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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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What is money?

Hey all, this might be a bit outside of the "Bitcoin" realm, but I wanted to create a sounding board to help me grasp what money is, how it relates to economies, and where Bitcoin can come in. I'm just writing out my thoughts, and I'm open to comments and opinions or corrections :). Hopefully this can be helpful to others too.
Note, that I live in the UK and I feel like a lot of information talks about the dollar, and I never know if it applies the same to my currency. I will give examples in dollars, but they should apply to any world currency (eg. GBP) to the best of my understanding.
I saw a link recently on this subreddit to this site: https://modernmoneybasics.com/. If I were to summarise what I learnt, it is a mental model that frames fiat currency in an interesting way, but I wouldn't be surprised if it did contain some misinformation. -- It claims that the model applies to any fiat currency.
OK. Pretend that all of a countries money = 1. If you own $100, you own a fraction of the countries money, so if there is $10,000 in the world you own 0.001 of all dollars. So naturally, if more money is printed, you start to own a smaller fraction of that money.
The Modern Money Theory (MMT) gives me the impression that money is basically a tool owned by the countries government (owned by someone who isn't the general public). Money is not an asset, it is a liability (hence why it loses value over time). People pay taxes and the Government will try to redistribute the wealth by investing in projects like The Army, Green Energy, etc.
This is supposed to be distributed in ways that help the country's economy, ensuring that the country is productive and is exporting things to other countries. When deemed necessary, more money can be printed to help redistribute wealth to the areas that the Government wants to invest in. I think that the more successful your economy, the more your money is worth.
This means one thing to me; PEOPLE DO NOT OWN/HAVE MONEY. Don't save fiat; it is a tool to help the economy, not a thing of value that you should store. I feel like saving actually keeps money from circulating in the economy and probably works towards needing to print money. Instead, buy assets; you put money back into the economy, and you get to hold onto your wealth. What can you invest in? Ok, that's not such an easy question to answer. Maybe buy gold (or *ahem* Bitcoin), or invest in yourself to make something valuable and ultimately start your own business.
MMT says that fiat has value because people pay taxes in fiat. Ultimately, we work, and earn in order to pay taxes (income, VAT, road tax, etc.). We spend in fiat, because the person accepting fiat will need to pay taxes and the next person will do the same, so now the whole country values your fiat currency.
Because of this, you need liquidity, you need to have some money to spend on groceries and living, and you need some money for a rainy day lest you end up in an emergency situation with not enough time to handle it with money. -- I think the more something costs, the more time you typically will have to pay it, so there might even be a formula you could create or use that helps you decide what to keep as cash, and what to spend.
So long story short, money is a token that represents a tiny fraction of your countries economy. It is also something that the government can manipulate and move around as it pleases in the same way a business invests in departments for its company. We are all just a cog in the machine that is our country's economy.
One thing I have not talked about, is the role of banks and credit and interest. I haven't expanded my thoughts in that area yet, but I feel like that they serve a different purpose.
Where does Bitcoin fit in? Well, just like gold, it is a potential asset. It has an interesting property though; it has liquidity. This give it the potential to be used for local trades, meaning that people can save their wealth and use it for local transactions too. It is global, so it also has the ability to be used for global transactions too. For now, it is an asset for saving your wealth; I think that as more people use it and favour it as a storage mechanism, more people will start to accept it for small trades too. Hey, maybe if there's a tool to easily calculate taxes from Bitcoin trades, that could help with adoption.
What would happen to fiat currency if everyone collected fiat for the sake of paying taxes, but used conversion tools to allow them to keep the majority of their wealth in Bitcoin while knowing the appropriate taxes to pay? Honestly, I fall short here, because at that point, you can no longer measure a country's economy by its currency. This is where I need to maybe learn how countries that do not have their own currency measure their economy.
I suppose governments, or ourselves, will have to invent new ways to measure and manage our economies, and I imagine i will be a much more transparent. I think it is an important question to answer as Bitcoin would shift wealth from being country wealth, to individual wealth (for everyone, not just those with enough income and education to invest in assets).
submitted by tookthisusersoucant to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Some ETH Stacking Milestones

I just thought I’d list off some of the major milestones for ETH stacking just for a bit of fun. Feel free to reply with any more if you think I missed any major milestones.
For reference, I will be assuming that the supply of ETH will be under 125 million (125,000,000 ETH) for the foreseeable future. This is not a fixed cap, but realistically, the supply won’t be far from this number in the next few decades. This is based on this graph from ETHHub but considering a slightly later ETH 2.0 release. https://docs.ethhub.io/assets/images/issuance_graph.png
Current ETH supply: 111,071,000
0 ETH - What are you doing with your life? Buy some ETH and claim your part of the world computer, the global settlement layer or the emerging black hole of finance. Call it what you want, you can’t stop it's proliferation.
0.001 ETH - One Finney. One thousandth of an ETH is called a Finney. Named after Hal Finney
0.01633 ETH - The amount of ETH you would own if it were evenly distributed evenly between all 7.65 billion people on Earth (assuming a supply of 125 million ETH).
1 ETH - 1 whole ETH. Only around 125 million people could ever hope to own 1 ETH if it were equally distributed.
1.25 ETH - One 100 millionth of the ETH supply. (1/100,000,000)
2.7 ETH - You’re an Ethereanaire! If the total supply of Ether was evenly distributed between all of the world’s millionaires, they would each have 2.7 ETH. (Based on a 2019 Credit Suisse Report which estimated the number of millionaires worldwide at 46.8 million.)
3.14 ETH - Your slice of the Ethereum pi has an angle of 0.000009 degrees (125000000/3.14=40,000,000 360°/40,000,000=0.000009°).
3.2 ETH - 1/10th of a validator node. If ETH price goes up 1,000% or more, might 3.2ETH become the requirement for staking? (This is totally speculative and based on nothing.)
5.95 ETH - The 21 million club. This is Ethereum’s version of one Bitcoin. Only 21 million people could ever hope to own 1 Bitcoin and only 21 million people could own 5.95 ETH.
10 ETH - Double Digits! Only 12.5 million people could hope to have 10 ETH.
12.5 ETH - One 10 millionth of the total ETH supply. (1/10,000,000)
16 ETH - Half a validator node. Find a buddy or family member with another 16 ETH and you have yourselves a shared validator node!
32 ETH - Enough ETH to run an ETH 2.0 validator node!
42 ETH - The meaning of life. Blessed is your stack by the Ethereum gods.
43.5 ETH - 1 Bitcoin worth of ETH. Don’t worry, this one will get cheaper over time if you’re looking to buy 1 Bitcoin with your ETH. Not investment advice.
69 ETH - ayy lmao
100 ETH - ETH Centurion. Oowee that’s a lot of ETH! I’m sure holders of 100 ETH will be considered whales by the end of the next bullrun.
125 ETH - The one million club. (1/1,000,000) Only one million people could ever hope for 125 ETH. The Bitcoin equivalent of the 1 million club requires owning 21 Bitcoin.
320 ETH - You can run 10 32 ETH validator nodes.
324 ETH - EZPZ. For those of you who are out of the loop, a redditor by the name EZPZ was calling for $324 while we were falling down from $1,400 in 2018. Myself and I'm sure many other members or ETHTrader at the time thought that he was crazy. Oh how we were wrong
350 ETH - Tree fiddy.
420 ETH - 🎶 Smoke ETH everyday 🎶
750 ETH - Top 10,000 wallets. Congratulations, if you have 750 ETH or more in a single Ethereum wallet, you’re in the top 10,000 wallets!
1,250 ETH - One one hundred thousandth of the ETH supply. (1/100,000)
59,500 ETH - Congratulations! You’re an ETH billionaire. There are 2,100 billionaires on Earth. If the total supply of ETH were split between them evenly, each would get 59,500 ETH.
Reminder please do not share information about how many ETH you hold, especially if it is a significant amount. It is against the sub rules for your own security. Disclosing your ETH holdings makes you a target for hackers and criminals.
submitted by Tricky_Troll to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Smartmining.cc Review: 2%-4% daily for 60-180 days with principal included

Smartmining.cc is a high yield investment project whose theme is for cloud mining. It provides long term deposit plans, and started on 03rd Jun 2020. You can earn 2%-4% daily for 60–180 days with principal included. Admin bought listing on my website yesterday, and my first withdrawal request was already received two hours ago. Now let me introduce it in details.
Started: 2020–06–03
My deposit: $200
The amount of 200 USD has been withdrawn from your account. Accounts: U3869878->U24795174. Memo: Shopping Cart Payment. . Date: 06:31 06.07.20. Batch: 322597842
Investment Plans
Minimal amount for deposit is: Bitcoin 0.001, Litecoin 0.1, Dogecoin 1000, Dash 0.05, Ethereum 0.01, Ethereum Classic 0.5, Bitcoin Cash 0.01, Zcash 0.05, Ripple 10, USD Cash 1, Tether 1 and Dollar 1. Your daily profit will be 2%-4% according to your deposit amount. The more GH/s you purchase, the higher level your account will reach. With each increase in the LEVEL account, your daily profit increase. What’s more, your daily profit increases by + 0.02% for each day without withdrawal, but I suggest you to withdraw profit every day until you get back 100% initial deposits. You can see details below:
(1) 0–999 GH/s, 2% daily profit
(2) 1000–2999 GH/s, 2.1% daily profit
(3) 3000–5999 GH/s, 2.2% daily profit
(4) 6000–9999 GH/s, 2.3% daily profit
(5) 10000–19999 GH/s, 2.4% daily profit
(6) 20000–29999 GH/s, 2.5% daily profit
(7) 30000–99999 GH/s, 2.6% daily profit
(8) 100000–199999 GH/s, 2.8% daily profit
(9) 200000–999999 GH/s, 3% daily profit
(10) 100000–2999999 GH/s, 3.5% daily profit
(11) 3000000 GH/s, 4% daily profit
Deposit works according to the selected contract, and the contract is from 60 to 180 days. You should deposit money into your balance first, and then buy Hash with the money on your balance. Your initial deposit is already in your daily profit, so principal will not be returned in the end.
For example, I buy GH/s with $200, and choose the 60 day contract. My daily profit will be 2.5% for 60 days. At the end of investment term, I will get back $300 totally($100 profit with $200 initial deposits).
But there is one things you should know that you must choose which ecurrency you want to mining, or we can say like this, which ecurrency you want your daily profit to be paid to. For example, if you want your daily profit to be paid through BTC, then you should turn off all other ecurrency mining process and only leave BTC mining. You can see the mining choice on the “Mining” page of their website.
Promotional Rewards(7%-2%)
For promoters, Smartmining.cc has developed a profitable partner program, which has two levels. First level is 7%, and second level is 2%. Unlike most HYIP projects, promoters can configure refback for your referrals on the page “Partners”. I already set 100% RCB for my direct active investors. Welcome to join under my team.
Payment Options
PerfectMoney, Payeer, Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, BitcoinCash, Ripple, Dash, Zcash, Tether, Dogecoin and USD Cash.
Withdrawal Type
The request for withdrawal is processed within an hour but no more than 48 hours. Minimal amount for withdrawal is: Bitcoin 0.001, Litecoin 0.1, Dogecoin 1000, Dash 0.05, Ethereum 0.01, Ethereum Classic 0.5, Bitcoin Cash 0.01, Zcash 0.05, Ripple 10, USD Cash 1, Tether 1, Dollar 1
Whois Details
Domain Time: 2020/05/25–2020/05/25
IP Address: 2020–05–25104.27.188.23–574 other sites hosted on this server
IP Location: Texas — Dallas — Cloudflare Inc.
ASN: AS13335 CLOUDFLARENET, US (registered Jul 14, 2010)
Summary
Smartmining.cc designs an original template for its website, and it now supports 10 languages. So you can choose your native language at their top menu. Recent deposits and withdrawals are shown at the bottom part of their website, you can refer to the data according to your own experience. In my view, the profit Smartmining.cc provides is in normal range, and the referral system also designs in a reasonale mechanism. So, any investor who is interested can take part in with their spare money.
At the right side bottom of their website, you can find a group chat widget. Click it, and you can communicate with other investors online. If you still have other questions, you can contact admin through the info below.
Contact Info
Email: [email protected]
Twitter: https://twitter.com/smart_minig
Register: https://smartmining.cc/partnehyiper
More: https://www.hyiper.net/blog/185.html
submitted by vipinvestor1988 to u/vipinvestor1988 [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Haven't you started your first transaction yet? Bityard will explain everything you need to know.

Haven't you started your first transaction yet? Bityard will explain everything you need to know.
In 2020, Bitcoin ushered in the third halving. Many people predicted that the Bitcoin price would be raising again, and yes, it reached the mark of $10,000 on June 2nd, and the price once stood at 10,444 US dollars, becoming a hot spot in the currency circle. Search news, and soon fell 870 US dollars within 15 minutes to 9,720 US dollars, fluctuations attracted many people's attention.
But if you happen to be attracted by trading but you still do now know how to start, just read this article carefully, follow us to understand step by step on how to get yourself into this world.

https://preview.redd.it/e0qdnwypiu951.jpg?width=1529&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7eb61b9cfe3943d8db06a882a74b8366ebef3ef9
For new investors:
📷Trading time.
Unlike stock market, cryptocurrency transactions can be traded 24 hours a day.There is no limit to the buying and selling time, You can even purchase a second before, and sell a second later. Freedom transactions, all up to you.
Bityard is a 24 hour trading platform, always online, in order to allow users to freely do their transactions, the platform has also 24-Hour customer service, we will be there if you need anything, be safe taking your first steps. But we also would like to reminds you that although the trading time is very free, you must also pay attention to the right time to trade, in order to get a good return.

https://preview.redd.it/cbvbbdnsiu951.png?width=524&format=png&auto=webp&s=9fd6efdda32c25f7ccc81167d05ac395156a49f6
You don’t need to much money to buy Bitcoins
Bitcoin's current market is around 9,000 US dollars. As you can see the cost of one single bitcoin is not low. However, the smallest unit of Bitcoin is as small as one-hundredth of a billion, and you can freely choose how many units to buy, such as 0.01 or 0.001, and the amount is determined by itself.
Bityard reminds you that whether the sale can be achieved depends on the willingness of both traders. The amount of the bid is too low, and you may not find a seller willing to sell. Assuming a successful purchase, you can start accumulating your own bitcoin.
Bityard is the world's leading digital currency contract trading platform.Our platform can support the recharge of fiat currencies in China, Vietnam, and Indonesian, and can directly trade pairs with digital currencies. In the future, we will continue to expand the recharge of fiat currencies in other countries.
What is the right time to buy?
Everyone wants to buy cheap and sell higher, this is the way to profit, but no one can guarantee where and when the price will be cheap. Therefore, in addition to buying bitcoin directly, so called spot transactions, you can also choose contract transactions.
Bityard is the world's leading digital currency contract trading platform. During the trading process, if you think that the price of Bitcoin will fall, then you can sell CFDs through the Bityard trading platform to open a position. In this way, even if Bitcoin drops you still can profit. It doesn’t matter if you don’t know what contract trading is.
Bityard Exchange provides a simulated trading service. Before starting a formal transaction, you can continue to practice using the demo trading, and then put into actual trading after you get started.

https://preview.redd.it/es034u4viu951.png?width=1906&format=png&auto=webp&s=2e9e569705cb1fe252787c49b2a0986b7f348315
How to ensure asset security?
For small capital investors, the trading platform is dazzling. How to choose a safe and trustworthy exchange, there are several indicators that you can follow to pick up the best one for you.
  1. Go for Exchanges with financial licenses:
For example, Bityard is a Singapore Blockchain Foundation whose main business entity is the United States Financial Supervisory Authority (MSB), Singapore Enterprise Authority (ACRA), Estonian Financial Supervisory Authority (MTR), and Australian transactions. The financial legal license submitted by the Report and Analysis Center (AUSTRAC).
Bityard's platform is a complete, global compliance system to protect our users. In other words, Bityard’s risk prevention system has established a strong position with the consent and approval of the relevant regulatory authorities.
New investors can go to the official website of the regulatory agency and enter the name of the trading platform to find relevant information about the dealer's registration with the regulatory agency.
Or you can check our Bityard youtube video on "how to check exchanges financial licenses" at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HR8WYy0R8lc

https://preview.redd.it/d6u4n2gxiu951.png?width=1267&format=png&auto=webp&s=0274dfb520b970accf86a1b88683b25dd0c8d073
2 . Multiple settings to ensure user safety.
For your safety, Bityard has account double authentication, permanent anonymity, multiple offline signatures, deep cold storage assets and other settings to ensure the security of user account and we also takes full advance payment. For new users who are not yet familiar with risk management, under strict control of risks, investors' relative trust in the platform is relatively established.
Finally, Bityard reminds new users the importance of private keys, private keys, as the name implies, is the key to open their own assets. Once lost, the bitcoin stored in the wallet will not be recovered, so be careful and take good care of yours.
How can Bityard help new investors?
Bityard is about to launch a new function. There are alot of experienced investors using our platform who no longer need to spend long hours of hard work watching investment. So we tought about doing a function that you basically copy their transactions, no need to pay for a bunch of tuition fees, lose money then lose all confidence in the investment.
This copy function function is a simple system, you can query the investor's performance, what others buy, just follow the purchase, follow the star to buy his investment strategy, and enjoy the same profit as him, Bityard will do everything to help you on your first steps.
Bityard: Complex Contract, Simple Trade
Bityard is the world's leading digital currency contract trading platform, headquartered in Singapore, providing safe, simple, and fast digital asset trading services to customers in more than 150 countries. Bityard adheres to the product concept of "complex contract, simple trade", and develops to bring customers extremely simple digital currency trading experience.
Want to start? Open an account immediately in 30 seconds, and get your registration gift at: (www.bityard.com)
submitted by bityardadmin to u/bityardadmin [link] [comments]

I received my Withdrawal from Earn bitcoin


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https://www.prizesdrop.com/ref/1205192
submitted by adnanheart777 to u/adnanheart777 [link] [comments]

IQ.cash smart trading and mining

IQ.cash smart trading and mining
https://preview.redd.it/z0xjotzxta451.png?width=724&format=png&auto=webp&s=a0c223a017dd58aa54d506e51d041f5820db4a3b
Everyone from time to time has an interest in entering into a variety of investments with the aim of earning income from their home or comfort as long as they do not have to go through an inefficient employment system. This is the result of technological developments around, and to achieve this, many fall victim to con artists who promise a platform to get a comfortable income. Today I will introduce the ICO IQ cash project, one of the PLATFORM THAT ALLOWS YOU TO GET IN YOUR COMFORT.

What is IQ cash

IQ Cash is a cryptocurrency that may be used to run and increase further exposure to what has been offered. Making it is to remove from where to stop because it has been made and decided to go further because it was not possible. IQ can be used to get a place that has to be part of this trend, even if we are looking for an open place where investors can do the same with other investors. The aim is to give everyone not agreement about most and at least ROI in 300% or more of you in passive form. The IQCash company is truly unique because it will allow users to get the maximum return on investment. IQ cash is a company that will be able to combine the best and most perfect opportunities to lead exchanges in the cryptocurrency market. With IQ network Masternode you can avoid a variety of situations, problems, and unusual problems, and such a process will eliminate any deficiencies. The IQCash platform is also suitable for traders who already have experience in their activities, and of course for novice traders who have just entered the door of buying and selling crypto. No one will experience problems, everyone will only admire sales using IQCash. Learn more — http://iq.cash.

Why I chose to take a position on IQ. Cash?

Because there are many kinds of benefits for investors. except for profits up to 300%, I will be able to introduce all profits to investors. 1. Security Cryptocurrency now has a variant of active users in the world and also the number is growing rapidly! User accounts cannot be blocked, and funds cannot be accessed by anyone but the owner. 2.MASTERNODE Iq. Cash uses the consensus of the PoW algorithm with the support of the Masternode system. This makes the project economically attractive to mine 43% and provides 57% of passive income for Masternode holders. Masternode provides network integrity, transaction anonymity, and transaction speed. ways to get Masternode: You must take the position of 3000 IQ. 3. ANONIMITY The anonymity of transactions in the system is provided by the PrivateSend algorithm. Users can trust the system completely. they don’t need to worry about third-party access to data because the system encrypts data securely when transferring and receiving assets. 4. ASIC RESISTANCE Technology that solves problems accelerates the expansion of network complexity significantly when using ASIC (compared to CPU usage). IQ Cash Network uses the NeoScrypt algorithm to solve this problem. 5. TRANSACTION speed High-speed transactions are guaranteed by InstantSend data exchange across networks. The transaction time is about 5 seconds. 6. IQ Network decentralized. Cash implies weaknesses to create sites that combine the dominant influence on other network members. Effects on coins that are excluded due to their release are prohibited, and extra emission is not provided.

How to get an annual profit of 300%.


https://preview.redd.it/updhrmtzta451.png?width=793&format=png&auto=webp&s=eccc7d14b5d2e479f5d1ed2de84d14bfc72b0742
  1. Buy 3,000 IQ or better 3001 because 1 is spent on commission transactions.
  2. Download the Files application (Android or iOS) for mobile devices Open IQ. Cash Coin Purses in the application.
  3. Enter 3,001 IQ in the wallet and create a MasterNode server and deposit. Pay for hosting service providers on Flits.
  4. You will be charged EUR 1.99 per month, get profit and spend on your needs or create the next MasterNode to extend profits in line with the number of MasterNode!

How do I buy cash IQ

Go to the acquisition page and you will see an open window where you will pay the amount of coins you want to shop for. You don’t need to worry about the next steps because we will arrange the rest by buying IQ coins. Cash and FLS (to close Flits services) from the exchange.
  1. Fill in «IQ wallet address» and «FLS wallet address» in the Flits application.
  2. get a package. One package includes 3000 IQ. Cash and Bitcoin services for Flits for five months. When the cash transfer is complete, open the IQ-MasterNode window and make it comparable to the coins purchased (3000 IQ for 1 MasterNode).
  3. activate MasterNode and get profit. You will follow the current exchange rate on the Flits application or with any crypto trading coins.

Wallets and Exchanges:

The IQ cryptocurrency wallet is available on all three Windows, Mac and Linux platforms.

Token Information:

• Algorithm: PoW, NeoScrypt (ASIC resistance) • Block time: 120 seconds • Prizes per block: 25 IQ • Block Block Reward Distribution: 57% to Masternodes and 43% to Miners, both taken from the formula (Reward-6%), where 6% is reserved for the DAO system • Block rewards can be sliced 12% every year • Max coins: 56 900,000 IQ • Premine: 7 900 000 IQ • Mining within 25 years

Conclusion

IQ.cash has studied the crypto market well enough to draw the model. This uses the mining system and MasterNode. The mining protocol will attract contributors exponentially while MasterNode will help ensure network speed, governance, and sustainability. Because MasterNode is also a cryptocurrency node, becoming a MasterNode on the IQ.cash system requires an investment commitment. This is a way to make a profit in this system. Investment is rewarded with a commission for each trade made by the system. This will help ensure that enough users try to become a MasterNode and thus make a profit without having to leave the comfort of their home.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT IQ.CASH:

Website: https://iq.cash/ Whitepaper: https://iq.cash/iqcash_whitepaper.pdf Telegram: https://t.me/IQ_cash Twitter: https://twitter.com/IQ_Crypto Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4360591 YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/finexpo Github: https://github.com/IQ-Cash/iqcash/releases Disputes: https://discord.gg/qekuX6r Ann Thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5240221.0 Explorer: https://explorer.iq.cash Mining Pool: https://pool.iq.cash Bithumb Contest: https://support.bithumb.pro/hc/ru/articles/360046055014--Event-100-000-IQ-Grand-Prize-Pool
Username : faxmon Link : https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=173709
I.Q cash wallet : QU5m19f7AVY99cMVzU2CYLoAV15FRMxuLY
submitted by kriptaannarhist to u/kriptaannarhist [link] [comments]

IQ Cash: make 300% yearly profit

IQ Cash: make 300% yearly profit

https://preview.redd.it/gowo06cpqry41.jpg?width=680&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8cb2b1ccd00936eede584a566e0df93368e0f252
IQ.cash is a unique global platform on the blockchain, created both for investors and traders and miners. The main objective of the platform is to provide real-time, anonymous payments and real-time investments for crypto enthusiasts.
The IQ.cash project team has already developed for their investors the IQ Masternode network that they use. Also, the IQ coin is presented on such well-known exchanges as HitBTC, BitHumb Glogal, P2PB2B, CoinsBit, BitForex, CREX24 and Mercatox. Therefore, traders can easily trade it! If an investor has more than 3000 IQ on his balance sheet, then he can receive passive income 57% of the block, miners, in turn, receive 43% of the block. We still have 6%, which are reserved for DAO (decentralized autonomous organizations), that is, they are used to invest, for example, in ICO projects, websites, trading bots, and improving the entire IQ ecosystem . cash and so on. All of these unique features can help make the IQ.cash platform popular around the world.

https://preview.redd.it/qq7jq59xqry41.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=1f2bf849bbbe65d199a858e595acae2cb8153cc5
Now I am going to share with you the concept which our company has come up with for IQ.cash crypto coin. Its mechanism was developed to share the profit between miners as a reward for the transactions operated by IT specialists and MasterNode owners with 3,000 IQ.cash deposit as a commission for assisting the server system by investing in it. This is simply how the coin has been programmed.

5 steps to make 300% yearly profit

  • Purchase 3,000 IQ or better 3,001 as 1 will be spent on the transaction commission
  • Download the Flits App (Android or IOS) for the mobile device
  • Open an IQ.cash coin wallet in the app
  • Put 3,001 IQ into the wallet and create a MasterNode server and a deposit
  • Pay the hosting provider service fee at Flits. It will cost you EUR 1.99 per month

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IQ.cash coin was created the way so the profit is split in proportion of 57% and 43% between MasterNode (server with deposit) owners and miners accordingly. Additional 6% DAO is reserved to be either shared with people helping to develop the IQ.cash project or to simply dissolve once a month.
What are MasterNodes created for? To simplify, those are assistant servers which let IQ.cash coin to operate the payments inside the blockchain system. To create such a server, the owner must ‘rent’ it from the hoster. Its cost might vary from US $1 to US $4 per month. You must have a 3,000 IQ deposit to make the investment work. The deposit will be blocked by the system, so starting this very moment the system is adding the commission for your assistance to the project which can be spent or used to create new deposits and servers. One server and one deposit form a MasterNode!
In case you are not interested in a profit you can unblock the deposit and trade it at any of seven exchanges where our coins are used. Currently the profit is 300% a year but the bigger MasterNode is, the smaller the commission becomes as the reward is limited and splits equally between all the participating investors. The more people are willing to make deposits, the higher the price of the coin rises at the exchange, so the more profit it makes.
Get the profit and spend it on your needs or create the next MasterNode to increase the profit accordingly to the number of MasterNodes!
It is easier than it seems and you will get the profit bigger than any investment can provide. People really do that for a living!

And now let's get into how you can purchase it.

👉Go to the buy page and you will see the window opening where you can to pay for the amount of coins you would like to purchase. You don't have to worry about the following steps as we will manage the rest by buying IQ.cash and FLS coins (to cover the Flits service) from the exchange.
  • Fill in the fields «IQ wallet address» and «FLS wallet address» in the Flits app
  • Pay for the package. One package includes both 3000 IQ.cash and Bitcoin for five months of Flits service. The moment the money transfer is complete, open the window IQ – MasterNode and create them proportionally to coins purchased (3000 IQ for 1 MasterNode)
  • Switch on the MasterNode and get the profit. You can follow the current rate in the Flits App or at any crypto exchange trading IQ.cash coins:
If You don't understand? This link will help you: 👉 Open the step-by-step guide to creating a IQ.Cash Masternode.
What did I like about this project? Yes, almost everything. Here I did not hear the promises of the Golden Mountains when participating in the project, which many others are doing in order to only attract investors. Perhaps this is why this project remained in the shadow of upstarts and continued to work, to bring its beginnings to its logical conclusion. And now, when everything works as an ideal mechanism, the team decided to declare itself as a full-fledged player in this field. And this is very correct, since such projects with a good reputation and a finished product can be counted on the fingers of one hand.
For more information about IQ.CASH visit:
Website: https://iq.cash/
Discord: https://discord.gg/qekuX6r
Github: https://github.com/IQ-Cash/iqcash/releases
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/finexpo
ANN thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4360591
Twitter: https://twitter.com/IQ\_Crypto
Telegram: https://t.me/IQ\_cash
Wallets: https://iq.cash/
Explorer: https://explorer.iq.cash/
AUTHOR:
BITCOINTALK USERNAME: I Am Man
BITCOINTALK PROFILE: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2734184
submitted by Manlog305 to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]

Support compliance and regulation by investing in BitcoinBlink-BSTK

Support compliance and regulation by investing in BitcoinBlink-BSTK
https://preview.redd.it/b48xpxzerf251.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b999d01678687b007734a2aa7dfd07709ec43cd8
600 million BSTK tokens will be sold as part of the exciting BitcoinBlink ICO! Currently, each token is priced at $0.023 and will increase by $0.001 in the next month. BitcoinBlink features a streamline customer support system that our customers can contact at any time they face a problem on our platform. BitcoinBlink offers short-term deposits that can provide regular interest and appreciation in value. Use these benefits to enrich your crypto trading experience.
Support compliance and regulation by investing in BitcoinBlink. visit the official website,
#BSTK #BitcoinBlink #crypto #ico
For more information on BitcoinBlink, visit the official website, www.bitcoinblink.com.
submitted by neymarokulis to IcoInvestor [link] [comments]

Are ZRX & DNT connected in any way?

I apologize if this question gets asked often, but I was just trying to see if these two are connected in any way? Does District0x use 0x as a platform for the districts? Obviously the market caps have no connection, right? Thanks in advance!!
submitted by neen209 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Advice for someone that doesn't have enough capital to invest significantly in Bitcoin, but has full faith and trust that Bitcoin will bring great profits in the years to come. What can I do to start?

I have $6USD (yes, roughly .001 BTC) worth of Bitcoin through Robinhood. It was a purchase just out of curiosity like a couple weeks ago. I do own half a Litecoin, but through Robinhood again.
I now know it's not a good idea to "own" Bitcoin through a custodial and I feel seriously about really owning Bitcoins. I don't have much money to play with and I don't intend to be stupid and frivolous with my investments. I want to buy and hold (hodl?) for a long time, most likely on a hardware key.
submitted by starspec to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Halving and Consensus Algorithm

Bitcoin Halving and Consensus Algorithm

https://preview.redd.it/xbmsd5ir8ix41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=609d506b0c6c90e467b95da2510fef27fcfcfcdd

Bitcoin Halving and Its Affects

Every 210,000 blocks, or approximately once every four years, Bitcoin undergoes a halving event where the mining rewards are cut in half. The current block reward is 12.5 BTC/block, and the next halving is expected to take place on 12 May 2020. From block number 630,001, the block rewards will be reduced to 6.25 Bitcoin. This process is supposed to continue until the last Bitcoin has been mined.
Halvings are done to preserve the value of Bitcoin through the laws of supply and demand. If Bitcoins are mined too quickly, and there is insufficient market demand, their value will drop. Historically, the halvings have always positively affected the price of Bitcoin in the months and years following the event when Bitcoin reached new all-time-highs.

What is Bitcoin Mining and How Does it Work?

Bitcoin is a decentralized currency. It doesn’t use the services of a bank or another central institution to transfer the assets. Instead, Bitcoin has a blockchain and its transaction records are stored for eternity.
The people who store these transactions on the blockchain are called miners. Miners are financially incentivized to confirm transactions. The confirmations are done by solving complex computational problems. Whoever solves the problem receives a fixed reward in Bitcoin.
Likewise, Bitcoin relies on a Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm. It bets on the strength and efficiency of the underlying hardware. PoW coins are mostly mined through GPUs and ASIC miners. In the past, Bitcoin could be mined with your PC’s CPU. The mining network wasn’t big, and the rewards were appealing. That is no longer the case. The mining difficulty has increased and today, mining is handled via countless expensive ASIC miners.
PoW mining is, therefore, profitable only to those who have made substantial hardware investments and not to the ordinary man. PoW consumes much electricity, and the Bitcoin network generates a block every 10 mins on average, which makes it more difficult for ordinary miners to get block rewards.

What is Proof of Formulation?

In the case of FLETA, it utilizes its own consensus algorithm: Proof-of-Formulation (PoF). This algorithm consists of 2 main actors:
  • Formulators — the block generators, the equivalent of PoW miners.
  • Observer Nodes — validate, confirm, and sign transactions in real-time, and prevent forks and double-spending.

Formulators

In contrast to PoW, where better hardware equipment is equal to bigger rewards, in PoF, all Formulators take part in block generation according to a pre-determined order. Once everyone has had their turn, a new mining phase starts, and all Formulators are arranged according to a new random sequence. No competition and equal mining opportunities for everyone!
To become a formulator, a user needs to register and stake 200,000 FLETA tokens at the FLETA Formulator Portal or FLETA Wallet. There is a maintenance fee to be paid every month. The mining is performed through FLETA cloud mining, and the user doesn’t need to set up a server on his own. Formulators can be upgraded for more efficiency and better performance. This is explained in more detail here.

Observer Nodes

Observers secure the network and prevent DDoS attacks. 5 Observers are assigned to each Formulator group. At least 3 of them are required to sign the transactions and include them in the blockchain. This system makes a fork impossible because the first block with three signatures will be included in the blockchain.

In the End

Proof-of-Formulation is fast, fair, and secure, thanks to the watchful eyes of the Observer Nodes, and their bond with Formulators. The results show that PoF allows 14,000 transactions/second and a block creation time of only 0.5 seconds/block.
submitted by fleta-official to fletachain [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: CryptoCurrency top posts from 2017-06-16 to 2020-03-29 14:02 PDT

Period: 1017.08 days
Submissions Comments
Total 934 259273
Rate (per day) 0.92 254.49
Unique Redditors 752 54249
Combined Score 2439059 2983723

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 55770 points, 8 submissions: DestroyerOfShitcoins
    1. CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant! (26497 points, 3056 comments)
    2. Listen up folks, if you "did", or still do promote cryptocurrency related scams, you will be called out on it via this sub-Reddit. We don't care about you, or your ill-gotten gains, we care about the general well-being of our community first and foremost. (17888 points, 1277 comments)
    3. So no one else finds it a bit odd that Verge is actually going up in price in a bear market, after a hack attack, after being outed for paying McAfee to promote it, and after the 1 developer begged for money from his own community to allegedly help pay his taxes? (2548 points, 867 comments)
    4. Not 2 days after the fall of BitConnect, and Trevon James is already promoting his next Ponzi scheme affiliate program in his latest video called Davor... the nerve of this guy! (2230 points, 412 comments)
    5. Cryptonick is selling a cryptocurrency course for $497, and yet he doesn't even know the difference between a public key and a private key... welcome to crypto folks! (1803 points, 238 comments)
    6. You guys have to stop expecting any of these business men of old to champion "decentralized" cryptocurrencies... it's just not going to happen. (1790 points, 449 comments)
    7. The bulls are back baby, and Ethereum is taking over the pairing business on exchanges... it's about time! (1642 points, 733 comments)
    8. Trevon James, legendary BitConnect scammer gets caught trying to cheat on Steemit, by up-voting shit on a fake account to make money... has this guy ever done anything honest in his entire life? (1372 points, 192 comments)
  2. 47580 points, 13 submissions: coinmoon_com
    1. Nasdaq is open to becoming cryptocurrency exchange, CEO says (17168 points, 830 comments)
    2. Facebook bans crypto advertising. Then says it’s working on its own crypto coin. Hypocrites! (6036 points, 335 comments)
    3. JUSTICE: Bitconnect Leader Arrested (4283 points, 315 comments)
    4. Apparently there is no SEC hearing on Ethereum today and it is all just orchestrated FUD. (2863 points, 437 comments)
    5. Nasdaq May Launch Bitcoin Trading in October 2018 (2650 points, 182 comments)
    6. UPbit audit confirms South Korea’s biggest Cryptocurrency Exchange was not at fault. It was all just FUD! (2328 points, 110 comments)
    7. LET THIS SINK IN: "Bitcoin has the potential to become the first worldwide currency and we're trying to make that happen" - NYSE Owner (2224 points, 587 comments)
    8. Coinbase Survey Shows 18% of all US Students Now Own Cryptocurrency (1793 points, 331 comments)
    9. Beyond Huge! With $10.7 trillion worth of assets under custody and administration, Northern Trust opens doors to Cryptocurrency hedge funds (1770 points, 143 comments)
    10. CNN Video: "People around the world are starting to trust Bitcoin more than the Central Banks". Damn Right! (1679 points, 434 comments)
  3. 44336 points, 8 submissions: arsonbunny
    1. Why we won't have a long term bear market, and how to systematically pick your future investments in crypto (14599 points, 917 comments)
    2. I've created an Excel Crypto Portfolio Tracker that draws live prices and coin data from CoinMarketCap.com. Here is how to create your own. (12287 points, 687 comments)
    3. Want to start fresh after the crypto crash? Here is a comprehensive guide on how to invest and prosper over the long term. (6087 points, 636 comments)
    4. This sub is a mess and needs to get out of the anger stage: How to move forward from the crash if you're a bagholder (3356 points, 392 comments)
    5. Understanding Tether: Why it accounts for a substantial part of the crypto market cap and why its the #1 outstanding issue in crypto markets today (2703 points, 709 comments)
    6. How and why exchanges are manipulating the price in order to capitalize on the new market dynamics (2361 points, 491 comments)
    7. I built these 3 fundamental valuation models for Bitcoin in Excel. Details in the comment. (1507 points, 109 comments)
    8. Understanding Bitcoin Futures: How they work and why they are NOT going to crash the crypto market (1436 points, 122 comments)
  4. 25819 points, 15 submissions: Kashpantz
    1. When you are a known scammer in the crypto space and get called out by one of your investors. Exciting times indeed. (2568 points, 237 comments)
    2. The Gloves Are Off. Ripple laying into J.P Morgan As They Enter The Crypto Space. (2091 points, 555 comments)
    3. The Scam That Is Volitility & Fees (2077 points, 322 comments)
    4. Crypto Explained By The Simpsons (2005 points, 134 comments)
    5. When Investingin In The Stocks Seems Crazy. (1983 points, 284 comments)
    6. Pretty much this sums it up for crypto and politics. (1831 points, 118 comments)
    7. Don't look at ATHs, the story starts when you look at ATLs. (1783 points, 223 comments)
    8. When things go bad in Argentina... Use Crypto (1782 points, 195 comments)
    9. Is this unjust? Where a bank can shut you down for investing in the cannabis industry even if it's legal in your country or state? A perfect use case for crypto where it is borderless and censorship resistant. No longer the banks are the gatekeepers of our own money. (1658 points, 280 comments)
    10. Some Simple Tips to Avoid Traps in the Crypto Sphere. (1558 points, 251 comments)
  5. 20147 points, 1 submission: Suuperdad
    1. I will tell you exactly what is going on here, this is critical information to understand if you are going to make money in this space. How prices work, and what moves them - and it's not money invested/withdrawn. (20147 points, 1442 comments)
  6. 19965 points, 1 submission: Gabriel-Lewis
    1. Robinhood is launching a Crypto Trading app to compete with Coinbase (19965 points, 3895 comments)
  7. 19632 points, 1 submission: sash187
    1. Checkmate, Bill. (19632 points, 1097 comments)
  8. 18484 points, 1 submission: x2P
    1. Delta's app store description seems appropriate today. (18484 points, 317 comments)
  9. 17374 points, 4 submissions: Rupispupis
    1. When you're holding altcoins but your friends only heard of Bitcoin and all congratulate you because they think you had an incredible day (12352 points, 587 comments)
    2. It'd be sad if it wasn't funny (2174 points, 108 comments)
    3. Brave uncovers widespread surveillance of UK citizens by private companies embedded on UK council websites (1625 points, 80 comments)
    4. Ask, and ye shall receive (1223 points, 93 comments)
  10. 17265 points, 2 submissions: mtimetraveller
    1. The true power of Bitcoin 🔥 (14638 points, 1274 comments)
    2. Microsoft Excel recognizes Bitcoin as a currency (2627 points, 163 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. arsonbunny (13668 points, 114 comments)
  2. martinkarolev (5448 points, 48 comments)
  3. hanzyfranzy (5299 points, 6 comments)
  4. Toyake (5151 points, 254 comments)
  5. Bungwads (5078 points, 1 comment)
  6. throwawayLouisa (4784 points, 408 comments)
  7. Raymikqwer (4768 points, 71 comments)
  8. JohnDalysJohn (4768 points, 2 comments)
  9. Thefriendlyfaceplant (4410 points, 324 comments)
  10. rockyrainy (4306 points, 117 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant! by DestroyerOfShitcoins (26497 points, 3056 comments)
  2. I will tell you exactly what is going on here, this is critical information to understand if you are going to make money in this space. How prices work, and what moves them - and it's not money invested/withdrawn. by Suuperdad (20147 points, 1442 comments)
  3. Robinhood is launching a Crypto Trading app to compete with Coinbase by Gabriel-Lewis (19965 points, 3895 comments)
  4. Checkmate, Bill. by sash187 (19632 points, 1097 comments)
  5. Delta's app store description seems appropriate today. by x2P (18484 points, 317 comments)
  6. Listen up folks, if you "did", or still do promote cryptocurrency related scams, you will be called out on it via this sub-Reddit. We don't care about you, or your ill-gotten gains, we care about the general well-being of our community first and foremost. by DestroyerOfShitcoins (17888 points, 1277 comments)
  7. Nasdaq is open to becoming cryptocurrency exchange, CEO says by coinmoon_com (17168 points, 830 comments)
  8. The true power of Bitcoin 🔥 by mtimetraveller (14638 points, 1274 comments)
  9. Why we won't have a long term bear market, and how to systematically pick your future investments in crypto by arsonbunny (14599 points, 917 comments)
  10. Great news from Korea! Banks will allow cryptocurrency trading again from today and next week account registration is opened again. by riverflop (13419 points, 462 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 5078 points: Bungwads's comment in Checkmate, Bill.
  2. 4792 points: hanzyfranzy's comment in Bitcoin breaches $4000 in 15 minutes. What is happening 😳
  3. 3630 points: eNte19's comment in Enjoy the massacre. It could be a once in life opportunity.
  4. 3533 points: sakata_gintoki113's comment in Russian nuclear scientists arrested for trying to use one of Russia's most powerful supercomputers to mine Bitcoins
  5. 3462 points: JohnDalysJohn's comment in CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant!
  6. 2988 points: Xgatt's comment in CryptoNick is deleting all of his BitConnect videos, and so are his buddies. Please never forget what he and his cohorts did to so many people, and how much money those people lost in the process thanks to CryptoNick, Trevon James, and Craig Grant!
  7. 2909 points: dankmeter's comment in Coinbase/GDAX Warning - $50,000 Wire DEPOSIT Missing Since December 12th
  8. 2884 points: regecide2025's comment in No one was complaining about "manipulation" when it was going up from 2500 to 20,000 in less than 6 months.
  9. 2854 points: harambissimo's comment in Who would win?
  10. 2781 points: LivingWithWhales's comment in ETH has passed $900 and has retaken the #2 market cap spot from XRP
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

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