only backers can unlock funds from smart contract by tranches as Tezos protocol developers making progress. It would be similar to traditional world - seed round, round A, round B etc. When Tezos mainnet goes live, backers would receive proportional amount of XTZ as their ERC20 voting tokens on Ethereum. Since that initial DAO would still have tons of ETH locked by the time Tezos mainnet released, those proceeds will be used to fund wallet developers, high-language developers, and so on (via voting by backers of course). In this scenario, I would envision that the first big project after Tezos mainnet launched would be to build trustless, decentralized bridge between Tezos blockchain and Ethereum blockchain. Simply, because it would be good to migrate intial DAO and its ETH funds into Tezos blockchain. There are only two downsides with this approach:
You can't raise funds in Bitcoin but who cares if it's 100M or even 50M (still huge amount of money);
Many people in crypto-space will make fun of you because you just setup DAO on Ethereum while developing Ethereum competitor;
Neither of these two downsides is important. Ultimate upside is that backers has direct control over how funds are spent because they would be the only ones who can unlock funds by voting for proposals. On meta-level, you would have beautiful symmetry. Namely, you develop Tezos protocol and its ecosystem, using the similar ideas and spirit as Tezos protocol itself! But we all know that it was never happened! We all know drama with Gevers who tried to capture power at Tezos Foundation. We all know that there is no RPC command in Tezos github to vote out Tezos Foundation members ;) We all know that we are not in control of Tezos Foundation. Tezos Foundation is a swiss non-profit organization with its own board and we are not part of it. Tezos Foundation is govern under Swiss law and most of you are not even Swiss citizens. Here is the question why Breitmans suddently decided to throw away all fundamental principles behind crypto-currencies and just went all-in with traditional world? Why we all got stuck with our own mini-Washington, namely Tezos Foundation? There is one reason why Breitmans decided to throw away all their principles and stick with this strange scheme involving Swiss foundations. The reason is ... socialism. You might think I'm joking but stay with me. There were roaring 1920s and following 1929 stock market crash (by the way that was actually caused by government creating credit bubble). Republican (but still a socialist) Herbert Hoover created depression from 1929 crash. Franklin Roosevelt made this depression truly great! He imposed price-controls and outright gold confiscation (check "Executive Order 6102"). One of his most terrible pieces of paternalistic socialist legislation was "Securities Act of 1933". And this is the reason why Breitmans tried so hard escape iron hand of Roosevelt's zombie. The same month as Tezos fundraiser, SEC issued statement about the most famous Ethereum DAO: https://www.sec.gov/news/press-release/2017-131 https://www.sec.gov/litigation/investreport/34-81207.pdf Basically, they tried to say that DAO violated their 1933 Securities Act (aka Roosevelt zombie). I'm not claiming that Breitmans anticipated this exact SEC statement about Ethereum DAO. All I'm saying that they are smart enough to understand that SEC might come after them as well. It doesn't matter if SEC had right to do so. It doesn't matter that XTZ is not security at all. Only people outside of hardcore old school crypto-community would believe in such non-sense as rights. The truth is that any government is essentially an army which controls a territory and they (not you!) decide what they think is right or wrong. Breitmans knew that SEC might chase them with bloody machete, so they decided to play traditional game which many played when Switzerland still had numbered accounts. Namely, using Switzerland as old-style traditional escape from Roosevelt zombies. Unfortunately, for them they got in hands of people who knew too well how actually Swiss foundations work. We all remember how Gevers tried to exploit Swiss law about foundations to seize control over foundation's assets. Now we have new drama. But fundamentally, it's all because Breitmans choose Swiss law over Ethereum smart-contracts. Don't get me wrong, I'm not blaming Breitmans. I really think that their fear of Roosevelt zombie with bloody machete led them to setup weird foundation in Switzerland. In normal circumstances, I don't see any rational reason not to setup DAO as I described above. Zooming out, on the bigger scale, you might see that these two worlds (i.e. traditional government law and crypto) are not compatible at all. You just can't have both of two worlds. For the same reason, I don't believe in STOs. It's a nice toy, a temporary thing to bootstrap your Defi ecosystem in Tezos but nothing more than that. Every STO, at some point, rely on some centralized entity which is controlled by law of some jurisdiction. Once government (aka army which control territories and make visibility of its own legitimacy via elections and passing laws) decides that your STO is not compliant, all these STO tokens will be worthless overnight. More on this in my another long post: https://www.reddit.com/MakerDAO/comments/de0sys/kyc_is_absolutely_not_acceptable_for_makerdao/ Regardless of what's happen with Tezos Foundation, I strongly believe that Tezos protocol will thrive. Mainnet went life and the jinn that can't be put back in the bottle! Update: Many here criticized my position regarding STOs. That's partly my fault with being too lax with terminology (once I wrote big post, I didn't have much energy to clarify on STOs in the end). By STO, I mean any tokens backed by regulated assets (again, I know it's lax definition). I assumed almost everyone here is for open, borderless finance. As a result of that, I assumed that you want to make these tokens available for everyone and that's why one day government will put pressure on such STO issuers to freeze tokens. However, it's turned out that some people excited for STOs being fully regulated from the start and therefore these tokens wouldn't be available for everyone. Basically, some people see main benefits of STOs as being pro-actively censorship friendly. In other words, they want to move all compliance on blockchain. Whereas, I see very existence of government regulations as root of all problems. Having said that, I'm not against STOs but I'm not very excited about them either. You have to make great mental leap to understand that fully-regulated STOs fundamentally solving wrong problem. You have to build fully censorship resistant technology, not fully censorship friendly. No matter how big market for STOs, it's still several orders of magnitude smaller than potential world of fully-inclusive finance without any borders whatsoever. Tezos is very well equipped for this ambitious task especially with new privacy features coming. Remember, Satoshi Nakamoto didn't ask permission from governments before releasing Bitcoin.
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https://preview.redd.it/hml53mmh5er41.png?width=568&format=png&auto=webp&s=3f0cd662e1836bcb2ea37793cbbbfd6f8a5e9723 Zhuling Chen It’s always great to hang out in this group. This group means a lot to the Aelf community. It is the first Aelf community and has been there through all the ups and downs in the world. I would like to start with wishing everyone is staying safe at home during the virus outbreak. It definitely has been a difficult time for all of us, but together we can pull through it. We understand that the situation is quite striking to all of us. But I really believe that the solution to the virus outbreak is about more global coordination and collaboration. All of you to be assured, our team in different places are all safe and working from home as normal. The Aelf team in Beijing were among the early ones experiencing the virus outbreak. As everyone was on the way home for Lunar New Year holiday and then experienced a total city lock-down followed by a 40 days’ work from home policy. It was definitely not easy for them, but our team stayed strong, took necessary precautions and focused on work with the right morale. Mappo has recently published some tips on how to work from home effectively based on our experience. Do check it out. Despite not working in the office since February, we have achieved great progress, including launching Aelf 1.0 preview, which is an important milestone in technical delivery and also the roadmap to mainnet launch (which listed out the essential steps for the community to work together to launch a successful public network) Let's first talk about Aelf v1.0 preview. It is the cornerstone of the mainnet launch. The product itself has all the features that the public network is needed. The codebase has been reviewed and tested rigorously by the team. And a few highlights of how the network would look like:
The code allows a stable and high throughput blockchain network to operate publicly.
For developers, they will love how flexible the system is to be customized, the number of tools and documentation to help them start developing applications on the network
For the whole community, the system is an ever-evolving one where the voting system is ready in place to conduct network-wide voting on various topics, such as transaction fee adjustment, network protocol upgrade, incentive adjustment, etc
Aelf system is able to run multi-chain architecture where each side chain will host different applications and still ready to work with each other
So you may ask since the software is ready, why have we not yet launched the public network? The answer, in short, is that a public blockchain is launched not by a team but through a community effort and that's why we are coordinating the community effort based on the roadmap we proposed. Aelf team has launched the public testnet based on Aelf v1.0 preview and currently, all nodes are under the team. The goal is to let the community and elected nodes to take it over and launch it on a global scale. Not only launch it but also be familiar with the network and also set the launch parameters in a decentralized way. If we take a car as an example, we have made the car, but ultimately the drivers are you guys and therefore before it really hits on the road, we need to guide the community to do a test drive, adjust the car based on what really works for YOU, and ultimately let YOU drive the car freely and safely So how are we going to help the community launch the network: First of all, we have launched the codes, documents about the economic system and governance model and technical features. With all the things available, you are able to understand what the system is about, as a token holder what's your benefit in the system, and being a node in the system plays a big role in the governance Next, without yet electing the nodes, we will get all token holders to join the current Aelf network through a mapping event. That means as long as you have Aelf tokens, you will be able to get 1:1 test tokens on the public testnet. that gives you full access to all the features, and you will feel like you are already using the mainnet. You will get rewarded in making transactions, voting, etc. Do try out the Aelf wallet and voting features, you will see how easy to transfer tokens cross-chain. and also how flexible the system allows people to make changes. For example, the community may want to adjust the block rewarding parameters or fees to use certain services on mainnet, they can initiate a discussion and then vote in the system and once voted through, it will be reflected on mainnet. For people or organizations that want to play a bigger role in the system, we will do a dry run of node election. Take it as the real node election before mainnet launch. We will see who the active members of the community are and being trusted by the community. Among the nodes, we will form a network launch committee. The committee will be the crucial party to oversees and ensures the smooth launch of Aelf mainnet, instead of just relying on the Aelf team. This is our step towards decentralization. The committee will agree on the actual launch process, final checking all the parameters in the system to be ready for launch and then decide when the criteria are met to launch the network. Once all that is decided. We will invite all interested nodes to apply for the election and let the community know what's their plan to grow the Aelf network. the network will initially be launched with a few nodes from the committee and gradually be replaced by the selected nodes (a bootstrap phase). Along the way, we will work with exchanges to conduct token swap (which we are also designing an innovative system to further enhance security and usability of Aelf tokens in exchanges) Among this isolated and worrisome time, at least we all have something to look forward to: a successful launch of Aelf network! Once it is launched, we are excited to see a vibrant and technically superior network that is good for Dapps to run on top of it. https://preview.redd.it/yp28n1jj5er41.png?width=559&format=png&auto=webp&s=c470cdedd7f8923f29a3b1bd777476f22cc76521 Doris Guo Q1: As a Blockchain start-up, what difficulties have you overcome when starting Aelf project? What motivates you to solve difficulties and achieve success today? Zhuling Chen First, just like launching any start-up, its community and investors are usually regional. There is always some bias on if Asian projects are solid. It is really rare to have an Asian project to be supported by western funds and community from day 1. We were lucky to have overcome that obstacle. Having a global investor line-up from day 1. Having a global team from day 1 and also working with a global community from day 1. This benefited us to have an international perspective which is crucial in the blockchain industry. Secondly, as a hardcore technology company, it is really hard to put in plain words what is our ambition. Our ambition is huge, achieving key innovations in multiple fronts of blockchain technology and organically combined them to serve real users for the future. Our marketing team has been working really hard to elaborate on what Aelf is. Now we have come to a point that the product is ready. Therefore, it is much easier for all of us to understand how solid Aelf is by trying out the network ourselves! That's exactly what the following events will be about - Try out all the exciting features of Aelf network before mainnet launch. Doris Guo Q2: What critical problems do you see occurring in the blockchain industry nowadays? How does Aelf solve these problems? Haobo Ma First, we need to distinguish the difference between BTC and ETH. One is Digital Cash and the other is the Smart Contract Platform. Aelf addresses most of the latter's problems. In short, it can be summarized as performance, end-user friendly, developer-friendly, network economy, and self-governance and upgrading. Each of these areas will probably take up a lot of space, and as a whole are the issues described in our two white papers. In short, Aelf is faster, end-users do not need to know the rules of the blockchain, developers can set up the development environment in 10 minutes, have a good economic model and can carry out proposal governance on the chain. Doris Guo Q3: What is your long-term vision about the industry which Aelf is working at? Are you afraid someday there will be another project with more innovative technology can replace Aelf? Haobo Ma Let's talk about where Aelf stands in the traditional Internet. It is essentially a cloud service provider, Aelf provides resources and infrastructure for developers to deploy their services, known as smart contracts. We eventually want Aelf to grow like AAA (Amazon, Azure, AliCloud). Because Aelf is a network that can be dynamically scaled, we can accept any new technology, some of the more advanced technologies we can put on a side chain. Doris Guo Q4: Why did Aelf choose for cross-chain interaction? Haobo Ma As I mentioned earlier, Aelf solves the Smart Contract Platform problem. However, there are other digital cash problems as well which we would need to use existing infrastructure such as Bitcoin's chain in order to interact with Bitcoin. There are a lot of infrastructures on Ethereum that we want to interact with. Multi-chain on Aelf network mainly is to isolate resources to improve network performance and network stability. Doris Guo Q5: What difficulties do the Aelf team have now (I talk about COVID-19)? How does the Aelf team solve it? Have you changed the roadmap? Haobo Ma There is no great impact. The teams in Singapore and Beijing are communicating with each other remotely on a regular basis. The only change is that most of us are now working from home which has no impact and in fact, it seems conducive to the acceptance of more community developers in the future to come. From the internal working schedule and development timeline, there is no great impact. We do not publish specific timeline as we do not want short term holders (traders) to create too much negative pressure on product development. Doris Guo Q6: Aelf is an open-source blockchain, and there's the common problem of taking a substantial amount of time for the different participants to agree on strategic decisions. What types of governance models do you use in Aelf to address this issue??? Haobo Ma The issue is about public blockchain network, and who can decide the direction of the network. Our answer is long-term holders. For the short-term holders (traders), we refuse to allow them to participate in any discussion of the direction of Aelf because the short-term holders are likely to make a profit and sell quickly, which is essentially the same example of a person who cheats the President and then runs away for his personal gain. We defined a number of proposal processes, including the logic of the two-party system in the United States, and the participation in the referendum to ensure that the final proposal represents the majority. At the same time, we are looking for some legal solutions to avoid bifurcation, such as prohibiting exchanges from intervening in bifurcated new tokens. While we cannot limit a community, we should be able to find ways to limit a centralized organization. This restriction is akin to a ban on national secession. Doris Guo Q7: How will Aelf empower Investors, Companies, Developers, Platform Users to deliver impactful solutions and bring value to people all over the world? Haobo Ma We will learn from the operational experience of successful foundations such as the LINUX foundation and license some commercial companies to use Aelf solutions to solve business problems. At the same time, Aelf is an open-source product under the MIT License, and we accept any use that does not violate this open-source principle. Zhuling Chen Let me add on to Haobo’s statement: to incentivize and empower the community, we are also exploring ways to let the community decide how to use the funds for Aelf (allocate to where it matters to our community) once mainnet is launched. This means you guys can decide what are the projects to be funded on Aelf, etc Doris Guo Q8：When will the node campaign start? How will Aelf attract users to participate in nodes election? Haobo Ma According to our published roadmap, the timeline can be dynamic, but I don't think it will be too long. The main idea is to let everyone understand what we envision Aelf to be like, and what are the rights and benefits of being a node in the future. We hope to find nodes that fully recognize the efforts of Aelf at the present stage and are willing to participate in the future development of Aelf. We will run a simulation of the node campaign on the testnet and set up a temporary mainnet launch committee. Please follow our official Twitter for more upcoming details! Doris Guo Q9: Token swap form 2 is some kind of cross-chain transfer? It will be handled by a smart contract? Haobo Ma It is handled by the smart contract, we define an asset cross-chain transfer protocol, but it may be opened after a snapshot. Doris Guo Q10: Which Exchanges will support token swap? Do you have any plan to list Aelf in some big exchange like Binance, Houbi, Kucoin, .......? Haobo Ma We are already in talks with some exchanges, there is still competition between exchanges, and many are still hoping to attract more users by getting access to mainnet token swap early. Doris Guo Q11: Aside conversion of the current tokens to mainnet tokens, what other main features will be accomplished with the mainnet launch? Haobo Ma We have a documentation file that has been published, which has listed some features: https://Aelf.io/gridcn/Aelf_public_testnet_and_supporting_features_introduction_en_v1.0.pdf Doris Guo Q12: Do you have any plan to burn or buyback your coin? Haobo Ma We have plans for the community to govern through DAO, we have no interest in short-term price incentive adjustment as we would prefer to drive the project to higher adoption. After mainnet starts operation, there will be a part of network revenue get destroyed automatically. Doris Guo Q13: Often, as a newbie developer, I face difficulties on most blockchains. How easy and convenient is it for me on Aelf, and what programming language and tools are needed?? Haobo Ma We set up staging for DAPP developers on GitHub and configured CI. Develop a smart contract using C# with React Native on the front end. So, in fact, developers can fork the source code without setting up the environment locally, and you can conduct unit testing with the help of CI. You can also release the smart contract and generate the installation package of iOS and android online. https://github.com/AElfProject/Aelf-boilerplate Doris Guo Q14: What is the progress of business development and what are some of your commercial partnerships? How will Aelf rapidly develop the number & performance of DAPP? Haobo Ma First of all, the blockchain industry is still fairly small and users with ETH and EOS wallets are considered a very small group and its not effective to even promote within these groups. What we need to consider is how to enable users who have never been exposed to blockchain to use DAPP. The competitiveness of Aelf is to make it easier for Aelf developers to promote their DAPP to ordinary users, rather than to teach ordinary users a lot on blockchain knowledge. The average user doesn't like to hear about private keys, mnemonic, Gas Price, RAM, CPU, etc. Only until we solve such problems, companies that need to solve problems through blockchain will be more inclined to use Aelf in technology selection. Therefore, our main work is to explain the competitive advantages of Aelf, ETH and EOS to everyone. We have some business cooperation’s, but we also believe that simply through case-by-case business cooperation will not be able to gain adoption so quickly, therefore we still need to put our products to stay ahead of the next generation. Doris Guo Q15: What other activities can encourage more people to be confident about Aelf? Haobo Ma We are only going to state the truth by having those that have faith in us to stay and those that don't to leave. The development of Aelf is not driven by a single foundation, but by a steady stream of contributions from the community. In the future, we will also place the activities in the DAO for on-chain governance, and let the community make decisions by itself. https://preview.redd.it/e66vhqvl5er41.png?width=555&format=png&auto=webp&s=412a2dd831ba3817806e48855f158482bf671770 Kun Aguero As you know that in the present market situation many new coins or either dying or thriving for liquidity? How will you manage this liquidity problem? Zhuling Chen Aelf started in 2017. we have gone through a few cycles in the market, still, remember the big down period in 2018-2019. Aelf is financially solid and the team has always been working hard. if you are referring to liquidity in exchanges, we are among the lucky ones that are listed in all major exchanges Xinshu Dong Hello, great discussions! I would like to ask what are the criteria to join the committee for launching the mainnet? Would love to participate Zhuling Chen Hi xinshu, great to see you here. The committee will be chosen among the nodes elected during the testnet dry run. Which means, it is really important to participate in the testnet dry run and also start to establish your reputation in the community so that people will elect you as a node. The detailed criteria will include what is your plan to help Aelf to grow, tech competency and reputation. An Da What are Aelf’s achievements in 2019? Who had supported you to get those things? Zhuling Chen To name a few, in 2019, Aelf is one of the most active projects on GitHub. This means Aelf is evolving and improving fast in this space and our team has the tech strength. In addition, we have also successfully listed on all major cloud service providers, such as AWS, Azure, Google. So large companies can easily launch Aelf side chains in their organization with minimum hassle. John How does the voting for master nodes candidates occur? And why is the development of this system important for your project? Zhuling Chen Voting is going to be pretty simple. All token holders can vote for the nodes they support on our block explorer. Miha After mainnet lunch, how will you assure that transactional fees will stay low? We know what sometimes happens to fees on ETH blockchain. Zhuling Chen First of all, due to the fact that is Aelf is scalability, this will reduce transaction fee. Secondly, all transaction fees will be voted by the nodes (which will be elected by you). So they will represent your interest Bobbyfernandito Currently, as we see All projects are concerned with the speed and security. So, tell us here - what are the facilities Aelf provide to their user and investors? Haobo Ma Security: we have an automated smart contract code audit. During contract deployment, production nodes and the community audit participation are required. On the other hand, we are also planning to provide a standardized model of centralized exchange access for 100% asset certification and emergency measures to deal with exchange attacks, which we will be released later. Speed: Aelf has been working on improving performance, which is transparent to users which they can also experience by themselves. An Da What effect does Aelf token have on the Aelf ecosystem? Holding Aelf, what benefits will users receive? Zhuling Chen Holding ELF enables you to use all the services on the Aelf network. ELF has a deflating system where the total amount will reduce as the network grows. token holders can also vote for the nodes to run the network and also vote for big decisions in the network. part of the fees in the system will also be distributed to token holders via a smart contract ahihi132 Which companies do you view them as potential partners and that they are somewhat also beneficial for both the user base and Aelf itself? Zhuling Chen Great question, if I could write a wish list, that will be: let medium-sized financial institutions to use Aelf to challenge the big boys. Let telecommunication companies use Aelf for micro-payment and other innovative business models. We also would like to try out a few public sector projects, which blockchain will is still more transparency and trust Misun Q1: Which programming languages are you using in your project? And why? Q2-What are another big MILESTONES you have planned for 2020 roadmap and how are they supposed to benefit your costumers? Will it be an exciting year? Haobo Ma For Q1: We mainly use C# for development, I personally like it. Performance is good, development environment IDEs are strong, and C# creators are influential in the industry. We believe in the right thing, though it may take a while to develop. The smart contract will then add support for multiple languages, such as WebAssembly, depending on the needs of the community. Now it seems that C# is enough. Hambi crypto Which platforms are your competitors? How will you soar above them, and what better things do you offer than them? So, What’s your outlook on the future of cryptocurrencies in this year and next few years? Haobo Ma As I have already mentioned this before, Eth and Eos. We provide better performance, cross-chain support (already implemented), end-users do not need to know the details of the blockchain, developer’s payment models and so on. Floris-Jan What plans is Aelf making to prevent centralized exchange to take over the DPoS algorithm like what happened to Steem? Are we talking about blacklisting exchange wallets, or having the foundation say "No", or putting all trust in the community? Zhuling Chen Great question, Floris. I’m not going to give away all the details of what Haobo has proposed to work on this, but in a nutshell, in Aelf system, exchange wallets will not be allowed to vote, but only the sub-wallets for each individual can vote. This will also help exchanges to prevent hacking and theft in the future Alex What your plans in place for global expansion, are Aelf wallet focusing on the only market at this time? Or focus on building and developing or getting customers and users, or partnerships? Can you explain this? Haobo Ma Our core focus will be through the developers to promote, developers will help Aelf to attract more users. So our product has to be attractive to developers. Just like AWS, they only focus on getting their service right, their developers will think about how to promote it. We don't want to burden them in their promotion process. Ellkay What do you think are the major threats and barriers that could face the development and adoption of Aelf? Haobo Ma If I'm a DAPP developer and I need to promote my APP to people who don't recognize blockchain, then I'd like to choose a platform that doesn't have to explain a lot of blockchain details to the end-user, so they can use it easily. We've provided some options in the Boilerplate that allow you to log-in simply via QR code + Password, and our recommended Dapp is an independent wallet and a separate iOS/Android application. ahihi132 Give me some important reasons why we need to hold Aelf token where in fact hundreds of projects failed and it went to bankruptcy or even developers run when they collect millions/billions of funds? Haobo Ma First of all, we will not give any suggestions as we only describe the fact that the long-term token holder will be able to govern the Aelf network, get Aelf mining reward and Aelf network profit. At the same time, Aelf network is a deflation model, Aelf network received transaction fees, profit dividends will immediately destroy 10% etc. All investments are risky, and we don't judge the behaviour of other developers. There are so many things in this world that cannot be understood and unfair. It is important to do our job well. I cannot explain these things. 胖见愁 I remember that boss Ma mentioned to only find those truly innovative applications and enterprises with blockchain, how to find and win partners in these aspects? Haobo Ma When Linus was developing Linux, I did not think he would find a lot of collaboration when the code was not good. The response we can give is that we already have a lot of interest in cooperation, including what we have announced, what we have not announced, etc. 胖见愁 How interested are cloud computing providers in participating nodes? Haobo Ma The vast majority of our nodes should be using cloud services, and as long as a large number of our 17 nodes and other candidate nodes are based on cloud services, our network robustness is determined by these cloud computing providers. Of course, in the expansion, we can also use cloud computing services.
What Is KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT: HOW KBB 2.0 METHOD WORKS
KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT BY TONY ROBBINS AND DEAN GRAZIOSI
Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a new winning playbook formula and online business training program created by mastermind legends Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi and their proprietary MindMint software. Knowledge Broker Blueprint is the newest 2020 version of Knowledge Business Blueprint which launched in April 2019 (which had over 200,000 people watching its release and over 16,000 people joined). The KBB 2.0 is set up to focus on three core components; course (education), software (tools) and coaching (mastermind). Dean and Tony are looking to make a lightning strike twice following the success of KBB 1.0. Now with KBB 2.0, they claim to have come back bigger and better than ever to help people start winning at the game of life and business. A “Knowledge Broker” is defined as a person with skill, passion or expertise that shares it with others to create impact and earn profits. Tony and Dean both believe being a Knowledge Broker is the single best thing you can do as an entrepreneur as people are voting with their wallets and paying to learn from professional DOERS instead. That is the central theme of the Knowledge Broker Blueprint Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi put together for the launch of KBB 2.0. While there is still more information coming out about the launch of KBB 2.0, here are all of the top-level details we can share about Knowledge Broker Blueprint to start:
Name: Knowledge Broker Blueprint
Creator: Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi
Date: February 27, 2020 at 8PM EST (sign up starts February 19th)
Event Format: Free omni-present livecast training webinar online
Tagline: The Winning PlayBook
Slogan: “This mission is something that holds a lot of meaning to both of us” ~ Tony and Dean
Host: Tony and Dean and possibly surprise guest (Russell Brunson or Stu McLaren)
Description: How to become a professional Knowledge Broker
Cost: free to attend and watch
Goal: to empower entrepreneurs with expertise and knowledge to share and extract their wisdom with the world to make the new norm all about self-education
What to do Next: Reserve your Spot right now
Tony Robbins has teamed up with Dean Graziosi to launch a new online training program called Knowledge Broker Blueprint. “KBB” claims it will be one of the biggest online business training course launches in history. While more information is surfacing about the winning playbook found within KBB 2.0, our review of Knowledge Broker Blueprint is broken down into three major sections so you can get a complete overview of what it is, how it works, and what to expect. To best understand Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi's Knowledge Broker Blueprint program, our research is in the following format that explores all aspects of KBB 2.0: 1) what is knowledge broker blueprint review 2) who is Tony Robbins 3) Knowledge Broker World Summit Now, before we jump right into the Knowledge Broker Blueprint review, there is one small minor detail worth mentioning – and that is Tony Robbins fondness of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. Back during the last bull market cycle for crypto assets, Tony Robbins did share a tweet that helped clear up the confusion around Bitcoin with his millions of followers and fans. Also, in addition to tweeting and writing blog posts about bitcoin to educate his audience, he also featured bitcoin in his #1 New York best-selling book, Money: Master the Game where he talked about proper asset allocation in a book where he interviewed the brightest minds and most brilliant financial innovators in the world. While Knowledge Broker Blueprint isn't focused on bitcoin or cryptocurrencies, it is about business and the future of financial success. This is why Master The Crypto wanted to review Knowledge Broker Blueprint as a fantastic way to self-educate and learn from the right people as the best way to secure success today. Now, let's dive into all of the research and provide meaningful insight and analysis to how Knowledge Broker Blueprint works, who Tony Robbins is and their Knowledge Broker World Summit event coming up in 2020.
WHAT IS THE KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT?
Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi have teamed up to launch the Knowledge Broker Blueprint. It’s a combination of a business development plan and a personal development plan. The Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a live-cast that will take place on February 27. You can opt into the live-cast between February 19 and 26. Some of the key features of the Knowledge Broker Blueprint include:
A business and personal development program introduced by Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi
Guides you through the success secrets of “masterminds” like Oprah, Richard Branson, Steve Jobs, Elon Musk, and Mark Zuckerberg
Shares the personal and business strategies used by the professionals
Explains how to leverage their tactics to become a successful “mastermind”
Uses MindMint software to provide you with the tools you need for success
The idea behind Knowledge Broker Blueprint is that you can discover the strategies used by some of today’s most successful individuals. What are these people doing to be successful? Knowledge Broker Blueprint claims to teach you these lessons. The 2020 version of Knowledge Broker Blueprint is officially called Knowledge Broker Blueprint 2.0. It’s the second version of this system.
HOW DOES KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT WORK?
Knowledge Broker Blueprint, also abbreviated to KBB, is an online course consisting of four modules. The creators of KBB are calling it one of the biggest online course launches in history. The initial live cast announcing the launch of Knowledge Broker Blueprint had over 250,000 viewers worldwide. That live cast was hosted by Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi. In the words of the course’s creator, the course “teaches you how to extract your knowledge, skill, hobby or passion (or someone else’s)”, then identity the people willing to pay for that unique skill or knowledge. What type of “thing” do you do more effectively than anyone else? What type of knowledge do you have that people may be willing to pay for? While progressing through the Knowledge Broker Blueprint course, you will use the MindMint software. The software keeps track of your progress. That’s why Knowledge Broker Blueprint is more than just an education program or software system: it’s a combination of both. Together, the education program and software promise to “allow anyone to start or scale a highly impactful and highly profitable mastermind, group, workshop or community.” Some people might think, “I don’t even have any unique skills. I can barely use a computer.” That’s fine! As the creator of Knowledge Broker Blueprint explains: “It doesn’t mater if you don’t have any tech skills or any previous business experience. Everything you need to know is provided in this training program by 3 of the greatest entrepreneurs of our generation.”
WHAT WILL YOU LEARN IN KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT?
Knowledge Broker Blueprint isn’t your typical training course. The entire purpose of the course is to teach you how to leverage your unique knowledge into personal profit. As the name of the course suggests, Knowledge Broker Blueprint will give you the blueprint you need to broker your knowledge. As a “knowledge broker”, you are selling your unique knowledge to the world. What type of information can you leverage today? What kind of unique knowledge or skills do you have that people are willing to pay for? The ultimate goal is to teach you how to run your own mastermind group or mastermind event. The Knowledge Broker Blueprint course gives you all of the tools you need to set up your mastermind group, the market that mastermind group to the world, and maximize profit from that group. Keep in mind that you don’t need to know anything to run a mastermind group. Some people run profitable mastermind groups simply by inviting smarter people to the event. If you could get Oprah Winfrey, Elon Musk, and Bill Gates into one room, don’t you think people would buy a ticket? That’s an extreme example, but that’s the type of thinking behind Knowledge Broker Blueprint.
WHAT’S INCLUDED WITH KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT?
Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a completely online course. You get video tutorials, resources, exercises, downloadable worksheets, and access to a private Facebook group. Here’s what you get with Knowledge Broker Blueprint:
Access to a Private Facebook Group
Four Training Modules:
Lessons within Each Training Module
Training Videos within Each Lesson
Each training video ranges in length from 7 minutes to 30 minutes. However, there are some longer training videos that dive deep into topics like Facebook and YouTube advertisements. The downloadable PDF worksheets, meanwhile, can be printed off before you start a lesson. Fill in the worksheets as you go along. Or, test your knowledge after (or both). It will help you retain the information from the lesson. Each lesson is also followed by a quiz to verify that you retained the knowledge. In other words, there’s a lot of content with Knowledge Broker Blueprint. The hours of video will teach you everything you need to know about creating your own mastermind program. Tony and Dean have packaged years of experience in these videos. They’re distilling their combined 60+ years of industry experience into one concise training program. If you’re willing to put in the work, you can get a lot of priceless information from Knowledge Broker Blueprint.
WHAT IS MINDMINT SOFTWARE?
Knowledge Broker Blueprint 2.0 comes with a software called MintMint. The software walks you through the entire process of setting up an event, including the initial announcement of the event, marketing for the event, planning, execution, and more. Essentially, MindMint has everything you need to ensure your mastermind event goes off smoothly – and profitably. MindMint also organizes event information in one place. You can keep information about the trainers, speakers, attendees together, for example, along with the information about the schedule, key dates, and more. MindMint doesn’t just help plan and organize the event: the software also helps you create a sales funnel for the event. You can get help with everything from your landing page to your final payment page. In summary, here’s what’s included with the MindMint software: Planning Support: Event scheduling, itinerary, attendees, hosts, and more. Announcement Support: Build hype, marketing support, email templates, sales copy, and more Sales Funnel: Landing page, templates, payment pages, marketing, and more. And More: MindMint is an all-in-one software that contains everything you need to know about running your own mastermind event from beginning to end.
KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT MODULES
We mentioned above that Knowledge Broker Blueprint comes with four modules, including Extract It, Fill It, Run It, and Knowledge Broker. Below, we’ll explain what you’ll learn in each of those modules:
1. EXTRACT IT
The first module, Extract It, begins with Tony Robbins explaining some crucial lessons on mindset. How do successful people think? What strategies do successful people do differently on a daily basis? Tony Robbins uses his 40+ years of self-help experience to explain the secret mindsets of successful people. Then, Dean breaks down the most important foundational steps you’ll need to cover before creating a business, including:
Identifying your own expertise
Defining your ideal client
The art of storytelling
A framework for teaching within your mastermind group
A toolbox of exercises for you and your students
How to create your first mastermind group itinerary
2. FILL IT
In the second module, Fill It, Tony and Dean will explain marketing tactics to promote your mastermind group. Dean and other experts will teach you how to become a marketing expert with topics like:
Strategies used by today’s top marketing experts
How to create a successful landing page and sales funnel
An explanation of Dean’s Marketing Wagon Wheel and how to implement it
Lessons on running social media advertising, email marketing, and affiliate campaigns
How to build the perfect order page and application page
Secrets of a successful and profitable launch
3. RUN IT
Run It explains the strategies you need to execute your successful event. You’ve developed your event and marketed it. Now you need to pull it off and amaze attendees. Some of the strategies covered in the third module include:
The ideal mastermind event formula
Virtual event templates, outlines, and checklists
How to create a perfect in-person event
How to prepare for the mastermind event, including a final checklist
4. KNOWLEDGE BROKER
Finally, Knowledge Broker lists three aspects of running your own mastermind group, including:
Facilitating a mastermind for someone else as a knowledge broker
Getting an expert to let you in as a knowledge broker
Putting the foundational pieces in place for a winning business
BONUS PRODUCTS INCLUDED WITH KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT
As an early Knowledge Broker Blueprint adopter, you get access to several bonus lessons, including: Tony Robbins’ Ultimate Edge: Four-part audio system explaining how to create an extraordinary and successful life. Dean’s Inner Circle: Highlights from Dean’s best Inner Circle training lessons. Tony Robbins’ Platinum Bonus: Recordings from experts like Jack Bogle and Peter Mallouk. Russel Brunson’s Mastermind Funnels: Secrets to setting up bulletproof sales funnels. Tony Robbins’ Priming Exercise: How to give yourself a winning mindset.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQS) ABOUT KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT
Q: On What Day Will the Knowledge Broker Blueprint Livecast Take Place? A: The Knowledge Broker Blueprint livecast will take place on February 27, 2020. Q: Who is Tony Robbins? A: Tony Robbins is a motivational speaker, author, business consultant, and self-help expert. Robbins rose to prominence in the 1980s and 1990s with infomercials and national bestselling books. Today, he continues to be relevant to seminars and other events. Q: What is the Knowledge Broker Blueprint? A: The Knowledge Broker Blueprint is an online training course that teaches you how to launch your own mastermind event from beginning to end. It explains how to “broker” knowledge: you’re collecting knowledge (either from yourself or others) and selling that knowledge to the world. Q: What is a Mastermind Group? A: A mastermind group is a group or event where you share unique knowledge, skills, or experience with the world. Q: Is Knowledge Broker Blueprint Legit? A: Knowledge Broker Blueprint is marketing itself as one of the biggest online course launches in history. There’s a lot of content here, and the course is certainly legitimate. The fact that Tony Robbins has signed on is a big deal. Q: What is KnowledgeBusinessBlueprint? A: In 2019, the same team launched a similar event called Knowledge Business Blueprint. In 2020, the team is launching a new event called Knowledge Broker Blueprint, although the two share similar strategies. Q: Who is Dean Graziosi? A: Dean Graziosi is an author, investor, entrepreneur, and trainer who grew from poverty to wealth. Today, he teaches others how to replicate that success. Graziosi is leading the Knowledge Broker Blueprint training system in partnership with Tony Robbins. Now, this concludes our comprehensive review of Knowledge Broker Blueprint – but there is much more ground to cover to understand how Dean Graziosi and Tony Robbins came to be the legends they are today in the world of online business and entrepreneurship. Next, let's revisit the incredible life and story of Tony Robbins, the pioneering Mastermind guru behind KBB 2.0.
WHO IS TONY ROBBINS?
Tony Robbins is an American author, life coach, and philanthropist. The Los Angeles-based entrepreneur is best-known for his infomercials, seminars, and self-help books, including the books Unlimited Power (published in 1987) and Awaken the Giant Within (published in 1993). Over the years, Robbins has worked individually with clients ranging from Bill Clinton to Wayne Gretzky to Steve Wynn. By the early 1990s, an estimated 100 million Americans had viewed Tony Robbins infomercials. Many of his books have also become national bestsellers.
TONY ROBBINS: EARLY LIFE AND BIO
Tony Robbins was born in North Hollywood, California on February 29, 1960. He claims to have had a “chaotic” and “abusive” home life throughout his childhood. Robbins is the eldest of three children, and his parents divorced when he was seven. His mother remarried multiple times, including to a former semi-professional baseball player named Jim Robbins, who legally adopted Tony when he was 12. Tony Robbins was born Anthony J. Mahavoric, although he changed his name to Anthony Jay Robbins after being adopted by Jim Robbins. Although he once went under the name Anthony Robbins, he now mostly goes by Tony Robbins. When Robbins was 17 years old, he left home and never returned. He later worked as a janitor, and he never attended college. Robbins began his career promoting events for motivational speaker and author Jim Rohn. In the early 1980s, Robbins developed techniques of neurolinguistic programming (NLP), hypnosis, and firewalking, incorporating these techniques into his seminars. In 1987, Robbins published his first self-help book. In 1988, Robbins released his first infomercial, advertising himself as a “peak performance coach”. Robbins’ career took off shortly after. His infomercials later featured celebrities like Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Fran Tarkenton and actor Martin Sheen. Robbins claimed to be able to help anyone – from athletes to business people to actors – unlock their maximum potential. By 1991, an estimated 100 million Americans had viewed Robbins’ infomercials. Over the years, Robbins has worked individually with many notable names, including Bill Clinton, Wayne Gretzky, Serena Williams, Hugh Jackman, Pitbull, and Justin Tuck. Robbins is also trusted by some of America’s most notable business names, including Golden State Warriors co-owner Peter Guber and businessmen Steven Wynn and Marc Benioff. In more recent years, he has positioned himself as not just a self-help coach but also has a valuable business consultant.
TONY ROBBINS BIO: WHAT IS HE DOING TODAY?
Although he achieved initial success in the 1980s and 1990s, Tony Robbins continues to be relevant today. In 2015 and 2016, Robbins was listed on the Worth Magazine Power 100 list. In 2014, Robbins made headlines for teaming up with Mia Hamm, Magic Johnson, and Peter Guber to acquire the rights to the Los Angeles Football Club (LAFC). Along with the LA Galaxy, LAFC is one of two MLS soccer teams in the Los Angeles area. They entered the league in 2018. In 2016, Robbins got into eSports, purchasing Team Liquid, one of the best-known teams in the industry. In 2019, the top three names on the Worth Magazine Power 100 list included Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, China President and General Secretary Xi Jinping, and United States President Donald Trump. The magazine has ranked the top 100 most powerful people in the world every year since 2010. Tony Robbins also continues to organize seminars through Robbins Research International. Robbins has starred in infomercials since the 1980s. Today, the 59-year old motivational speaker has teamed up with Dean Graziosi to launch a program called the Knowledge Broker Blueprint.
TONY ROBBINS UNLIMITED POWER (1987)
To understand Tony Robbins and his success, it helps to understand his self-help books. Tony Robbins’ first big hit, Unlimited Power, became a national bestseller. The book teaches you how to achieve a successful life. In Unlimited Power, Robbins covers topics like:
How to find out what you really want
“The Seven Lies of Success”
How to reprogram your mind in minutes to eliminate fears and phobias
How to create instant rapport with anyone you meet
How to duplicate the success of others
“The Five Keys to Wealth and Happiness”
The book was well-reviewed, and it remains a classic self-help book even in 2020, 33 years after first being published.
TONY ROBBINS AWAKEN THE GIANT WITHIN (1993)
Six years after publishing Unlimited Power, Tony Robbins published his second self-help hit: Awaken the Giant Within. The book is subtitled, “How to Take Immediate Control of Your Mental, Emotional, Physical, and Financial Destiny”. Robbins walks readers through a step-by-step program that teaches fundamental lessons of self-mastery, including how to discover your true purpose, take control of your life, and harness the forces that shape your destiny. Robbins tells you how to manage your emotions, your body, your finances, and your life. To date, Robbins has sold over one million copies of Awaken the Giant Within, and it became a #1 national bestseller soon after launch. Now that Master The Crypto has covered who Tony Robbins is and how Knowledge Broker Blueprint works, let's give an overview of their upcoming event happening in October 2020 that coincides with KBB 2.0.
KNOWLEDGE BROKER WORLD SUMMIT
There are many different ways to learn a new skill, a new trade, or just about anything else. Although the conventional option is to read books, those who are looking for guidance from the expert themselves may want to attend a symposium. One particular program that has received some popularity in recent months is the Knowledge Broker World Summit. According to the program, a knowledge broker is a person with skill, passion, or expertise who shares it with the world for impact and profit. Two individuals head the Knowledge Broker World Summit: Dean Graziosi and Tony Robbins. Graziosi is a best-selling author, entrepreneur, and investor. As for Robbins, is a business chairman and strategist.
KNOWLEDGE BROKER WORLD SUMMIT SPEAKERS
Aside from hearing from Graziosi and Robbins, you’ll also hear from other speakers who can share their knowledge and experience in a conductive manner. For instance, a few of the attendee speakers include:
Peak performance expert and social media icon Ed Mylett
Expert entrepreneur and podcaster Jenna Kutcher
Clickfunnels co-founder Russel Brunson
High-performance coach Brendon Burchard
Leading life coach Marie Forleo
Advance Your Reach CEO Pete Vargas
Additional speakers are being released as well. Those who register for the program and get their tickers will be notified of the new speakers are they are announced.
WHAT TO EXPECT
The Knowledge Broker World Summit is an event that may be able to provide attendees with guidance concerning how to achieve your goals and desires. As the program platform explains it shares education and wisdom on how to achieve abundance, fulfillment, and success. In addition, it provides direction on how attendees can escape the 9-5 grind, how they can create a legacy, and how to discover the “new you.” Keep in mind that while it all sounds promising, it is important to be aware that these are guiding principles. What may work for one individual does not always work for all.
There is also feedback from various individuals on what they “have to say” about the Graziosi and Robbins. It is unknown whether the comments are directed at the program. Nonetheless, the comments on the website are from Serena Williams, Larry King, Richard Branson, and Marie Menounos. Further, the comments are quite positive as well.
Those who are interested in the program have several ticket options available, which are as follows: Option 1: Executive Seating for $323.00. This ticket option comes with 3-day access to the event and general entrance and seating. It also includes exclusive Knowledge Broker merchandise available at the live summit Option 2: Preferred Seating. This ticket option comes with 3-day access to the vent, preferred entrance and seating, and Knowledge Broker merchandise available at the live summit Option 3: VIP. This ticker option comes with 3-day access to the event, VIP entrance and seating, and VIP networking party. It also includes Knowledge Broker merchandise available at the live summit The tickets can be purchased on the platform’s website. Now, let's conclude our Knowledge Broker Blueprint review and get ready for an incredible launch and presentation by two legendary entrepreneurs who are self-educated and bringing their knowledge to the world via KBB 2.0.
FINAL WORD ON KNOWLEDGE BROKER BLUEPRINT
Tony Robbins is a self-help master who rose to prominence in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, he’s a valued business consultant, author, and motivational speaker. The fact that he has partnered with Dean Graziosi to launch Knowledge Broker Blueprint is a big deal. These guys are both household names in the online business industry and have already done this once with the Knowledge Business Blueprint. With KBB 1.0, they learned, grew, and got vital intel and feedback from their members. Now they have revamped everything for the creation of KBB 2.0 and are promising it to be unlike anything you have ever seen in the world of online marketing and entrepreneurialship. As the saying goes with all of Master The Crypto's guides, analysis and insights – there are two things every aspiring successful person must do to achieve success optimally: 1) follow the right people 2) act on the right information Tony Robbins and Dean Graziosi are the right people to follow and Knowledge Broker Blueprint is the right information to act on. Their three-step process found within the Knowledge Broker Blueprint course (education), software (tools) and coaching (mastermind) is guaranteed to be dynamic, dynamite and dominant. The Knowledge Broker Blueprint livecast will take place on February 27, 2020. Set your calendars. Be sure not to miss the free live KBB 2.0 event and be prepared to be blown away by two industry giants and their legendary methods for teaching people how to create success, freedom and wealth in life.
From the earliest starting point, it was a riddle. In 2008, somebody utilizing the moniker Satoshi Nakamoto distributed a paper to a cryptography mailing list. It was called Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Much to anyone's dismay that, at its tallness, it would build up a whole market (the crypto showcase) esteemed at $800B. That is more cash than Coca Cola, McDonald's, Ford, Caterpillar, Nike, Nintendo, and Goldman Sachs consolidated. What's more, presently, with that enormous fortune behind it, some think this single PDF can possibly overturn the whole worldwide financial industry. On one side of this fight is a gathering of obscure cyrptographers competing to cut down business as usual. On the opposite side is the United States government, the European Union, JPMorgan Chase, and Deutsche Bank. Money making governments over the globe, if truly tested, will persevere relentlessly to keep control of their financial frameworks. They'll likely locate an all around financed partner in the 50-trillion-dollar banking industry. The War on Money may be the most basic war of the cutting edge period in light of the fact that the victor will choose the destiny of creating economies, tax collection, expansion, fear based oppression, and — quite possibly — democracy itself. You'd think with that much in question, the creator of this infamous paper would step into the spotlight. During Bitcoin's fleeting ascent, as the maker's close to home riches outperformed one billion dollars, you'd envision someone would reveal him. What's more, when his riches arrived at an expected $19.4B, you'd accept the IRS would come thumping. In any case, no one has even had the option to find the baffling Nakamoto. What's more, that is part Bitcoin's allure. For the individuals who don't have the foggiest idea, Bitcoin resembles an advanced dollar. In 2009, it was worth short of what one-tenth of one penny, and in 2017, it was worth $20,000. Inside a couple of days, it tends to be worth half or twice to such an extent. Its worth vacillates quickly. That is one of its issues. Yet, the best part about Bitcoin is the one thing that doesn't change. On the off chance that you recognize what you're doing, it's difficult to find. It's generally unknown. It's the unknown piece that is pulled in light of a legitimate concern for everyone from tax criminals to medicate dealers to fraudsters. By its very nature, Bitcoin is difficult to control. What's more, something that is difficult to control makes it simple to swindle a great deal of laws to make a huge amount of cash. https://preview.redd.it/v69utlsazeh41.jpg?width=275&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f9a5cd1dedd298856bf5219feb8141ccb44ab41e On the off chance that you would've purchased $10 worth of Bitcoin in 2009, you'd be perched on a cool $200M at the present time. That is the sort of news feature the normal individual focuses on. So news systems began announcing it. Your companions began getting it. What's more, it appeared anyone who put a couple of bucks into Bitcoin was getting the money for out with basins of gold. So the franticness started, in 2017, when Bitcoin went from a play-toy of technologists and an empowering influence of sorted out wrongdoing to a typical speculation held by pretty much everybody's grandmother. I'm not here to disclose to you that Bitcoin is an air pocket, since I am not even close to able to demonstrate that. Specialists are as yet discussing if Bitcoin is a ware, a security, a store of significant worth, a cash, or some out and out new resource class completely. Due to this I won't start to evaluate the genuine estimation of Bitcoin. I'm not by any means sure it bodes well to. What's more, on the off chance that I by one way or another could, in the event that I had some mystery, insightful capacity to know where the cost of Bitcoin was going, I'd contribute, not composing this article. What I am here to do is: inform you regarding the con artists. Since they're all over the place. It's explicitly self-evident. Furthermore, on the off chance that you are very brave, or you're considering getting a few (or some other Cryptocurrency), you better know exactly how awful the con artists are. Since when you're the least educated individual on the trade, you get counted on. How profound does the Rabbit-Hole Gox? On January 3, 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto set up the Genesis square. That is an extravagant method for saying he "mined" the first Bitcoin. He didn't go out to some collapse Madagascar with a pickax and return with a sparkling, valuable metal. He ran a hashing calculation on his PC for some time and put away the outcomes in a record. We consider that record the "blockchain". It's open data. The explanation it's open is with the goal that it's circulated. The explanation it's dispersed is on the grounds that, dissimilar to with US Dollars, in the event that you jump on some administration authority's awful side, there's for all intents and purposes no danger of your benefits being solidified (or taken). The blockchain is a really progressive innovation. Also, after the secretive Nakamoto discharges the Genesis square to the general population, crypto lovers pay heed. Some of them start "mining" Bitcoin. Some of them do it because of the decency of their souls. In any case, a great deal of them are presumably determined by the prize that gives "mining" its name. At the point when you run this hashing calculation on squares of exchanges and store the outcomes to the open record, you're remunerated with Bitcoin. At its pinnacle, this prize could add up to in excess of 250,000 US Dollars.
Kin Community FAQ, Guidelines, & Ecosystem Directory
Kin Community FAQ, Guidelines, & Ecosystem Directory Kin FAQ
What is Kin?
Where can I earn & spend Kin?
Where can I buy Kin?
Where can I store Kin?
Why is the total supply so large?
Why isn't Kin on [xyz] exchange? When will it be?
Is there any update on [Y] announcement? Can you speak on [insert rumor here]? When will we be able to do [Z]?
How can I contact the developers / support staff of [insert app name here]?
How can I contact the Kin Foundation?
How can I track transactions on the Kin blockchain?
I still have ERC-20 based Kin (on the Ethereum blockchain), how can I migrate?
I heard the SEC is suing Kik, is that true? What does it mean for Kin?
How was Kin distributed at launch and how does it enter circulation?
I want to integrate Kin into my software project. How do I get started? Where is the developer community?
How can I keep up with the latest developments in Kin?
1 - What is Kin? Kin is money for the digital world. It can be earned and spent across an entire ecosystem of applications, thanks to the blockchain. If you don’t know what that means, don’t worry; you don’t have to. Kin is designed to be accessible by a broad mainstream audience- computer science degree not required. By bringing together developers and users of all kinds to build in a shared new digital economy, we can create a more fair playing field; one in which the developers and content creators that build these virtual realities are rewarded based on their contributions, not harvested for their personal data and attention against their will. If you’d like to learn more about Kin, here are some resources to get you started: · Kin Website: https://www.kin.org/ · Kin Whitepaper: https://www.kin.org/static/files/Kin_Whitepaper_V1_English.pdf · The Vision for Kin: https://medium.com/kinblog/the-vision-for-kin-6ee048a3a979 · Announcement of Kin: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5le2n230oTk · Introduction to Kin (by u/kyzermf): https://medium.com/hackernoon/introduction-to-kin-universal-virtual-currency-for-apps-ea6464225ffc 2 - Where can I earn & spend Kin? Kin is going live in a growing number of apps. To see which ones, you can check out the Ecosystem Directory below, or keep up with some of these resources: · via Kin Website: https://www.kin.org/kin-apps/ · Apps with Kin (by u/Neliss31) https://appswithkin.com/index.php · Kin Appz (by u/hepays) https://www.kinappz.com/ 3 - Where can I buy Kin? In addition to the ecosystem of apps available to earn Kin, you can also purchase it in larger amounts. It is currently available for purchase on cryptocurrency exchanges listed here: · CoinMarketCap Exchanges List for Kin https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/kin/#markets Note that these are independent organizations and therefore only they can provide guarantees on customer service and experience, please do your due diligence in navigating and utilizing these exchanges. Also note that cryptocurrencies are inherently volatile, trade at your own risk. Kin is money for the digital world, not a stablecoin. 4 - Where can I store Kin? While using Kin inside of apps, make sure to create a backup of your wallet when possible. It is not recommended that you store large amounts of Kin in your user wallets, and instead seek out a more robust solution. There are lots of subtle differences to the kinds of wallets and how to use them, including trade-offs in security vs convenience. Make sure to do your research and be careful when handling your hard-earned Kin: Offline (“Cold”) Storage: · My Kin Wallet https://www.mykinwallet.org/ · Guide: Creating A Paper Wallet for Storing Your Kin Safely Offline (by u/TheRealChaseEB) https://www.reddit.com/KinFoundation/comments/bylk0creating_a_paper_wallet_for_storing_your_kin/ Hardware Wallets: · Ledger Hardware Wallets (works with My Kin Wallet) https://www.ledger.com/ Software Wallets: · Trust Wallet (Mobile) https://trustwallet.com/ · Atomic Wallet (Mobile & Desktop) https://atomicwallet.io/ · Guarda Wallet (Mobile & Desktop) https://guarda.co/ · Magnum Wallet (Web) https://magnumwallet.co/ 5 - Why is the total supply so large? Kin is meant to be transacted by a large number of users in manageable denominations, just like physical money. 6 - Why isn’t Kin on [xyz] exchange? When will it be? A healthy market for developers and users is essential to all stakeholders who want to build a vibrant economy around Kin as a currency. That said, a number of blockers have prevented further listings from happening; for example we needed to first have a unified & functional product and underlying technology before pursuing secondary markets. In addition to this there has been regulatory uncertainty surrounding the listing of digital assets in the United States including Kin specifically, especially since the filing of a misleading legal complaint by the US SEC. Due to this, the Kin Foundation is pressing on in other markets on behalf of the ecosystem to try and facilitate more platforms for everyone to buy & use Kin in their different ways. We do not know when Kin will be listed on exchanges, and anyone who does cannot say due to legal and security agreements. 7 - Is there any update on [Y] announcement? Can you speak on [insert rumor here]? When will we be able to do [Z]? While we believe in maintaining the utmost transparency wherever possible, we will typically announce things as they are ready and report on progress as it becomes pertinent, as to not create unfounded hype and adhere to internal strategies. While it might be tempting to seek constant updates, please remember that answering questions takes time, and everyone is busy working hard to actually build the things we are all excited to see. We will do our best to keep everyone updated on the things they care about. We do not comment on rumors and we may be constricted in our ability to communicate at any given moment on ongoing internal affairs that may fall within certain legal or strategic confines. 8 - How can I contact the developers / support of [insert app name here]? Please refer to the Kin Ecosystem directory below. 9 - How can I contact the Kin Foundation? You can email us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) , or if you’d like to DM a specific representative or discuss something in an open setting you can also reach out to us and the community here. Here are some relevant contacts that represent Kin Foundation,Kin Tel Aviv, & Kin San Francisco in the community: Community u/benji5656 Communications u/kevin_from_kin Developer Experience (Kin.org, Kin SDK, and Kin Developer Program) u/therealchaseeb Blockchain (Core infrastructure of the Kin Blockchain) u/gadi_sr Ecosystem (High touch integrations with mature developers) u/rinatbogin KRE (The incentive protocol that drives the growth of the ecosystem) u/oradwe UX Research u/YonatanDub Kin San Francisco u/matty_hibs 10 - How can I track transactions on the Kin blockchain? Here are some resources for monitoring the blockchain: · via Kin Website https://www.kin.org/blockchainExplorer · Kin Explorer (by u/Chancity) https://v2.kinexplorer.com/explorer · Kin Bubbles (by u/kidwonder) https://kin-bubbles.herokuapp.com/ · Kin Transaction Visualizer (by u/sednax) http://bitcoin.interaqt.nl/kin.html 11 - I still have ERC-20 based Kin (on the Ethereum blockchain), how can I migrate? Follow the directions laid out here: https://www.kin.org/migration/ 12 - I heard the SEC is suing Kik, is that true? What does it mean for the Kin Foundation? It’s true. After cooperating with an investigation and multiple attempts to reach an amicable settlement, the SEC filed a disparaging and mischaracterized complaint against Kik for not registering the initial sale of Kin as a security offering. Kik is fighting back. They are in a unique position to take on this case, however, unlike the initial Wells Notice, the Kin Ecosystem Foundation is not named in the complaint. As noted by the Blockchain Association:
When we look at the Kik investigation, we can tell from the Wells Notice that the SEC originally looked at both Kik Interactive and the Kin Foundation. However, when the complaint was issued, it only focused on the offering of Kin in the September 2017 token sale, not Kin in the ecosystem today. The fact that the SEC investigated the Kin Foundation, but decided not to pursue a complaint is good news for developers, platforms, and others in the ecosystem who use these tokens because it separates the question of the token sale from the activities in the ecosystem since then. ("What the SEC-Kik complaint didn’t cover — and why this is good news for the crypto community")
The Kin Foundation sold 1 trillion (10% of total supply) in a token distribution event in September 2017 that was split between a pre-sale (487.80 billion sold) and a public sale (512.20 billion sold). Half of the tokens sold during the pre-sale (244 billion) are subject to a one-year lock-up period. Kik received 3 trillion tokens (30% of total supply), which vested at a rate of 300 billion tokens quarterly for 10 quarters, and the Kin Foundation received 6 trillion (60% of total supply). The Kin Foundation tokens will be distributed through the Kin Rewards Engine, which divides the allocation between network participants and marketing and operational costs for the Kin Foundation (6 trillion Kin has been split into 4.5 trillion for network participants, and 1.5 trillion for marketing and other operational costs of the Kin foundation). Kin Foundation tokens for network participants are schedule to be distributed to the network at a rate of 20% of the remaining balance per year.
DISCLAIMER This Whitepaper is for Era Swap Network. Its purpose is solely to provide prospective community members with information about the Era Swap Ecosystem & Era Swap Network project. This paper is for information purposes only and does not constitute and is not intended to be an offer of securities or any other financial or investment instrument in any jurisdiction. The Developers disclaim any and all responsibility and liability to any person for any loss or damage whatsoever arising directly or indirectly from (1) reliance on any information contained in this paper, (2) any error, omission or inaccuracy in any such information, or (3) any action resulting therefrom Digital Assets are extremely high-risk, speculative products. You should be aware of the risks involved and fully consider before participating in Digital assets whether it’s appropriate for you. You should only participate if you are an experienced investor with sophisticated knowledge of financial markets and you fully understand the risks associated with digital assets. We strongly advise you to take independent professional advice before making any investment or participating in any way. You should check what rules and protections apply to your respective jurisdictions before investing or participating in any way. The Creators & community will not compensate you for any losses from trading, investment or participating in any way. You should read whitepaper carefully before participating and consider whether these products are right for you. TABLE OF CONTENT · Abstract · Introduction to Era Swap Network · Development Overview · Era Swap Utility Platform · Alpha-release Development Plan · Era Swap Network Version 1: Specification · Bunch Structure: 10 · Converting ES-ERC20 to ES-Na: · Conclusion: · Era Swap Ecosystem · Social Links Abstract The early smart contracts of Era Swap Ecosystem like TimeAlly, Newly Released Tokens, Assurance, BetDeEx of Era Swap Ecosystem, are deployed on Ethereum mainnet. These smart contracts are finance-oriented (DeFi), i.e. most of the transactions are about spending or earning of Era Swap tokens which made paying the gas fees in Ether somewhat intuitive to the user (withdrawal charges in bank, paying tax while purchasing burgers) but transactions that are not token oriented like adding a nominee or appointee voting also needs Ether to be charged. As more Era Swap Token Utility platform ideas kept appending to the Era Swap Main Whitepaper, more non-financial transaction situations arise like updating status, sending a message, resolving a dispute and so on. Paying extensively for such actions all day and waiting for the transaction to be included in a block and then waiting for enough block confirmations due to potential chain re-organizations is counter-intuitive to existing free solutions like Facebook, Gmail. This is the main barrier that is stopping Web 3.0 from coming to the mainstream. As alternatives to Ethereum, there are few other smart contract development platforms that propose their own separate blockchain that features for higher transaction throughput, but they compromise on decentralization for improving transaction speeds. Moreover, the ecosystem tools are most advancing in Ethereum than any other platform due to the massive developer community. With Era Swap Network, the team aims to achieve scalability, speed and low-cost transactions for Era Swap Ecosystem (which is currently not feasible on Ethereum mainnet), without compromising much on trustless asset security for Era Swap Community users. Introduction to Era Swap Network Era Swap Network (ESN) aims to solve the above-mentioned problems faced by Era Swap Ecosystem users by building a side-blockchain on top of Ethereum blockchain using the Plasma Framework. Era Swap Network leverages the Decentralisation and Security of Ethereum and the Scalability achieved in the side-chain, this solves the distributed blockchain trilema. In most of the other blockchains, blocks are a collection of transactions and all the transactions in one block are mined by a miner in one step. Era Swap Network will consist of Bunches of Blocks of Era Swap Ecosystem Transactions. Decentralization Layer 2 Scalable and Secure A miner mines all the blocks in a bunch consequently and will commit the bunch-root to the ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet. Development Overview Initially, we will start with a simple Proof-of-Authority (PoA) based consensus of EVM to start the development and testing of Era Swap Ecosystem Smart Contracts as quickly as possible on the test-net. We will call this as an alpha-release of ESN test-net and only internal developers will work with this for developing smart contracts for Era Swap Ecosystem. User’s funds in a Plasma implementation with a simple consensus like PoA are still secured as already committed bunch-roots cannot be reversed. Eventually, we want to arrive on a more control-decentralized consensus algorithm like Proof-of-Stake (PoS) probably, so that even if the chain operator shuts down their services, a single Era Swap Ecosystem user somewhere in the world can keep the ecosystem alive by running software on their system and similarly more people can join to decentralize the control further. In this PoS version, we will modify the Parity Ethereum client in such a way, that at least 50% of transaction fees collected will go to the Luck Pool of NRT Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet and rest can be kept by miner of the blocks/bunch of blocks if they wish. After achieving such an implementation, we will release this as a beta version to the community for testing the software on their computers with Kovan ERC20 Era Swaps (Ethereum test-net). Era Swap Decentralised Ecosystem Following platforms are to be integrated:
Era Swap Token Contract (adapted ERC20 on Ethereum) The original asset will lie on Ethereum to avoid loss due to any kind of failure in ESN.
Plasma Manager Contract (on Ethereum) To store ESN bunch headers on Ethereum.
Reverse Plasma Manager Contract (on ESN) Bridge to convert ES to ES native and ES native to ES. User deposits ES on Mainnet Plasma, gives proof on ESN and gets ES native credited to their account in a decentralised way.
NRT Manager Contract (on Ethereum or on ESN) If it is possible to send ES from an ESN contract to luck pool of NRT Manager Contract on Ethereum, then it’s ok otherwise, NRT Manager will need to be deployed on ESN for ability to add ES to luck pool.
Era Swap Wallet (React Native App for managing ESs and ES natives) Secure wallet to store multiple private keys in it, mainly for managing ES and ES native, sending ES or ES native, also for quick and easy BuzCafe payments.
TimeAlly (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
Assurance (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
DaySwappers (on ESN) KYC manager for platform. For easily distributing rewards to tree referees.
TimeSwappers (on ESN) Freelance market place with decentralised dispute management.
SwappersWall (on ESN) Decentralised social networking with power tokens.
BuzCafe (on ESN) Listing of shops and finding shops easily and quick payment.
BetDeEx (on ESN) Decentralised Prediction proposals, prediction and results.
DateSwappers (on ESN) Meeting ensured using cryptography.
ComputeEx (on Ethereum / centralised way) Exchange assets.
Era Swap Academy (on ESN / centralised way) Learn. Loop. Leap. How to implement ES Academy is not clear. One idea is if content is constantly being modified, then subscription expired people will only have the hash of old content while new content hash is only available to people who have done Dayswapper KYC and paid for the course. Dayswapper KYC is required because this way people won’t share their private keys to someone else.
Value of Farmers (tbd) The exchange of farming commodities produced by farmers in VoF can be deposited to warehouses where the depositors will get ERC721 equivalent tokens for their commodities (based on unique tagging).
DeGameStation (on ESN) Decentralised Gaming Station. Games in which players take turns can be written in Smart Contract. Games like Chess, Poker, 3 Patti can be developed. Users can come to DeGameStation and join an open game or start a new game and wait for other players to join.
Alpha-release Development Plan
Deploying Parity Node customized according to Era Swap Whitepaper with PoA consensus.
Setting up Plasma Smart Contracts.
Creating a bridge for ERC20 Swap from Ethereum test-net to ESN alpha test-net.
Alpha Version Era Swap Network Version 1 : Specification The Version 1 release of ESN plans to fulfill the requirements for political decentralisation and transparency in dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem using Blockchain Technology. After acquiring sufficient number of users, a version 2 construction of ESN will be feasible to enable administrative decentralization, such that the Era Swap Ecosystem will be run and managed by the Era Swap Community and will no longer require the operator to support for it's functioning. Era Swap Network (ESN) Version 1 will be a separate EVM-compatible sidechain attached to Ethereum blockchain as it’s parent chain. ESN will achieve security through Plasma Framework along with Proof-of-Authority consensus for faster finality. The idea behind plasma framework is to avoid high transaction fees and high transaction confirmation times on Ethereum mainnet by instead doing all the ecosystem transactions off-chain and only post a small information to an Ethereum Smart Contract which would represent hash of plenty of ecosystem transactions. Also, to feature movement of Era Swap Tokens from Ethereum blockchain to ESN using cryptographic proof, reverse plasma of Ethereum on ESN will be implemented. Also, submitting hash of each ESN blocks to ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum would force ESN to have a block time equal to or more than Ethereum’s 15 second time as well as it would be very much costly for operator to post lot of hashes to an Ethereum Smart Contract. This is why, merkle root of hashes of bunch of blocks would instead be submitted to ESN Plasma Smart Contact on Ethereum. Actors involved in the ESN:
Block Producer Nodes Lesser the number of nodes, quicker is the block propagation between block producers which can help quick ecosystem transactions. We find that 7 block producers hosted on different could hosting companies and locations reduces the risk of single point of failure of Era Swap Ecosystem and facilitates 100% uptime of dApps. Block Producer Nodes will also be responsible to post the small information to the Blockchain.
Block Listener Nodes Rest of the nodes will be Block Listeners which will sync new blocks produced by the block producer nodes. Plenty of public block listener nodes would be setup in various regions around the world for shorter ping time to the users of Era Swap Ecosystem. Users would submit their Era Swap Ecosystem transactions to one of these public nodes, which would relay them to rest of the Era Swap Network eventually to the block producer nodes which would finalize a new block including the user transaction.
Bunch Committers This will be an instance in the block producers which will watch for new blocks confirmed on ESN and will calculate bunch merkle roots and will submit it to ESN Plasma Smart Contract. This instance will also post hash of new Ethereum blocks to ESN (after about 10 confirmations) for moving assets between both the blockchain.
Users These will be integrating with dApps which would be connected to some public ESN nodes or they can install a block listner node themselves. They can sign and send transactions to the node which they are connected to and then that node will relay their transactions to block producer nodes who would finalise a block including their transaction.
A Bunch Structure in Smart Contract will consist of the following: • Start Block Number: It is the number of first ESN block in the bunch. • Bunch Depth: It is Merkle Tree depth of blocks in the bunch. For e.g. If bunch depth is 3, there would be 8 blocks in the bunch and if bunch depth is 10, there would be 1024 blocks in the bunch. Bunch depth of Bunches on ESN Plasma Contract is designed to be variable. During the initial phases of ESN, it would be high, for e.g. 15, to avoid ether expenditure and would be decreased in due course of time. • Transactions Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the transaction roots in the bunch. This is used by Smart Contract to verify that a transaction was sent on the chain. • Receipts Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the receipt roots in the bunch. This is used to verify that the transaction execution was successful. • Timestamp: This value is the time when the bunch proposal was submitted to the smart contract. After submission, there is a challenge period before it is finalised.
Converting ES-ERC20 to ERC-NA and BACK
On Ethereum Blockchain, the first class cryptocurrency is ETH and rest other tokens managed by smart contracts are second class. On ESN, there is an advancement to have Era Swaps as the first class cryptocurrency. This cryptocurrency will feature better user experience and to differentiate it from the classic ERC20 Era Swaps, it will be called as Era Swap Natives (ES-Na). According to the Era Swap Whitepaper, maximum 9.1 Million ES will exist which will be slowly released in circulation every month. Era Swaps will exist as ES-ERC20 as well as in form of ES-Na. One of these can be exchanged for the other at 1:1 ratio. Following is how user will convert ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
User will give allowance to a Deposit Smart Contract, and following that call deposit method to deposit tokens to the contract.
On transaction confirmation, user will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit string for the user. This string is generated by fetching all the transactions in the Ethereum Block and generating a Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block and the Receipts Patricia Merkle Proof to confirm that the user’s transaction was successful.
Using the same portal, user will submit the generated proofs to a Smart Contract on ESN, which would release funds to user. Though, user will have to wait for the Etheruem block roots to be posted to ESN after waiting for confirmations which would take about 3 minutes. Once, it’s done user’s proofs will be accepted and will receive exact amount of ES- Na on ESN.
Following is how user will convert ES-Na to ES-ERC20:
ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, user will simply send ES-Na to a contract.
User will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit for the user. Again ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof is enough to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block. Another thing which will be generated is the block inclusion proof in the bunch.
User will have to wait for the bunch confirmation to the Plasma Smart Contract and once it’s done, user can send the proof to the Plasma Smart Contract to receive ES-ERC20.
Since the blocks are produced and transactions are validated by few block producers, it exposes a possibility for fraud by controlling the block producer nodes. Because ESN is based on the Plasma Model, when failure of sidechain occurs or the chain halts, users can hard exit their funds directly from the Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum by giving a Proof of Holdings.
HOld ES Tokens Swapping with New ES Tokens
The old ES Tokens will be valueless as those tokens will not be accepted in ESN because of NRT (New Released Tokens) and TimeAlly contracts on mainnet which is causing high gas to users, hence reducing interactions. Also, there was an event of theft of Era Swap Tokens and after consensus from majority of holders of Era Swap Tokens; it was decided to create a new contract to reverse the theft to secure the value of Era Swap Tokens of the community. Below is the strategy for swapping tokens: TimeAlly and TSGAP: Majority of Era Swap Community have participated in TimeAlly Smart Contract in which their tokens are locked for certain period of time until which they cannot move them. Such holders will automatically receive TimeAlly staking of specific durations from the operator during initialization of ESN. Liquid Tokens: Holders of Liquid Era Swap Tokens have to transfer the old tokens to a specified Ethereum wallet address managed by team. Following that, team will audit the token source of the holder (to eliminate exchange of stolen tokens) and send new tokens back to the wallet address.
Post-Genesis Tokens Return Program
Primary asset holding of Era Swap tokens will exist on Ethereum blockchain as an ERC20 compatible standard due to the highly decentralised nature of the blockchain. Similar to how users deposit tokens to an cryptocurrency exchange for trading and then withdraw the tokens back, users will deposit tokens to ESN Contract to enter Era Swap Ecosystem and they can withdraw it back from ESN Contract for exiting from ecosystem network. The design of the token system will be such that, it will be compatible with the future shift (modification or migration of ESN version 1) to ESN version 2, in which an entirely new blockchain setup might be required. To manage liquidity, following genesis structure will be followed:
1.17 billion (Circulating Supply)
Locked in Smart Contract
7.93 billion (pending NRT releases)
Though it looks like there are 9.1 * 2 = 18.2 Billion ES, but the cryptographic design secures that at any point in time at least a total of 9.1 billion ES (ES-ERC20 + ES-Na) will be locked. To unlock ES-Na on ESN, an equal amount of ES-ERC20 has to be locked on Ethereum and vice-versa. 9.1 billion ES-ERC20 will be issued by ERC20 smart contract on Ethereum Blockchain, out of which the entire circulating supply (including liquid and TimeAlly holdings) of old ES will be received to a team wallet. TimeAlly holdings of all users will be converted to ES-Na and distributed on ESN TimeAlly Smart Contract by team to the TimeAlly holders on their same wallet address. Liquid user holdings will be sent back to the users to the wallet address from which they send back old ES tokens (because some old ES are deposited on exchange wallet address). ES-Na will be issued in the genesis block to an ESN Manager Smart Contract address. It will manage all the deposits and withdrawals as well as NRT releases.
Following are identified risks to be taken care of during the development of ESN: Network Spamming: Attackers can purchase ES from the exchange and make a lot of transactions between two accounts. This is solved by involving gas fees. A setting of 200 nanoES minimum gas price will be set, which can be changed as per convenience. DDoS: Attackers can query public nodes for computationally heavy output data. This will overload the public node with requests and genuine requests might get delayed. Block producers RPC is private, so they will continue to produce blocks. To manage user’s denial of service, the provider in dApps needs to be designed in such a way such that many public nodes will be queried simple information (let’s say latest block number) and the one which response quickly to user will be selected. AWS is down: To minimize this issue due to cloud providers down, there will be enough nodes on multiple cloud providers to ensure at least one block producer is alive. User deposit double spending: User deposits ES on Ethereum, gets ES-Na on ESN. Then the issue happens that there are re-org on ETH mainnet and the user’s transaction is reversed. Since ETH is not a fixed chain and as per PoW 51% attack can change the blocks. As Ethereum is now enough mature and by statistics forked blocks are at most of height 2. So it is safe to consider 15 confirmations. Exit Game while smooth functioning: User starts a hard exit directly from Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum, then spends his funds from the plasma chain too. To counter this, the exit game will be disabled, only when ESN halts, i.e. fails to submit block header within the time the exit game starts. This is because it is difficult to mark user’s funds as spent on ESN. Vulnerability in Ecosystem Smart Contracts: Using traditional methods to deploy smart contracts results in a situation where if a bug is found later, it is not possible to change the code. Using a proxy construction for every ecosystem smart contract solves this problem, and changing a proxy can be given to a small committee in which 66% of votes are required, this is to prevent a malicious change of code due to compromising of a single account or similar scenario. ChainID replay attacks: Using old and traditional ways to interact with dApps can cause loss to users, hence every dApp will be audited for the same.
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